Tangkuo

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Great Empire of the Tangkuo
Daitangg'o Gurun
Flag
Motto: Our empire is emblazoned by light
Anthem: Jin'ou Yonggu Bei (Firm and Stable Be The Cup of Solid Gold)
CapitalTukdan
Largest city Daijuhu
Official languages Tangkuo, Liao
Recognised regional languages Yidao, Volghari, Tuulu, Kuchi
Demonym Tangkuo
Government Authoritarian semi-constitutional Monarchy
 -  Emperor Aišïn Jahudai Husurægai
 -  Upper house Hundred-Strong Council
Establishment
 -  Yujiulü Empire 343 B.C 
 -  Ninggujua Dynasty 596 C.E 
 -  Liao Dynasty 985 C.E 
 -  Aišïn (Jin) Dynasty 1631 C.E 
 -  End of the Jin Dynasty and exile from Yidao 1938 C.E 
 -  Return of the Jin Dynasty and the Glorious Restoration 1988 C.E 
Population
 -  estimate 212,000,000
 -  2017 census 211,953,506
Currency Jiha (TJ)
Date format dd ˘ mm ˘ yyyy
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .tng


Tangkuo, officially the Great Empire of the Tangkuo, is a sovereign state in Yidao, Aeia. Its capital city is Tukdan, and its largest city and former capital during the Tangkuo People's Republic is Daijuhu. Tangkuo borders Soled to the east and ...

Early civilisations in Tangkuo included proto-Wailans and the Yujiulü Dynasty. Tangkuo was the homeland of several ethnic groups, including the Wailans, Yuzhi, Tuulu and Hezhen. Various ethnic groups and their respective kingdoms, including the Sushen, Donghu, Xianbei, Wuhuan, Mohe, Kuchi and Yuzhi have risen to power in Tangkuo. At various times, most of the major empires of Yidao and some other minor kingdoms established control in parts of Tangkuo and in some cases tributary relations with peoples in the area. The proto-Wailan people were mostly nomads, but some formed small towns, especially along wealthy trading routes, and grew to be powerful as a result, such as the case of the Ninggujua Dynasty. With the Wu dynasty to the south, the Yuzhi people of Eastern Tangkuo created the Liao Dynasty in the region, which went on to control adjacent parts of Northern Yidao as well as stretching as far as Volghar as well. The Liao dynasty was the first state to control all of Tangkuo, but they collapsed when the Volghari invasions crippled most of Yidao. In the time between the end of the Liao and Tangkuo's unification, the area of Tangkuo was a battleground for many different ethnic groups, with many of the Yidaoan dynasties trying to exert control over the different Wailan and in some cases, Yuzhi tribes.

Starting in the late 1500s, a Haiilanboo Wailan chieftain, Šurgaci (1577–1643), started to unify Wailan tribes of the region. Over the next several decades, the Wailans took control of most of Tangkuo, and expanded south into the Sui Dynasty, which then collapsed. In 1631, Šurgaci founded the Jin Dynasty, and his descendants continued to rule large parts of Yidao until the Andong Revolution in 1938, which ended the Jin dynasty and led to the exile of the Aišïn Jahudai clan. For the next few decades, Tangkuo was part of both the Republic of Yidao and the Northern Yidaoan Union, until independence groups in 1953 rose up and declared the Tangkuo People's Republic. The People's Republic lasted until 1988, when a very barren harvest led to some parts of Tangkuo to starve, mass protests broke out across Tangkuo, calling for the end of the People's Republic. Seeing the way the wind was blowing, the military orchestrated a coup and the communists were ousted. The military junta then proclaimed the restoration of the Jin Dynasty, and invited the claimants back to Tangkuo, but set them to rule only as Emperors of Tangkuo. The country then almost immediately closed all of its borders and underwent a self-imposed isolation, which ended in early 2018.

Etymology

The term "Tangkuo" has disputed origins. Some say it is a borrowing from Yidaoan, with "Tangkuo" meaning "Country of the Tang", or that it is a combination of the words "tanggū", meaning "hundred" and "goro", meaning "far" or "distant". The most common theory, and the most likely one, is that Šurgaci, upon the founding of the Jin dynasty, decided to call the former Wailan tribes "Hundred Peoples" or "Hundred Countries", therefore creating the term "tanggū-gurun", which over time corrupted to "tangg'o".

