Nevanmaa

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Nevan Realm
Nevanmaan valtakunta
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Jumalan oikeudella ja armolla" (Nevan)
"With God's right and mercy"
Anthem: Nevanhymni
Royal anthemEläköön armias
Nevanmaamap.png
Location of Nevanmaa within Esquarium
Location of Nevanmaa within Esquarium
CapitalNevanlinna
Official languages Nevan
Recognised regional languages Avar, Curonian, Lappish, Livonian, Mari, Varunian
Demonym Nevan
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy 1
 -  Monarch Juhani IV
 -  Minister of State Tuomas Hyvärinen
 -  Council President of the Royal Council Yrjö Walenius
Legislature Diet
 -  Upper house Chamber of the Estates
 -  Lower house Chamber of People
Establishment
 -  Founding of the Nevan Kingdom 1226 
 -  Unification 1617 
Population
 -  2015 census 135,441,000
GDP (nominal) $5,025 trillion estimate
 -  Total TBA
 -  Per capita $37,102
Gini (2012)positive decrease 50.6
high
HDI (2012)Increase .836
very high
Currency Nevan markka (Nm)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code 962
ISO 3166 code NVM
Internet TLD .nm
1. While Nevanmaa does have written constitution, it only limits the power of government officials, but not the monarch who gets their right to rule from God. While the monarch does vow to "rule over their subjects wisely and mercifully, doing their best to maintain justice and order and to tirelessly work for the good of the land and people" upon their coronation, this vow is purely ceremonial and the monarch has de jure and de facto power to supercede any legislation with royal decrees that supercede all legislation including the Constitution. In addition, all monarchs have given the Diet the right to legislate on their behalf since 1902.

Nevanmaa (pronounced /'neʋɑn.mɑ:/ or /'neʋɑmmɑ:/), known officially as the Nevan Realm (Nevan: Nevanmaan valtakunta) is a country located in Esquarium. Nevanmaa is a constitutional parliamentary monarchy that is currently ruled by king Juhani IV. It is bordered by Luziyca to the south, Vyvland to the southeast, Unolia and Jetan to the northeast.

Nevanmaa is an archipelago that consists of one main islands and dozens of smaller inhabited and uninhabited islands. Its population is approximately 135,4 million inhabitants. The northernmost parts of the country are cold and desolate tundra, while the central and southern parts of the country consists of taiga and temperate forests. Especially the northern part of the country is still covered in dense pine forests, while the central part of the country is very densely populated.

Majority of Nevanmaa inhabitants are Nevans, but the islands are culturally varied with dozens of others ethnic groups living there.

Nevanmaa has been ruled by the House of Kaarenmaa-Hennala since the Nevan Kingdom was founded in 1187. Although Nevanmaa is officially a constitutional parliamentary monarchy, the king still exercises considerable political powers: The king may veto laws adopted by parliament, call referendums, propose new legislation, and dissolve parliament and his honor is protected by a strict lese-majeste law. In addition, around half of the population is officially disenfranchized due to their ethnicity and gender, non-whites and women not having the right to vote.

Culturally Nevanmaa is very conservative and right-wing, in stark difference to neighbouring, traditionally liberal nations like Vyvland. Conservative National Coalition has been the ruling party in most governments since the first democratically elected Diet was established in 1902, which is reflected in Nevan culture and mindset which is remarkably individualistic and puts large amounts of pressure on personal responsibility: there is almost no social security, income inequality is very high and in general, there is a visible class society divided between the working and upper classes.

History

Pre-unification

Before the first unified kingdom was created, Nevanmaa consisted of tens of independent duchies, city states and small kingdoms. The birthplace of modern Nevans is around the mouth of River Kaari, around the site of present-day city of Kaarela, which is also one of the first Nevan cities.

During the early 11th and 12th centuries, lords of Kaarela conquered vast areas of northern Kaarenmaa, and eventually united with the House of Hennala to the north to form the House of Kaarenmaa-Hennala in 1187. After the conquest of Siuro and Villähde in southern Kaarenmaa in 1226, the new nation was named the Nevan Kingdom (Nevanmaan kuningaskunta).

Nevanmaa continued to annex smaller duchies via conquests, royal marriages and vassalization for the next four centuries. By 1600, the Nevan Kingdom controlled roughly 2/3rds of the Nevan Archipelago, and there were only two sovereign nations in the Nevan archipelago besides it: the Livonian Confederation, Kingdom of Marieland. However, the Nevan Kingdom was extremely decentralized, and the Nevan king only de facto controlled some areas under his direct rule: The rest of the kingdom were controlled by local fiefs who often ignored or even disobeyed the King. Numerous borders and different laws inside the Kingdom signficantly hindered trade, making the Kingdom poorer and poorer.

In X, king Yrjö I ascended the throne. Yrjö was inspired by absolutism, and began a campaign to take over the land of his fiefs so that he could exert direct control over all parts of the realm. Yrjö also significantly expanded the Army and the Navy In 1615, king Yrjö I launched a campaign to conquer the last two independent nations in the Nevan archipelago, starting the War of Nevan Unification. The war was a success, and in just two years the two nations were defeated and annexed into the Kingdom. The new state was named the Nevan Realm, controlling the entire archipelago. Yrjö I initially allowed the former monarchs to govern their realms by themselves under Nevan protection, but a few years later he ousted them during the Great Ousting in 1627. Yrjö created the modern system of provinces that is still used to day, replacing the hundreds of small principalities and fiefs whose territories in almost all cases were not contigous.