The proper term to call a person from "Tangkuo" is "Tangkuo" or sometimes "Tangkuoan", though the latter is more archaic and is more historically used.

History

Prehistory

Around the time of the Bronze Age, the ancestors of the Wailans moved south from modern-day Ternca, most likely over land, sea, or island hopping over Mederi-Alin. At the time of their notice by Yidaoan historians, the Wailans inhabited the forests and river valleys of the land which is now northern Tangkuo, as well as parts of the steppe between Tangkuo and Ternca. These Wailans that settled down along the way to modern-day Tangkuo are believed to have been assimilated into their overlord's populations. In earlier records, this area was known as the home of the Sushen in around 1100 B.C, the Yilou in around 950 B.C, the Wuji in around 600 B.C, and the Mohe or Malgal in 450 C.E Tangkuo. Under the Jin and in modern Tangkuo scholarship, sources promote that the idea that the Wailans were descendants or even the same people as these earlier tribes but this remains unclear. Some speculate the Wailans were the last in a migration from modern-day Ternca to Tangkuo.

The Tungusic Wailans, upon migrating to Tangkuo, became subjects of the multi-ethnic Kingdom of Gæjæ (511-340 B.C). The early Wailans enjoyed eating pork, practiced pig farming extensively, and were mainly sedentary. They used both pig and dog skins for coats. They were predominantly farmers and grew soybean, wheat, millet, and rice in addition to hunting. It is believed that the later conquest of these early Wailans by the Yujiulü and the Liao inspired many of them to adopt nomadic traditions and abandon their villages in favour of nomadic camps. Little is known about these early Wailans apart from several carved megaliths and obelisks in areas of northern Tangkuo and on the island of Mederi-Alin. These "Animal Stones" or "Ergengge Wehe" as they are known in Tangkuo, were likely sites of ritual worship in the time of the proto-Wailans. Not much is known about proto-Wailan culture or religion, but it can be assumed that it is related to modern Tangkuo culture.

Early History

Yujiulü Empire

Since prehistoric times, Tangkuo has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. The first of these empires was the Yujiulü. The establishment of the Yujiulü in the 3rd century BC marks the beginning of documented history in Tangkuo. The identity of the ethnic core of the Yujiulü has been a subject of varied hypotheses, with some stating that they were the ancestors of the Wailan, whilst most suggest several links to the proto-Volghar. The first appearance of the Yujiulü came in around the mid 3rd century BC, when the Shan Dynasty of northern Yidao repelled an invasion of the Yujiulü.

In the 2nd century BC the Yujiulü turned their attention westward to the Gurgun Valley near the Gulf of Brassidia, inhabited by Majuro-Asuran-speaking nomadic peoples, including the Yuezhi who had migrated there as a result of their earlier defeat by the Yujiulü. The open warfare between these two nomadic peoples reached a climax in the the latter decades of the 2nd century BC, resulting in a Yuezhi defeat. The Yuezhi then migrated to the southwest where, early in the 2nd century, they began to appear in the Exus Valley, to change the course of history in Southern Catai. In 200 BC, the Shan dynasty of Yidao launched a military campaign into the territory, attempting to subjugate the Yujiulü. However the Yujiulü forces ambushed the Shan Emperor Gao and dictated terms to him at sword-point. Emperor Gao was forced to submit to the Yujiulü, and a treaty was signed in 198 BC, giving the Yujiulü large amounts of territory. The treaty itself didn't ensure peace, as Yujiulü raids into the fertile Yidaoan valleys continued. The raiding continued for 70 years until the reign of Emperor Wu, whose massive counteroffensives devastated the Yujiulü and sent them towards the road of decline. Between 130 and 121 BC, Yidaoan armies drove the Yujiulü back across the Great Wall, weakened their hold on what is now southern Tangkuo, and finally pushed them into central Tangkuo. Following these victories, the Shan expanded into the areas later known as Tangkuo, Volghar, and Catai. This sudden loss of territory greatly weakened the Yujiulü, and the Shan soon made them into a tributary state. In 48 AD, the Yujiulü empire was weakened as it was divided into the southern and northern Yujiulü. The northern Yujiulü migrated to the west where they established a mighty empire stretching to Asura. The Wailans that were vassalized by the Yujiulü rebelled in 93 AD, bringing an end to the Yujiulü Empire. The Yujiulü empire (343 BC–93 CE) was followed several centuries later by the Ninggujua Dynasty (596–1006 CE), which also ruled most of what is now Tangkuo.