Despite her reactionary beliefs and hostility towards the working class, Julia III's reign saw massive increases in living standards of ordinary people and large growth in industrialization

United Nevanmaa

Yrjö I ruled as the king of united Nevanmaa for eleven years, dying in 1628. He was succeeded by his son, Nikolas I who continued his father's practice of creating an united Nevan nationstate. By ennobling former nobles of Marieland and the Livonian Confederation and granting them various privileges, he managed to win them on his side. This proved useful when various Nordanian nations allied and attempted to attack Nevanmaa in 1631, starting the Great Nordanian War. Against all odds, Nikolas managed to lead his Navy to defeat the numerically superior enemy and even capture the Vjaarlandic flagship HRVMS Strendhavn. The war cemented the existence of the new Nevan state and its status as a major regional power.

Following the death of Nikolas I in 1659, his son Väinö I succeeded him. Unlike his predecessors, Väinö cared little about ruling the Realm, being more concerned with drinking, gambling, and cavorting with mistresses. Väinö ruled only for nine years, dying of some type of gastrointestinal disease after eating a massive dinner consisting of vendace, lobsters, deer and pulla in 1668. He was succeeded by his son Kaarle I.

Kaarle I ruled between 1668 and 1704.

Kaarle I's son Väinö II introduced autocracy in Nevanmaa in 1704 and played a major role in modernizing his country. Väinö introduced the twenty-member Senate of Nevanmaa to supplement the Diet of the Estates of Nevanmaa. The countryside was also divided into new provinces and districts. Väinö told the Senate that its mission was to collect tax revenues. In turn tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign. However, these efforts at centralizing caused outrage in the former Livonian Confederation, and in 1712 there was an uprising of Lutheran Catholics and Livonian nationalists in Liivinmaa and Länsimaa. The uprising was put down after a year.

19th century

Following the death of Maria I in 1812, his son Juhani II became the King. Juhani saw science and education as the key to increasing Nevanmaa's power, and during his reign several universities and academies were founded all over the country. Juhani also reorganized the judicial system dating from the 13th century, established a simple state-funded elementary school system was established in major cities and presided over the opening of the National Museum of Nevanmaa, the biggest museum in Esquarium at the time. However, much like his mother, Juhani embraced enlightened absolutism. He strongly opposed any attempt to divert power away to the Diet of the Estates nor to the general populace.

Juhani II was succeeded by his first son Henrik II in 1845, who was known to be more moderate and open to the idea of popular rule. However, the Senate that mostly consisted of nobles was vary of the King giving too much power to the general populace, preferring that the King would grant more power to the noble-dominated Diet instead. Two movements soon emerged: The "redhats" consisting of nobility and the clergy who supported giving more power to the Diet, and the "blackhats" consisting of burghers and peasants who wanted to establish a constitutional monarchy with a democratically elected legislature.

In 1847, inspired by the founding of the Republic of Geadland the blackhats marched to the Royal Castle in Nevanlinna in the event today known as People's Spring, demanding immidiate reforms. After some negotiations, the King agreed to form an advisory People's Council organized on the same principle as the Royal Council with the promise that full powers would be granted to the Council by 1860. During the transitional period, the People's Council would only have an advisory role with no legislative power. Councilmembers would be appointed by city councils until democratic elections would be held in 1860.

For most of its existence, the Council was dominated by three factions: The Right-wing Faction consisting of absolute monarchists, the Center Faction consisting of moderates and the Left-wing Faction consisting of radical liberals and socialists. Advised by the Council, King Henrik began a series of reforms including abolishment of capital punishment and imprisonment for debt. The Council also passed a new Instrument of Government in 1852, replacing the old one written in 1617. However, by 1860 the People's Council had become rife with discord, unable to formulate any cohesive proposals. Afraid of granting full powers to the quarreling Council, Henrik postponed the first election to the Council to 1865. Later studies have found out while initially Henrik intended to give the Council full powers, by 1860 he had become totally disillusioned with democracy.

Henrik died unexpectedly in 1863 and his daughter Julia III ascended the throne. Unlike his father, Julia embraced reactionarism and quickly abolished most of his father's reforms including the People's Council. Tens of thousands of liberals and democrats were executed or exiled to Lumimaa. Julia nevertheless embraced new ideals and initiated a widespread program industrialization around the country: tens of thousands of kilometers of roads and railways were built, and huge factories and mills were constructed in the cities. Julia III ruled until 1889.

After Julia III, his son Kustaa IV became the king in 1894. Kustaa was easily swayed by his advisors, and members of the Senate generally attempted to manipulate him. Unable to rule as an absolute monarch like his mother, Kustaa attempted to divert the public's attention away from the economic downturn by declaring war on Arkiasis, leading to the Northern War in 1899. Despite initial successes, the war quickly became a stalemate. Shortages during the winter of 1901-1902 led to massive protests in all major cities calling for more civil liberties and restricting the power of the monarchy. Kustaa was thus forced to call up a constitutional convention to draft a constitution for Nevanmaa, and on February 15th, 1902 the Constitution of Nevanmaa was ratified. The new Constitution restricted the powers of nobles and government officials and most notably, reformed the tetracameral Diet of the Estates with the democratically elected Diet. Topias Vennola, a liberal who had taken part in the protests also became the first Minister of State.

Urho Sainio acted as the Minister of State for over three decades from 1954 to 1978
General strike in Santalampi in 1902

Early 20th century

Following the Constitutional Revolution, Nevanmaa continued its rapid industrialization and its population nearly doubled. The politics were dominated by the conservative Monarchist Party, liberal People's Party, socialist Workers' and Peasants' Party and agrarian Agrarian Alliance. Despite their initial successess in the first democratic elections held in 1902, the liberal and socialist forces were quickly sidelined by the conservative Monarchists.

The outbreak of the First Great War led to the collapse of the party system in Nevanmaa. The Monarchist Party was divided between constitutional monarchists who wanted to support Koyro and Odissia and absolute monarchists who wanted to stay neutral. The Monarchist Party was thus divided into the National Coalition and the Royalist Conservative Movement in early 1913. The left-wing faction of the People's Party defected to the Workers' and Peasants' Party to form the Social Democratic Party, while the former became the Liberal Party. Victory of anti-war forces in the 1914 general election made sure that Nevanmaa would not interfere in the conflict.

During the late 1910s and early 1920s, Nevanmaa went through a massive economic depression. Inflation rose to massive levels and even large companies went bankcrupt. The coalition of liberals and social democrats was unable to contain the depression, leading to a victory of right-wing parties iGn the 1922 general election. The new right-wing coalition began implementing plans to cut social services, banned strikes and effectively prevented unions and socialist parties from functioning with to anti-socialist legislation. Political polarization was rife, with both right-wing and left-wing militias fighting in the streets.

Fears of a reactionary coup resulted in various socialist and republican forces starting to prepare a counter-coup. After a year of preparation, various left-wing forces led by the Communist Party of Nevanmaa started a coup against the government in Nevanlinna on April 1, 1924. The same day, the Royal Nevan Protection Corps has started disarming members of left-wing militias in other parts of the country. The king and most of the Parliament managed to escape to Selskari while Heikki Eloranta, chairman of the CPN declared the foundation of the Republic of Nevanmaa. This sparked the Red Rebellion. The fighting lasted five bloody months, with Reds controlling large areas especially around major industrial cities of Nevanlinna, Kannelselkä, Kaarela and Tapulikaupunki. Nevertheless, Whites prevailed over the Reds, benefitting from the leadership of Akseli Taivalvuo, an army general and an excellent strategist. The entire country was declared liberated on September 6, 1924. After the war, Taivalvuo became the Minister of State for the next eighteen years. Tens of thousands of Reds and suspected sympathizers were interned in camps, where thousands died by execution or from malnutrition and disease. After the war, Kustaa IV abdicated after the war in favor of his son, Kustaa V.

After the war, Taivalvuo's right-wing government consisting of the National Coalition and the Patriotic Front led the country steered Nevanmaa even further to the right. Freedom of speech was curtailed with legislation such as the Law Regarding the Protection of Constitutional Order, and socialists were routinely arrested for anti-monarchist activites. While Taivalvuo's government did manage to recover the country from the depression, he was pressured to accept the National Socialist Union into government after the 1934 general election. However, he resigned shortly after the Christmas of 1935, making his far-right deputy Veijo Vuori the Minister of State.

Vuori began an ambitious Program of National Reconstruction that involved a large public works programme to combat unemployment as well as forced closure of several opposition newspapers that were "guilty of spreading anti-Nevan judeo-marxist filth". Vuori also enacted various "anti-marxist-masonic laws" were enacted that prevented Jews, freemasons and suspected communists from joining the military or working as civil servants. Finally, Vuori decided to organize a referendum about dissolving the Diet for 10 years and granting the current government a right to rule by decree. Despite most media outlets supporting the law, the emergency law referendum held in 1937 was defeated by a margin of 61-39. Defeat of the referendum as well as King Kustaa V's open dislike for Vuori quickly dropped the government's popularity to record-low levels, further aggravated by the uncovering of the 1937 Nevan coup attempt.

A right-wing parties suffered a major defeat in the 1938 general election, running on a campaign of national security and interfering in the Second Great War on the Chorean side. After the election, a coalition of Social Democrats, Liberals and Agrarians led by Frans Styrman entered government and initiated a series of progressive reforms. These included the reform of the electoral system to use proportional representation, lowering the voting age, creation of a small-scale national insurance program and the housing grant program which allowed the less wealthy to get low-interest loans to build their own house, abolishing various physical punishments and decreasing military spending.

However, shortly before the 1942 general election Styrman became severly ill and was unable to co-ordinate an election campaign. The election led a a grand coalition of Social Democrats and the National Coalition. The two parties had negotiated an agreement whereby National Coalition would allow the Social Democrats to implement a partial welfare state, while the Social Democrats would not attempt to expand political rights nor to practice any kind of "cultural engineering". National Coalition's leader Eemil Viljakainen and Social Democratic leader Sauli Rovanperä jointly ruled as Ministers of State for two terms, until the latter's death in office led to the end of the coalition. The coalition did manage to significantly lower unemployment, as well as to create the National Health Insurance Program and construct Nevanmaa's first nuclear weapon.

Late 20th century

In 1954, the National Coalition, Liberal Party and Constitutional Progressive Party entered a coalition led by former Minister of Interior, Urho Sainio. Urho Sainio led these right-wing governments for almost 30 years, until finally stepping down afer 1978 general election and dying six years later. This period in Nevan history is generally referred to as "Age of Consensus", whereby nearly all parties agreed to practice relatively centrist policies and to protect Nevanmaa's uniquely conservative state system. With the exception of the 1969-70 protests, Nevanmaa remained relatively free of domestic instability compared to other Esquarian countries.

In the early 1970's, Nevanmaa entered a heavy economic crisis. During this time, Nevan industry was largely reorganized: production of oil was increased, the steel industry was concentrated and specialized, and mechanical engineering was robotized. Markets were also deregulated and several state-owned companies were privatized. This resulted in high unemployment and social unrest, but ultimately also economic growth, particularly in the services sector. However, this deeply affected some areas such as the city of Nikkeli in Lumimaa, which has yet to recover from the deindustrialization of the area.