Ninggujua Dynasty

The Ninggujua dynasty was the first power that controlled most of Tangkuo and had been Wailan, the previous controllers being proto-Volghar, Tuulu or Yidaoan. The Ninggujua dynasty was made up of Wailan tribes, which had been mostly united under the warlord of the Haixi clan, Ninggujua Tušïnge. Unlike most of the empires that controlled Tangkuo, the Ningguja Dynasty didn't use an adopted name, such as the case of the Jin dynasty and the Liao dynasty. Instead they used the dynastic name of the ruler. Some scholars have wondered whether this focus on the dynasty, in contrary to much of Yidao, came from early proto-Wailan clans, that worshiped their ancestors and so formed links through surnames or clan descent. The Ninggujua dynasty had been instrumental to the growth of the Wailan people, and had started the path that led to them to dominate Tangkuo and northern Yidao. Some historians had speculated that if not for the success of the Ninggujua dynasty, the Wailans could easily have been overtaken by another steppe culture, such as the Volghar or the Liao, and cast out or assimilated into another culture.

Ninggujua Tušïnge, of the Haixi Wailans, had united around half of the Wailan tribes under his rule in 596, thus establishing the Ninggujua dynasty. When he died, his son Heši embarked on several more wars of subjugation, until approximately four of the six Wailan tribes had been united under his rule, before turning southwards to Yidao. He planned to raid Yidao and the Yi Dynasty, like the Yujiulü before them, but his initial success had been replaced with horrible losses after the Yi general Fu Jian cut off his supply train and ambushed him. Heši was beheaded before Emperor Renzi of the Yi, and his brother Aišï was appointed as Khagan-Regent as Heši's eldest son, Satšï was only three. Aišï took great interest in his nephew, and tutored him as he grew up. Khagan Aišï had a keen intellect in finance. His name itself meant "gold" or "wealthy". Rather than raiding the powerful Yi Dynasty for wealth, he sought to gain wealth through the trade routes stretching through Wailan territory. Aišï established trade posts and improved communications so more traders would take the Wailan route out of Yidao rather than more risky routes. Aišï is considered today as one of the best, wisest and most shrewd rulers that the Wailans, and the Tangkuo, have ever known. When his nephew Satšï grew up, he remained true to his late brother's word, and abdicated. It was in this time that Aišï, according to legend, fathered a bastard child to a princess of the Jahudai clan, thus creating the Aišïn Jahudai clan that ruled the Jin dynasty and continues to rule Tangkuo to this day. During Satšï's reign did the Wailans first start to become sedentary. The seeds of urban Wailan society had been sown by his uncle Aišï, as when the trade posts grew in wealth and importance, the nomads around it would settle down and become stationary. Satšï moved his capital to Aišïngašan, a large trading post named after his uncle on the Sahaliyan River, on the site of modern-day Tukdan. There he built the precursor to what would later be the Dabkūri Dorgi Hoton, the royal residence of the Jin dynasty. After Satšï's reign, the Wailans started to change. Three of the six clans became sedentary by the end of the 7th century. In spite of the fact that the Wailans practiced archery on horse back and equestrianism, like nomads, their primary mode of production was farming while they lived in villages, forts, and towns surrounded by walls.

Over the next few centuries, the Ninggujua dynasty had several rebellions over the distribution of power in the Wailan state. Some of the nobles, both nomadic and sedentary, were opposed to the centralization of power by the past few rulers that had been aimed to create a state much like the Yidaoan Empires. Many of these rebellions ended in victory for the Ninggujua dynasty, but it still showed long running dissent for the ruling family. The Ninggujua slowly expanded west, taking tributaries and vassals, and even raided the Yi Dynasty of Yidao when they were suffering civil wars. Despite the powerful exterior, things were not well for the Wailans. Climate changes had interrupted and stopped harvests, making the already nervous nobles restless. To make matters worse, one of their vassals, the Yuzhi, had slowly gained power under the Wailan's nose and had now entered open revolt in 985, proclaiming the Liao dynasty. In a desperate gamble, Ninggujua Šensi'abu promised decentralization if they helped fight against the Liao. The Yuzhi defeated the Wailans in several battles. In 986, they besieged and burnt down Aišïngašan, and the Ninggujua dynasty fled to the north-eastern coastal cities. The nobles and clans, infuriated at their loss on the battlefield, declared independence from the Ninggujua dynasty. Ninggujua Šensi'abu was forced to comply, and the Ninggujua became nothing more than a rump state. In 1006, the Liao dynasty invaded and finally put the Ninggujua out of their misery, with the last Ninggujua Khagan, Ninggujua Baohuoli, sent into exile. Some say that he went on a ship, and sailed across the world's oceans, whilst others say that he went to Yidao and intermarried with the royal dynasties there. One thing, however, is for certain; The Ninggujua were no more.

Middle Ages

Liao Dynasty

Khaghan of the Liao Goes Forth With His Hunting Party, scroll, light colors on silk, dated from around 1050 C.E and is believed to depict Liao Hendeji or his brother Xiandeji; National Tangkuo Museum, Tukdan

Originally from Xianbei origins they were part of the Kumo Xi tribe until 388 C.E when the Kumo Xi-Liao clan was defeated by the Northern Song. This allowed the Yuzhi to organize and consolidate their own tribe and entity which led to the beginning of Yuzhi written history. From the 5th to the 8th centuries the Liao were dominated by the steppe powers to their West, the Volghar and then the Wailans. The Yidaoans also came from the south and regularly subjugated them, setting them up as tributaries, which led to Yidaoization among the Liao. Under this triple domination, the Yuzhi started to show growing power and independence. Their rise was slow compared to others because they were frequently crushed by neighbouring powers, each of which were using the Yuzhi to fight their wars for them. With the migration of the Volghari loosening their control over the Yuzhi, and the civil unrest in the Ninggujua dynasty, they established the Liao dynasty in 985. The Liao dynasty proved to be a significant power north of the Yidaoan plain as they gained control over former Yidaoan, Volghari, Tuulu and even some Wailan territories. They eventually fell to the Volghari Empire who subjugated and mostly absorbed the Yuzhi into their empire.

Early Modern Period

Unification of the Wailans

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the powerful Sui dynasty had backed two rival clans to the popular Aišïn Jahudai clan, the Hubošu and the Gæjeæ, in order to expand into the Wailan region and to keep the Wailans pacified. After many wars won by the Hubošu, vastly increasing their size at the expense of the other Wailan tribes, the leader of the Aišïn Jahudai clan, Šurgaci, united the Jurchen clans into a unified entity, which he renamed as the Tangkuo. This unification of the former Wailan tribes came about to prevent any further expansion by the Sui's allies in the region, and was originally supposed to be temporary. At the same time, the Sui dynasty was fighting for its survival against fiscal turmoil and peasant rebellions, and when Šurgaci listed his Six Grievances against the Sui, asking for compensations and the return of land considered Wailan, the Sui refused. For the Sui, it was a matter of national pride, and they expected the Hubošu and the Gæjeæ to be able to easily fight off this Tangkuo coalition with a few thousand Sui reinforcements. Šurgaci led the coalition and at the Battle of Juyge, avenged his father and elder brother by severing the head of the Hubošu, both literally and figuratively, and announced his intention to punish the Sui. He stated his desire to conquer and humiliate them in revenge for backing his two rivals, and for sending troops to the Hubošu.