1994 marked the end of National-Liberal-Constitutional coalitions that had been the cornerstone of Nevan politics for decades. Following the collapse of left-wing parties base of support, the three parties' goals started to diverge and in 1994 general election the National Coalition instead formed the government with the Social Democratic Party, Center Party and Green Alliance.

21st century

2000s have been an era of change in Nevan society. Anti-racemixing and other "racist" laws designed to protect Nevan traditions have come under heavy criticism from both domestic and foreign critics, both far-left and far-right parties have gained several seats and banned independence movements in Outer Nevanmaa have gained more followers. Nevertheless, Nevanmaa has experienced high economic growth and has improved relations with several foreign nations

After forming a government alone in 2010, National Coalition faced its greatest electoral defeat since 1930 in the 2014 general election. A large center-left coalition entered government led by Valtteri Rantala, seeking to relax some of the older racial laws and sought a membership in the Esquarian Community. However, after the suffrage referendum proposed by Rantala's government was defeated with a large margin, King Juhani II dissolved Rantala's government in November 2014.

Haihara fjord in Salomaa

Geography

Nevanmaa is an archipelago that consists of one main islands and dozens of smaller, inhabited and uninhabited islands and islets.

Much of Nevanmaa is fairly forested, with 48% of the country being forest and woodland, while farmland constitutes 38% of land use. Central and Southern Nevanmaa is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward. Mountains and hills are dominant in the central parts of the islands, especially in Savonmaa.

The lowest elevation in Nevanmaa is in the bay of Lake Taipale, near Talvitie at −1.7m below sea level. The highest point is King Yrjö Mountain at 4,754 m above sea level at the tripoint of Kaarenmaa, Savonmaa and Vienanmaa. The highest population density is in around the coasts of Kaarela Bay and in southern parts of the country in the Vuoksi river valley.

Climate

Nevanmaa has a temperate, oceanic climate with four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year. Temperatures vary greatly from north to south. Southern and central parts of the country have warm summers and mild winters, with average high temperatures of 25 to 20 °C and lows of 13 to 16 °C in the summer, and average temperatures of -4 to 2 °C in the winter.

The northern part of the country is affected by the cooling effect of the Louhi Current. In the northern provinces, summers tend to be cooler while winters are snowier and colder. In these areas, temperatures that often drop below freezing from October through April are not uncommon.

Administrative divisions

See also: Provinces of Nevanmaa

Administratively, Nevanmaa is divided into eighteen provinces (Nevan: lääni), two overseas provinces of Laukaa and Tuleena (Nevan: merentakainen lääni) and the royal free city of Nevanlinna (Nevan: kuninkaallinen vapaakaupunki).

The provinces were created in the 17th century in the aftermath of the War of Nevan Unification to make governing the country easier and reduce the power of the local nobility. While the new borders generally followed ethnic borders as well as the borders of old major fiefdoms, they were simplified with the removal of various enclaves and exclaves.

Provinces have a democratically elected regional diet (Nevan: lääninkäräjät) as well as a regional government (Nevan: lääninhallitus) led by a governor (Nevan: maaherra) appointed by the monarch. Six of the provinces are officially billingual.

Map Region Population Capital Languages Seats
Nv4.png Aarinmaa 1,532,000 Larnua Nevan, Avarian 7
Inkerinmaa.png Inkerinmaa 12,521,000 Selskari Nevan 57
NVe.png Kaarenmaa 21,334,000 Kaarela Nevan 97
NVa.png Korpimaa 1,453,000 Teno Nevan 6
Kuurinmaa.png Kuurinmaa 721,000 Sannisto Nevan, Curonian 4
NVd.png Lapinmaa 1,205,000 Talvitie Nevan, Lappish 5
Colflagx.png Laukaa 197,000 Laukaa Nevan 1
Lumimaa.png Lumimaa 1,041,000 Seinävä Nevan 5
Liivinmaa.png Liivinmaa 1,247,000 Miiala Nevan, Livonian 5
NVj.png Länsimaa 4,182,000 Savela Nevan 19
Newmarianmaa.png Marianmaa 4,647,000 Marianlinna Nevan, Mari 21
NVx.png Nevanlinna 7,176,000 Nevanlinna Nevan 33
NVb.png Niittymaa 14,555,000 Enso Nevan 66
NVh.png Saarenmaa 8,636,000 Viirilinna Nevan 39
NVi.png Salomaa 9,112,000 Suinula Nevan 42
NVc.png Savonmaa 4,203,000 Moisio Nevan 19
NVk.png Tammimaa 15,349,000 Tapulikaupunki Nevan 70
Colflag2.png Tuleena 534,000 Kustaala Nevan 3
NVg.png Uusimaa 16,905,000 Kannelselkä Nevan 76
Varunmaa.png Varunmaa 2,134,000 Nurmisalo Nevan, Varunian 10
NVf.png Vienanmaa 6,757,000 Kauritsala Nevan 31
Kaarela City Hall is home to the Kaarela city council

Municipalities

See also: Municipalities of Nevanmaa

All provinces are divided into 2269 municipalities that act as self-governing administrative units. They have an governed by municipal councils that are elected every four years and have vast administrative powers, including the power to enact municipal laws. Their budgets are financed with municipal income taxes that vary from 8% to 41%, state subsidies and other revenue like tickets for public transportation or museums. Smallest municipality in Nevanmaa is Alhola in Lumimaa with 3482 inhabitants while the largest is Nevanlinna with 7,176,236 inhabitants.

Mandatory duties of municipalities include maintaing primary and secondary schools, the Nevan Healthcare Assistance Program, child protection agencies, rescue services and the local road network (not highways), organizing public works like waste collection and regulating zoning. In addition, municipalities must organize a local police force (paikallispoliisi) to maintain public order and issue documents like passports and ID cards. In rural areas, these services are also provided by the provincial police (lääninpoliisi) and in some small municipalities, local police force is maintained together by several municipalities.