The Sui general Yuwen Huaji, who had revolted against the Sui some years earlier allied to the Tangkuo to bring about the destruction of the Sui. After the subjugation of the Gæjeæ, who Šurgaci spared due to their disloyal attitude towards the Sui, the Tangkuo formed five Banner Armies, made up of Wailans, Liaoans, Volghars and even some Yidaoans that defected. With the Sui distracted by invasions and peasant rebellions, the Second and Fifth armies quickly rampaged across northern Sui. Meanwhile, the First, Third and Fourth Banner Armies, commanded by Šurgaci's brothers Murhaci, Nurhaci and Ihalaci, spread inland. There they defeated the Sui army in the Battle of Shizuishan, crushing most of the resistance in the north. Along the coast, many of the Sui cities opened their gates and bent the knee to Šurgaci and his armies in fear of destruction. This aided the Tangkuo immensely. Soon, the Banner Armies met and besieged the Sui capital, Shendu, taking it in a violent assault. During the attack, the last Sui emperor Yang Youlang had his stomach slit open by a Tangkuo soldier when trying to escape, resulting in his capture and his agonizing death hours later.

Moments after Shendu had been taken, and the Sui effectively crushed, Šurgaci proclaimed the beginning of the Jin dynasty, with the Aišïn Jahudai clan in charge. The Jin name itself meant "gold", a literal translation from the word Aišïn, which also meant "gold" in Tangkuo. The Jin dynasty annexed most of the former Sui, installing Yuwen Huaji as a puppet Emperor of the new Shun dynasty in the south. Unrest followed and the Shun capital was stormed by angry peasants only two years after its founding, with Yuwen Huaji captured and tortured to death by the peasant leaders. This gave the excuse for the Jin to conquer the rest of the Sui dynasty, and the peasant armies were quickly defeated by the highly trained and experienced Tangkuo Banner Armies. The Jin then consolidated their rule through bribery, persuasion and with their military might. Šurgaci's strengths were his ability to act as a sort of charismatic salesman for his newly-conquered empire, winning over the Yidaoans with the economic prosperity that resulted after the conquest, though his efforts mostly focused on his homeland of Tangkuo. In the coming decades, Tangkuo became rich with years of peace and trade under Šurgaci's reign.

Jin Dynasty

For the next few centuries, life returned to normal, roads were built, transportation was improved, the economy recovered and boomed, and entire families lived their lives without the threat of war. The Jin dynasty began to close off from the rest of the world, seeing no reason for further expansion. The Emperors of the Jin began to marry Yiadoan princesses, but Tangkuo was made the sole language of royalty in an effort to preserve tradition and prevent assimilation into the larger Yidaoan population. This has enabled the Tangkuo language to survive and thrive in the contemporary age, and many have stated that if intermarriage continued and the royal family made bilingual, then within generations the Emperors would be speaking Yidaoan, and the Tangkuo identity would cease to exist. An entire class of bilingual administrators sprouted across the country, and the Palace of the Jin was built to accommodate the royal family.

However, despite the peace and prosperity that followed in the centuries after the Jin conquest, the Jin policy of "inward perfection" and isolationism from the rest of the world, as well as stagnation and corruption led to their decline in the beginning of the 19th century, and eventual downfall in 1926.

Nineteenth Century

The Opium Wars and the Weifang Rebellion

A soldier of the late Jin Dynasty, photographed near the end of the 19th century

Whilst the economic stagnation and the problems of corruption had started in the previous century, and would easily have been fixed by a good Emperor, one key factor that was beyond any ability to fix by any sort of Emperor led to it's inevitable demise; the arrival of more technologically advanced and more powerful Asuran nations. Whilst not a direct cause, the arrival of Asuran merchants and diplomats, and their military expeditions into the Jin dynasty weakened it immensely, and gave way for it's collapse in 1938.

The Jin dynasty had dealt with merchants and travelers from Asura before, and had granted them an "open port" on the swampy island of Tonghei in 1743, which restricted maritime trade to that city and gave monopoly trading rights to private Yidaoan and Tangkuo merchants. Demand in Asura for Yidaoan goods such as silk, tea, and ceramics could only be met if Asuran companies funneled their limited supplies of silver into the Jin dynasty. Since the Jin dynasty's economy was essentially self-sufficient, the country had little need to import goods or raw materials from the Europeans, so the usual way of payment was through silver. In the late 1700s, the governments of Midrasia and Newrey were deeply concerned about the imbalance of trade and the drain of silver, and so began to auction opium grown in Majula to independent foreign traders in exchange for silver, and in doing so strengthened its trading influence in Yidao. This opium was transported to the Yidaoan coast, where local middlemen made massive profits selling the drug inside the Jin dynasty. The influx of narcotics reversed the Jin trade surplus, drained the economy of silver, and increased the numbers of opium addicts inside the country, outcomes that worried Jin officials. Emperor Dalunha, concerned both over the outflow of silver and the damage that opium smoking was causing to his subjects, ordered Zhao Kuangyin, a scholar-official in service to the Jin dynasty, to end the opium trade. Zhao confiscated the stocks of opium without compensation in 1839, leading Midrasia to send a military expedition next year.