Other voluntary duties of municipalities include providing healthcare services, social services like daycare, elderly & disabled care and social welfare services, cultural services like museums and libraries and public transportation. Most municipalities provide at least some services that they're not legally required to, although around 15% of municipalities do not offer any other services other than those mandated by law.

Government and politics

See also: Foreign relations of Nevanmaa
Nevanmaa is often considered to be both a constitutional, as well as absolute monarchy. There is a Constitution and a democratically elected legislature as well as a vast collection of political parties, but the Monarch's power remains is unlimited. Nevan Monarchs regularly use their extensive powers in daily politics.

National Coalition election poster from the 30s: "These are our colors - Every vote counts, that is why we vote for National Coalition candidates"

Legislative

See also: List of Nevan general elections

The bicameral Diet is composed of the Chamber of People (Nevan: Kansankamari) and the Chamber of the Estates (Nevan: Säätyinkamari) . The former is made up of 616 representatives elected using a system of parallel voting. Roughly half are elected by proportional representation, while the other half are elected using first-past-the-post. The latter consists of 752 officially non-partisan lords who represent the Estates of Nevanmaa. These consist of 252 hereditary high nobles, 263 elected low nobles, 106 elected burghers, 85 elected peasants and 46 bishops of the Church of Nevanmaa. Bills must be approved by both chambers and in addition they must be given Royal Assent before becoming a law. The Monarch also has the right to dissolve the Chamber of People and order new elections. In addition, the Monarch can issue royal decrees which supercede all existing laws.

Nevanmaa only guarantees suffrage to white men over the age of 21, who are entitled to vote in parliamentary and local elections by secret ballot. Granting suffrage to women and non-whites is a major political issue in Nevanmaa, but so far all bills extending voting rights to women and racial minorities have been rejected, most recently in 2014.

Executive

King Juhani IV is the head of state of Nevanmaa. Despite being a constitutional monarchy, the King may veto laws adopted by the Diet, call referenda, propose new legislation using royal decrees and dissolve the Diet.

Usually, the position of Minister of State, the Nevan head of government, belongs to the member of the Diet who can obtain the confidence of a majority in the Chamber of People, usually the leader of the largest political party in that chamber. However, in practice the Monarch can appoint whomever they wish as the Minister of State, even from outside the Diet though this has happened only twice. The Minister of State then recommends the Monarch to appoint members of the Council of State (Nevan: Valtioneuvosto) who then form His Majesty's Government. As per tradition, meetings of the Council of State are never attended by the Monarch in person. Instead, the Monarch is represented in its meetings by the Prince of Kaarenmaa, or if he is unavailable, by an another member of the Royal Family. The Ministers appointed by the King lead fifteen executive ministries that take care of day-to-day running of the state. In addition, there are some independent agencies and various government owned corporations including Nelly and Nevanmaan Posti.

As the King does not attend meetings of the Council of State, there is a separate Royal Council (Nevan: Kuninkaallinen konselji) that acts as a formal body of advisers to the monarch. The Council consists of six Officers of the Court who are responsible for the Royal Court and its various suboffices, and nine Officers of State who represent various different interests including the Diet, Government, Estates and the Judiciary and is chaired by the Council President. The role of the Royal Council is to give advice to the Monarch when he wishes to issue royal decrees, though its role and importance have varied depending on the Monarch. During the reign of Juhani III, the Royal Council was often considered to be even more powerful than the Council of State.

Palace of the Realm in Nevanlinna

Judicial

Nevanmaa's legal system is based around civil law. whereby laws are codified by the legislature and not developed by the courts. Constitution of Nevanmaa guarantees everyone the right to a free and fair trial within a reasonable time period. Trial by jury does not exist in Nevanmaa.

The Criminal Code of Nevanmaa was enacted in 1855 and has not been altered since 1924. Maximum penalties are life sentence and death penalty, which is usually administered for serious crimes such as murder and treason. Corporal punishment is also used. For more, see capital and corporal punishment in Nevanmaa. In addition, other punishments include loss of public confidence, whereby a person who has been found guilty can lose their right to vote or work as a civil servant.

The legal system is divided into three separate and independent branches. Decisions of the first two branches can be appealed to the Court of the Realm of Nevanmaa (Nevan: Nevanmaan valtakunnanoikeus) as the highest court in Nevanmaa. The Court of the Realm consists of ten judges proposed by the Diet and appointed by the Monarch. They serve life tenures unless they resign or retire, and also act as a constitutional court. Its decisions can only be appealed to the Monarch.

Civil and criminal cases are District Courts (Nevan: Käräjäoikeus), of which there are 970 in Nevanmaa. District Courts are headed by a Chief Judge who is assisted by 0-3 judges. Simple cases such as applying for a divorce may be handled by notaries or trained office staff. Decisions made by District Courts can be petitioned to Appellate Courts (Nevan: Hovioikeus) located in all provincial capitals. They consist of three judges and a variable number of lay judges. Decisions made by the Court of the Realm may be petitioned to the Court of the Realm, although this is very rare.

Public law cases and maintaining judicial oversight is the responsibility of the Administrative Courts (Nevan: Hallinto-oikeus). When appealed, the Administrative Courts decide whether a decision made by other authorities was legal. They are headed by three equal judges. Decisions made by Administrative Courts can be petitioned to the Administrative Court of the Realm (Nevan: Valtakunnanhallinto-oikeus) located in Nevanlinna, consisting of ten equal judges. Unlike the two other branches, decisions made by the Administrative Court of the Realm almost never appealed to the Court of the Realm although that being de jure legal. Last time when a decision made by Administrative Court of the Realm was appealed to the Court of the Realm was in 1971.

Finally, the third semi-official branch consits of Noble Courts (Nevan: Aatelinoikeus) located in every provincial capital. If the defendant is a noble, he can request his case to be heard by a Noble Court instead of a District Court. The difference is that all judges of Noble Courts must be nobles. The legal system used is slightly different as well, being based more around common law allowing judges more freedom in giving sentences. Decisions made by Noble Courts can be petitioned directly to the Monarch.

Military

Royal Nevan Armed Forces is a medium-sized standing army of 2,340,000 active troops. The RNAF consists of the Royal Nevan Army (Nevan: Nevanmaan kuninkaallinen armeija), Royal Nevan Navy (Nevan: Nevanmaan kuninkaallinen laivasto) and Royal Nevan Air Force (Nevan: Nevanmaan kuninkaalliset ilmavoimat). In addition there is a voluntary defense militia called Royal Nevan Protection Corps (Nevan: Nevanmaan kuninkaallinen suojeluskunta). All Nevan males over the age of 18 are conscripted into the Armed Forces for a period of at least six months, with reserve NCO's and officers serving twelve months.

Nevanmaa is a nuclear state, and in addition possesses large amounts of biological and chemical weaponry. Nevanmaa is estimated to possess hundreds of ICBM's and SLBM's equipped with both regular and MIRV warheads. Vapaus-class nuclear submarines give the RNAF an excellent power projection capability.

Nevanmaa is a member of the Northern Sea Defense Organization, a military alliance between several western Esquarian nations.

Branch
Nevaarmy.png Royal Nevan Army
Nevanavy.png Royal Nevan Navy
Nevanairforcelogo.png Royal Nevan Air Force
Suojeluskunta.png Royal Nevan Protection Corps
Since 2013, the livery of all Nevan police vehicles has been standardized

Law enforcement

Since the Law Enforcement Agency of 2014, regional and municipal police agencies have been abolished and the Nevan Police is now responsible for all law enforcement. Before 2014, law enforcement was divided between the Nevan Police, regional and municipal police departments.

The Nevan Police (Nevan: Nevanmaan poliisi, formerly "National Police", Kansallinen poliisi) is a part of the Ministry of Interior. It is headed by the National Police Board headquartered in Nevanlinna. Its functions are divided between 156 hundreds that have widespread jurisdiction over local affairs and function mostly independently from the National Police Board. The size of hundreds varies, and a hundred can cover an entire realm or just a single municipality.

Nevan Police is responsible duty is to provide the full spectrum of police services, ranging from patrols and investigations to issuing documents such as passports and ID cards. Some specialist functions and important functions are provided by the State Security Police, which is a part of the Ministry of Security.

Demographics

Ethnicity Population  %
Total 135,441,000 100,0%
  • Nevan
123,013,000 90.8%
  • Mari
4,389,000 3.2%
  • Non-native minorities
2,092,000 1.6%
  • Varunian
1,636,000 1.2%
  • Avarian
1,490,000 1.1%
  • Livonian
1,235,000 0.9%
  • Lapp
721,000 0.5%
  • Curonian
562,000 0.4%
  • Other native minority
303,000 0.2%




Circle frame.svg
Racial groups of Nevanmaa
  White (99.4%)
  Mongrel (0.2%)
  Non-white (0.1%)
  Negro (0.3%)

Ethnic groups

Majority of the people living Nevanmaa are Nevans, (Nevan: nevalaiset), who constitute about 90% of the total population. Nevans are members of the Nordic people group who are characterized by fair hair, blue eyes and light skin. Most Nevans speak Nevan as their native language.

Ethnic minorities account for about 7.6% of the total population. The largest ethnic minority in Nevanmaa are the Maris, followed by Varunians, Avarians, Livonians, Lapps and Curonians.

Languages

See also: Languages of Nevanmaa,

Official language of Nevanmaa is Nevan, a Nordic language which also functions as the language of interethnic communication. In addition, there are six official regional languages and countless others that do not have an official status.

Largest non-native languages in Nevanmaa include Geadish and Vyvlander, spoken mostly in Saarenmaa and Marianmaa. Seven municipalities are officially billingual with Geadish as a second official language, twenty-six with Vyvlander and nine with both. In addition, Namorese and Luziycan are widely spoken.

Nevan school system


Circle frame.svg
Religions in Nevanmaa
  Christian (Protestant) (0.5%)
  Christian (Orthodox) (0.1%)
  Folk religions (0.1%)
  Other (0.2%)
  Irreligious (7.2%)

Education

See also: Education in Nevanmaa

Nevanmaa offers an universal, nine-year education to all pupils, starting at the age of 6 and ending at the age of 15. In addition, government subsidizes education in high school and vocational school.

Pre-tertiary education is arranged at municipal level, and around one-third of students are enrolled in private schools.

After secondary school, graduates may either enter the workforce directly, or apply to vocational schools or high schools. Vocational schools prepare for professions. Academically oriented high schools have higher entrance requirements and specifically prepare for matriculation exams and tertiary education. Graduation from high school formally qualifies for tertiary education; graduation from vocational school only qualifies for polytechnics. Education in public high school and vocational schools is formally free, but students often have to purchase their own books and study material.

In tertiary education, two mostly separate and non-interoperating sectors are found: the profession-oriented polytechnics and the research-oriented universities. Universities and polytechnics are not free and have tuition fees. Notable universities include University of Kaarela and University of Nevanlinna

As of 2010, 99.7% of the population over the age of 15 are literate.