The First Opium War revealed the outdated state of the Jin military. The Jin navy, composed entirely of wooden sailing junks, was severely outclassed by the modern tactics and firepower of the Midrasian Republican Navy. Midrasian soldiers, using advanced muskets and artillery, easily outmaneuvered and outgunned Jin forces in ground battles, and the capture of many of the Jin's richest coastal ports by the Midrasians led the Emperor Dalunha to sue for peace. The Jin surrender in 1842 marked a decisive, humiliating blow to the already struggling empire. The Jin had to pay massive amounts of money to the Midrasians, and open up a great number of their ports to western trade and missionaries. The outdated Jin military, the corruption in the Jin bureaucracy and the harsh peace treaty imposed upon the Jin at the end of the First Opium War would help stir up anti-Tangkuo sentiment in Yidaoan territories annexed by the Jin.

Over the next few decades, tensions and dissatisfaction with the seemingly ineffective monarchy would increase, paving the way for the Jin dynasty's eventual downfall. Amid widespread social unrest and worsening famine, a rebellion against the Jin broke out in the year 1850. The Weifang Rebellion started when radical general Qi Liangyu seized most of the southern Jin dynasty, proclaiming himself Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. Qi Liangyu said that God told him to banish the Tangkuo from Yidao and to shatter the Jin dynasty, before bringing an age of universal peace. The Weifang Rebellion not only posed the most serious threat towards Jin rulers in the entirety of their reign, it has also been called one of the bloodiest and most violent civil wars of all time. The movement at first grew by suppressing groups of bandits and pirates in central Yidao in the late 1840s, then suppression by Jin authorities led it to evolve into guerrilla warfare and subsequently a widespread civil war. The revolt began in Guangxi, in early January 1850, after a small-scale battle resulted in a victory in late December 1849, a 10,000-strong rebel army organized by Qi Liangyu routed Jin forces stationed in Jintian. Weifang forces successfully repulsed an attempted imperial reprisal against the Jintian Uprising. The movement quickly spread as extremist anti-Tangkuo groups joined the rebellion, believing it at first to be a massive anti-Tangkuo revolt. In 1853 Weifang forces captured Dōngjing, making it their capital and renaming it Tianjing ("Heavenly Capital"). Since the Weifangs considered the Tangkuo to be demons, they first killed all the Tangkuo men, then forced the Tangkuo women outside the city naked and then beheaded them in front of a large crowd. Weifang leaders tried to widen their popular support and forge alliances with Asuran powers, but failed on both counts. The Asurans decided to stay officially neutral, though Asuran military advisors served with the Jin army.

Inside the Jin dynasty, the rebellion faced resistance from rural classes because of hostility to Yidaoan customs and values, as it quickly became apparent that Qi Liangyu's beliefs clashed with Yidaoan tradition. The landowning upper class, unsettled by the Weifang ideology and the policy of strict separation of the sexes, even for married couples, sided with government forces and their Western allies. Qi Liangyu spent most of the war living in luxury, surrounded by concubines forced to serve him. An attempt to take Tonghei in August 1860 was repulsed by an army of Jin troops supported by Asuran officers under the command of Loís-Éduard Montpensier de Agramunt. This army would become known as the "Ever Victorious Army", a seasoned and well trained Jin military force that would be instrumental in the defeat of the Weifang rebels. Qi Liangyu declared that God would defend Dōngjing, but in June 1864, with Jin forces approaching, he died of food poisoning as a consequence of eating wild vegetables when the city ran low on food supplies. He was sick for 20 days before succumbing and a few days after his death, Jin forces took the city. His body was buried in the former Song Imperial Palace, and was later exhumed on orders of Emperor Dalunha to verify his death, and then cremated. Qi's ashes were later blasted out of a cannon in order to ensure that his remains have no resting place as eternal punishment for the uprising. Before the Weifang Rebellion, the Jin dynasty looked down on the Yidaoans as children that needed to be educated and cared for under the Emperor. After however, the minority Tangkuo elite had to swallow a rather bitter pill and accept that like it or not, they had to rely on the Yidaoan population. Without them, the empire would not have been so large or so wealthy. And so the Jin dynasty officially expanded the rights given to Yidaoans by Šurgaci's Proclamations for Celestial Peace two hundred years earlier. These expansions included the right for Yidaoan and Tangkuo couples to form relationships and have offspring, for Yidaoans to have equal opportunities at competing with Tangkuo merchants, and the right for Yidaoans to immigrate across Tangkuo.