Health

Nevanmaa has had an unversal healthcare systen known as the Nevan Healthcare Assistance Program since 1946. All citizens must pay a portion of their income into a designated health insurance account known as a NETA acoount from an insurance provider of their choice. Funds on this account can then be used to pay for treatment and medications. If the balance on the account becomes negative, the state will pay for the treatment. An individual's NETA account is tied to a NETA smartcard which is encoded with the user's entire medical history and can be used to pay for treatment.

In addition, there are some private hospitals and private insurance schemes not affiliated with NETA. These hospitals do not get any support from the state and operate on a for-profit basis.

As of 2011, national average life expectancy at birth is 76.2 years and infant mortality rate is 14.3 per thousand births.

Religion

Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in Nevanmaa for over 1000 years. Although a majority of citizens still identify with Christianity in many surveys, regular church attendance has fallen dramatically since the middle of the 20th century.

94.5% of Nevans are Christians, with the next largest faiths being traditional folk religions (1.7%) and other religions (0.2%). 3.6% of respondents stated that they had no religion. Of all Christians, 97.8% of Christians were Church of Nevanmaa, 1.9% were Lutheran Catholic and 0.3% were others.

The Church of Nevanmaa, following Nevanic branch of Protestantism, is the established church: it retains a representation in the Parliament and the Nevan monarch is its Supreme Governor. Church of Nevanmaa is not subject to state control, and the Nevan monarch is required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion" upon their accession.

Nevanlinna Cathedral is the largest church in Nevanmaa
Group of Chirlanian women 
Nevanlinna cityscape in evening 
Nevanlinna Cathedral is the largest church in Nevanmaa 

Economy

Nevanmaa has a robust modern economy based around a free-market economy with very few restrictions. In 2013, the Nevan gross domestic product was 7.72 trillion dollars, with GDP per capita being 37,102 dollars. Main exports are consumer electronics, lumber and other wood products, machinery, metals and minerals, ships, weaponry and various foodstuffs. The potential of the economy is somewhat limited by embargoes against Nevan exports practiced by several nations in response to various Nevan domestic policies.

The currency is the Nevan markka, which is pegged to a gold standard at a rate of Ɱ300 per one gram of gold. For this reason, the Bank of Nevanmaa maintains a large reserve of bullion, including gold and silver.

Major Nevan corporations include Unibank, Kansallinen Osakepankki, Liittopankki and Salpa (banking), Nevoil and Avalon (oil and gas), Aclass and Sampo (retail), Toimi and Westecia (electronics), Averea (financial services), Sointu (mobile phones), Couriex (courier services), Coffee Stop and Mister Fat's Chicken Shack (restaurant services), Estella (beverages), Revontuli (cars), Kaukopää and Enso (forestry & paper), Marielink and Seal Line (ferries) and Achrén Group (clothing)

Right to unionize is not guaranteed in Nevanmaa, and thus most employeers demand that the employee shall not join any trade union in the contract of employment. Another peculiar aspect of Nevan trade unions is that there is no official difference between trade unions and employers' organizations. Three largest trade unions are, Academic Confederation of Trade Unions, Central Organization of Nevan Labor Unions and Nevan Industrialists' and Entrepreneurs' Central Confederation.

Before 1997, state-owned Alkoholimonopoli was the only company that was allowed to sell alcoholic beverages. Since then, Alkoholimonopoli has shut down its own stores and now issues liquor sale licenses to privately-owned shops and stores.

Oil refining facility in Lumimaa, where most of Nevanmaa's oil is produced

Energy

Nevanmaa gets majority of its energy from oil, most of which is gotten from the region of Lumimaa. Oil accounts for about 52% of all consumed energy, with coal being second at 23% and natural gas being third at 13%. In addition, nuclear power is a large source of energy, as is hydroelectric energy. Utilization of wind power is minimal due to its inefficiency.

Nevanmaa has an enormous pipeline network of 120 000km in total, 63 000km of which is meant for natural gas that transports oil from Lumimaa oil fields to major cities and major ports. Petroleum and petroleum-based products and natural gas are significant export items for Nevanmaa whose sale is vital for Nevanmaa's economy.

Science and technology

Modern high-speed train near Valaoja

Nevanmaa maintains an active space program through the National Space and Aviation Agency, with a manned moon mission scheduled for 2017.

Transportation

See also: Vehicle registration plates of Nevanmaa, Road signs in Nevanmaa

Transportation Nevanmaa has undergone significant development since the late 1970s. The national road network has been significantly expanded through the creation of a network of motorways and a high-speed rail network. From the 1920s until mid-1980s, a large network of bridges and dams were built to connect most parts of the Nevan archipelago. The largest of these projects was the construction of Siurunpato, the longest causeway in Esquarium.

Rail network of Nevanmaa has been privatized since 1982 and is operated by several companies under the brand Nevan Railways (Nevan: Nevanmaan rautatiet). Nevanmaa has around 113,000 kilometers of railways, 88,000km of which are electrified. In addition, Nevanmaa operates a large merchant navy.

Nevanmaa's national carrier is Nelly, which is a private company.

Culture

Nevan culture has been shaped by centuries of absolute monarchy, as well as economically liberal ideas of 19th century scholars and is based around tradition and self-reliance. Hard work, strength, respect and religiosity are valued, as are enterprise and ingenuity. Large cultural differences between Nevanmaa and neighbouring nations have contributed to Anti-Nevan sentiment in the region.

The ideal of self-reliance is essential to Nevan culture: The welfare system is comparatively small and people are expected to take responsibility for their own actions and overcome any obstacles they face with their own strength. Values relying on self-reliance sometimes conflict with the respect for traditional values that value obedience to the Monarch, clergy and nobility as well as a strict hierarchy and inherent inequality of people. This conflict is generally explained with the sentence "work to succeed, but don't forget your place".