Modern Era

Tangkuo People's Republic

1988 Revolution

Army trucks halted by student protesters shouting monarchist slogans during the 1988 Revolution

The army's entry into the city was blocked at its suburbs by throngs of protesters. Tens of thousands of demonstrators surrounded military vehicles, preventing them from either advancing or retreating. Protesters lectured soldiers and appealed to them to join their cause. The protesters also provided soldiers with food, water, and shelter. However, in some areas of Daijuhu, large crowds stormed government buildings and set up stockades. In many areas, soldiers attempted to dislodge the protesters, only to be met with mobs. General Eluguan Mudusæ, seeing the way the tide was turning, ordered his soldiers to join the protesters. Within a few hours, a division of soldiers marched into main government buildings, arresting many members of the Tangkuo Communist Party. Outside the buildings, large crowds cheered for the return of the monarchy, and for the success of the coup. An announcement was made on national radio and television, announcing an end to the communist rule. Soldiers were still stationed outside main buildings across Tangkuo for the next few days as the military invited the pretender to the Tangkuo throne, Aišïn Jahudai Jïlunggusu to return. Upon his return on the 4th of December, the monarchy was proclaimed to be restored and the Empire of Tangkuo was announced. Due to a naming dispute as Tangkuo no longer controlled the land of the Jin dynasty, Aišïn Jahudai Jïlunggusu wasn't able to take his former title of Emperor of the Jin dynasty, and so thus took the title Emperor of the Tangkuo. In order to promote continuity, the title Emperor of the Tangkuo and Emperor of the Jin dynasty were merged and declared one and the same. Three months after the restoration of the monarchy, Emperor Jïlunggusu died at the age of eighty nine from kidney cancer, which he had strugged with for years previously. Jïlunggusu's eldest son, Aišïn Jahudai Nujænge took the throne until he too died in 1993, with his brother Ningjiasu holding the throne until he died on February 19, 2018.

Demographics

Ethnic groups

Due to the many cultures that have migrated to and from Tangkuo throughout the course of its history, it is not surprising to expect the country to have many different ethnic groups, all of which have their own distinct languages and make up a distinct part in the tapestry that is Tangkuo. The biggest minority in Tangkuo are the Yidaoans, followed by the Liao, the Volghari, the Tuulu and the Kuchi, together making up just over a third of the total population.

Yidaoans

Yidaoans, making up 12% of the population, are mostly descended from migrants that went north into Tangkuo during the Jin Dynasty, but are also made up of Tangkuo that were assimilated into Yidaoan groups. The Yidaoans in Tangkuo mostly live in the south along the border, with Yidaoan being a regional language across much of southern Tangkuo. After the establishment of the Jin dynasty by Šurgaci, Yidaoans slowly moved into Tangkuo over the centuries, but due to laws made to protect the Tangkuo, who were now a minority in the Jin dynasty, all Yidaoan migrants had to take Tangkuo names and send their children to Tangkuo schools. If they refused, they were not allowed to go at all. This "secret Yidaoan minority" as it has been called by various ultra-nationalist groups, makes up almost a third of the Tangkuo population, and has been the target of some hate speech. However, popular opinion states that over the centuries of interbreeding with the native population, it is pointless to try and find a secret minority, when by all intents and purposes, they are fully Tangkuo. The Tangkuo Settlement law was repealed in 1904, and Yidaoans quickly entered Tangkuo in search of jobs.

Several attempts had been made in the past to assimilate the Yidaoan minority, which had been regarded as "Un-Tangkuo" during the Communist period, when the loss of their homeland meant the Yidaoans were stick in Tangkuo. Yidaoans made up around thirty percent of the population in 1910, if censuses are to be believed, but by the end of the Communist period, they made up only 14%. The assimilation attempts were halted when the monarchy was restored, as the Emperors wanted to appear benevolent compared to their communist counterparts. Today, the Yidaoan minority are protected to a degree, with many of the areas they inhabit being bilingual. Schools are allowed to teach the Yidaoan language in those areas. But in some conservative areas, they are still seen as "illegals", and hate crimes still occur to a limited degree. There is pressure on the Hundred-Strong Council to help protect Yidaoans, but it is unlikely as of yet of how such protection would take place.

Yuzhi

The Yuzhi, making up 10% of the population in Tangkuo, are the descendants of the people of the Liao dynasty. Originally from Xianbei origins they were part of the Kumo Xi tribe until 388 C.E when the Kumo Xi-Liao clan was defeated by the Northern Song. This allowed the Yuzhi to organize and consolidate their own tribe and entity which led to the beginning of Yuzhi written history. From the 5th to the 8th centuries the Liao were dominated by the steppe powers to their West, the Volghar and then the Wailans. The Yidaoans also came from the south and regularly subjugated them, setting them up as tributaries, which led to Yidaoization among the Yuzhi. Under this triple domination, the Yuzhi started to show growing power and independence. Their rise was slow compared to others because they were frequently crushed by neighbouring powers, each of which were using the Yuzhi to fight their wars for them.

With the migration of the Volghari loosening their control over the Liao, and the civil unrest in the Ninggujua dynasty, they established the Liao dynasty in 985. The Liao dynasty proved to be a significant power north of the Yidaoan plain as they gained control over former Yidaoan, Volghari, Tuulu and even some Wailan territories. They eventually fell to the Volghari Empire who subjugated and mostly absorbed the Yuzhi into their empire. When the Volghari Empire collapsed, the Liao were set free, but were still weak compared to their neighbours. The Yuzhi eked out a peaceful living, paying taxes to whichever empire or dynasty controlled the lands they passed through. When the Jin dynasty conquered the Sui, the Yuzhi fully became a part of the empire, and their unique skills at tracking and scouting made them good assets for the Jin military. For this, they were protected and given rights, with specialized language schools operating as far back as the early 18th century. Today, the Yuzhi live a mostly sedentary life, and have settled down in small towns, but there are a few still sticking to the old nomadic ways.

Tuulu

The Tuulu make up 5% of the population.

Kuchi

The Kuchi, making up 3% of the population, are mostly sedentary, living in the south-west of Tangkuo. The Kuchi originally lived in northern Majula, but migrated and settled in southern Tangkuo, where they settled in the Agni Valley, a major trading route. Situated on the northern edge of the Agni, their small urban societies were overshadowed by nomadic peoples to the north and Yidaon empires to the south and east. They conceded tributary relations with the larger powers when required, and acted independently when they could. The Kuchi grew red millet, wheat, rice, legumes, hemp, grapes and pomegranates, and reared horses, cattle, sheep and camels. They also extracted a wide range of metals and minerals from the surrounding mountains as well as making handicrafts included leather goods, fine felts and rugs. As a result of the valley being a major crossing into Yidao, they grew rich and prosperous, but rarely attacked other nations, only fighting among themselves or in defense against an outside power. Their mountainous home, and the fierceness that they fought with on the battlefield ever since their migration to Yidao earned them the name "Snow-Demons" among Yidaoans. The Kuchi today mostly look out for themselves, being part of a religious and somewhat conservative culture, and pay little attention to the government in Tukdan. However, it is not unlikely to see Kuchi politicians on the Hundred-Strong Council. The Kuchi, like the Liao, were protected by the Jin Dynasty on account of their warrior spirit and ferocity in battle, and often served as mountaineers and scouts in the Jin army. Despite this, large numbers of Kuchi have migrated to the urban cities of Tukdan, Daijuhu and Hæjurai in search of better financial opportunities.

Language

Religion

Health

Education

A teacher in Daijuhu teaches young children the Tangkuo language
Another teacher wearing traditional clothing, in Tukdan, reading out instructions to his class