Nevanmaa's socio-cultural conservatism is clearly visible in everyday life. Gay rights aren't recognized by the national government nor any of the regional governments, abortion is moderately restricted, three quarters of the nation are Christians and transsexuality is considered to be a dangerous mental illness. Tobacco is outlawed, as well as all other drugs besides alcohol.

Nevanmaa is one of the few nations with laws based on race. General consensus among Nevan scientists is that blacks as well as other non-whites have different genetical features. These include increased testosterone levels causing increased impulsiveness and aggression, differently shaped skull that in turn causes changes in brain structure causing decrease in average IQ and cognitive performance. Involuntary servitude for negroes was legal until 1890.

National dish of Nevanmaa is fried vendace with potatoes

Media

See also: Media of Nevanmaa

Nevanmaa has a large media industry with several large TV and radio stations around the country. The state operated NYT, short for Nevanmaan yleisradio- ja televisio (Nevanmaa Public Radio and Television), is the largest broadcaster in the country. It operates six channels: NYT 1 for mainstream and popular entertainment, NYT 2 for news and documentaries and high-brow entertainment, NYT 3 for entertainment aimed at youth and young adults, NYT 4 for programming in minority languages, NYT Uutiset for around-the-clock news aimed at domestic audience and NYT News for around-the-clock international news aimed at international audience. Even though NYT is state-owned, all its channels feature advertisements.

There are several other TV channels in Nevanmaa, all of which are privately owned. The largest channels beside NYT are Nevan News Network, TV4, Vitonen, Kanava Kuusi, 7, Yhdistynyt Lähetysyhtiö and TeleNeva.

Major newspaper include right-wing Nevatar, center-right Talousuutiset, centrist Maamme, center-left Pohjolan Kansa and left-wing Kansan Ääni. Major tabloids include right-wing Nevanmaan Sanomat, center-right Iltaposti, centrist Nevanmaa Tänään and center-left Päivälehti.

Music

Nevanmaa has a rich and varied musical history, with several famous musicians originating from various Nevan cities.

Henrik II opened the Nevanlinna Conservatoire in 1854, which is still considered to be one of the best musical academies in Esquarium. Several notable Nevan composers including Tapio Malmivaara and Kyösti Louhivuori who later composed the Nevanhymni, the Nevan national anthem, studied in the academy during the 19th century. During the late 19th century, operas and concert houses were constructed in nearly every city.

Besides classical music, Nevanmaa has a lively comtemporary music scene that has produced several world-famous artists of countless different genres. Several well known Nevan bands and artists include Major and Petteri Uusipiha (hiphop), Jenni Hiilloste, Nea Aalto and Scarlett (pop), Käpykaarti and WON (metal) and Leevi Härmä and The Funeral Procession (rock).

Cuisine

Nevan cuisine is generally very simple. Not many fruits are used and meat play a very prominient role, supplemented by fish in coastal areas. Certain vegetables and mushrooms are also used. In addition, Nevan foods often use wholemeal products (rye, barley, oats) and berries (such as blueberries, lingonberries and cloudberries). Spices are rarely used, except for salt and pepper.

Nevanmaa is well known for its spirits, and the country remains one of the largest consumers of spirits in Esquarium. One of the most popular alcoholic drinks is Vanha Valkea, a 40% ABV vodka. The national drink of Nevanmaa, Lakkaryyppy, is manufactured by mixing Vanha Valkea vodka with cloudberry juice. Another popular spirit is Riistanvartija.

National dish of Nevanmaa is fried vendace with potatoes.

Sports

Sport activities are a national movement in Nevanmaa, with half of the population actively participating in organized sporting activities. The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Other popular sports include athletics, handball, floorball, basketball and bandy. In addition, horse sports are popular among women.

Premier division for association football is Liiga, while for ice hockey it's Ykkösdivisioona.

Nevanmaa also has a national football team and a national ice hockey team

Public holidays

There are sixteen public holidays in Nevanmaa. In addition, there are two "historically significant days" which are not official public holdays.

Date Name Holiday Notes
January 1 New Year's Day (Uudenvuodenpäivä) Yes
January 6 Epiphany (Loppiainen) Yes
Moveable Friday Good Friday (Pitkäperjantai) Yes The Friday before Easter Sunday
Moveable Sunday Easter Sunday (Pääsiäispäivä) Yes
Moveable Monday Easter Monday (Toinen pääsiäispäivä) Yes The day after Easter Sunday
May 1 Walpurgis Night (Vappu) Yes
Moveable Thursday Ascension Day (Helatorstai) Yes 39 days after Easter Sunday
Moveable Sunday Pentecost (Helluntaipäivä) Yes 49 days after Easter Sunday
Friday between 19 June and 25 June Midsummer Eve (Juhannusaatto) Yes
Saturday between 20 June and 26 June Midsummer Day (Juhannuspäivä) Yes
August 6 Flag day of the Armed Forces (Asevoimien lippujuhlapäivä) Yes Celebrates the end of the Red Rebellion
November 4 Memorial Day (Kaatuneiden muistopäivä) No Commemmorates the soldiers who died fighting the communists in the Red Rebellion. Also the birthday of Akseli Taivalvuo
November 13 King's Birthday (Kuninkaan syntymäpäivä), unofficial national day of Nevanmaa Yes
December 13 Saint Lucia's Day (Lucianpäivä) No
December 24 Christmas Eve (Jouluaatto) Yes
December 25 Christmas Day (Joulupäivä) Yes
December 26 Boxing Day (Tapaninpäivä) Yes