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|Cositene Republic of Luziyca
Luziycan: Koštunskaya damokratiya i Lužica
Western Argilian: Κοστυνική Δαμοκρατία τας Λουζίας
Western Argilian: Kostunikí Damokríteio tas Louzías
Mirakian: Koštunska damokratija Lusitska
Namorese: Lusatiya Chindzhenminguk
|Motto: Και αυτή είναι η υποσχεμένη γη, την οποία μας έδωσε ο Κύριος
And this is the promised land, which the Lord hath given us
|Anthem: Hymni Luziyca
Hymn of Luziyca
Outline of Luziyca
|Official languages||Western Argilian Luziycan, Mirakian, Namorese|
|Ethnic groups (2015)||Luziycans (50%)
|Government||Presidential federal republic|
|-||Unification of the Cositene Republic of Luziyca||March 25th, 1863|
611,845 sq mi
|Currency||Lira (₤) (LUL)|
|Time zone||ST-1, ST, ST+1|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||LUZ|
The Cositene Republic of Luziyca (pronounced /luzaɪ.ikə/ in English) is a nation located on the continent of Borea. As of 2015, it has just above three hundred million persons, making it the third-largest country within Esquarium, behind Akai and Namor. The country has a large economy and military, and has significant influence globally.
Luziyca shares borders with Kheratia to the northeast, Katranjiev to the east, Namor to the south, and Zesmynia to the northwest. It also has a coastline on the Central Ocean and the Gulf of Gelyevich.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Politics
- 4 Military
- 5 Geography
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 Economy
- 9 Law and Order
- 10 Culture
The name Luziyca is believed to mean "swampy land." The most common explanations are that it refers to the swampy northern peninsula near Pristanische in Mirak, or to the area where the Sprska River empties out in Semprihevosk, which was historically swampy. The first recorded reference to Luziyca covering the entire area of present-day Luziyca was in the late 17th century, by a book explaining the "states and peoples of the lands of Luziyca."
Luziyca is said to be home of one of the oldest civilizations in the western region of the Borean continent, the Argilian civilization, which first rose around 1500 BCE, and lasted until around 100 CE, when the capital of the Lysandrene Empire, Limani, fell to an invasion by the Bo Dynasty.
Over the centuries, its position on the northern coast of the Gulf of Gelyevich enabled the states in present-day Luziyca to become well off, but at the same time made it vulnerable to outside influences. Following the Anagenisi and the enlightenment, it was seen as crucial by many nationalists to unite Luziyca, which happened in 1863 when Huswa Varanken killed the last King of Bethlehem. Since then, Luziyca has become one of the largest economies in Esquarium.
The earliest evidence of a Luziycan is the Skalitsy Man, located near present-day Granitsygrad on the border with Oteki, was a homo ergaster, with carbon dating and the fossil record tracing it to 1.1 million years ago. The first evidence of a settlement was dated to 9,500 years ago, on the Sprska River, near present-day Semprihevosk, based off of agriculture and fishing.
By around 9,500 years before present, Luziyca began to be more dependent on agriculture. By around 3,000 BCE, most of present-day Luziyca had been settled, although as there were no written records, it is unclear what language they spoke or who they were, although many suspect that they were connected to the Argilian people that inhabit Mikrago and surrounding regions.
As the western coast of the Gulf of Gelyevich was the home of the Argilian peoples, the first recorded history dates back to circa 1500 BCE. While the Argilians slowly advanced across present-day Luziyca, many of the Argilians created city states to govern their own people, with the highest density of poleis near the coast of the Gulf of Gelyevich. The poleis were centered around temples dedicated to worship of traditional Argilian Gods.
Over the centuries however, Limani began to grow in influence: by 900 BCE, Limani and its neighbors formed the Federation of the Mikropotami, comprising of poleis on the Mikropotamo River which emptied out into the Gulf at Limani. Over the next few centuries, it and the rival Nyselian League, comprising of poleis on the Megalopotami River (with the lower course forming the present-day border between Luziyca and Katranjiev). This escalated, until in 503 BCE, Emperor Lysander the Great launched an offensive assault on the Nyselian League and its capital in Nyselis, which was touted to be an "unconquerable city."
With Lysander's tactical genius, he was able to conquer Nyselis following an 18-month siege in 501 BCE, and after having pillaged the city, ordered that Nyselis be sown with salt to prohibit people from rebuilding Nyselis. After a lengthy journey to defeat other member states of the Nyselian League, in 499 BCE, Lysander returned to Limani.
To celebrate the conquest of the Nyselian League, he was named Ypsilos vasiliás, or Emperor, thereby creating the Lysandrene Empire with its seat in Limani, thereby ending the Federation of the Mikropotami. However, Lysander was soon off to conquer the other poleis that were outside of its borders, seeking to incorporate the poleis into the Lysandrene Empire: either by force or through treaties that allowed them internal autonomy in exchange for paying fealty to the Emperor every seven years.
After Lysander died in 486 BCE, he was succeeded by his son, Damocles. Like his father, Damocles engaged in similar tactics, although he focused more on peaceful acquisition of the neighboring poleis: by 467 BCE, Damocles was said to have "control of the northern coast from the Strait of Akri all the way to the Anatoliko River," and from the coast "to the northeastern mountains."
Over the centuries, the Lysandrene Empire grew to expand all the way to present-day Razaria in the north to Oteki in the south by around 175 BCE. However, with its growing size, combined with the reticence of succeeding Emperors to move the capital from Limani to a more central location, made the northern frontiers in Razaria and Slovunia vulnerable to attacks from proto-Vitrian and Sepcanic tribes in West Borea.
In 162 BCE, however, Emperor Diomedes ordered the capital be moved from Limani to Boreiopolis, partially to defend the Empire's northern frontier from the increasing assault by the Neo-Sepcan Empire, and partially to reduce the chance that frontier provinces of the Lysandrene Empire would revolt against the Emperor. While Diomedes and his court moved from Limani to Boreiopolis, resulting in Boreiopolis becoming a major political centre of the Empire, Limani remained a major commercial port for the Lysandrene Empire, especially as the Bo dynasty began to increase trade with the Lysandrenes.
Despite the move to Boreiopolis initially providing the Empire with more ability to combat the Neo-Sepcan Empire in its northern frontier, and to ease revolts, by the middle of the first century BCE, Boreiopolis became subject to attacks by the Neo-Sepcan who attacked by sea, and by land. This forced Emperor Paris to move the capital to Livadi in 23 BCE.
While Livadi was initially peaceful, the relocation of the court from Boreiopolis, combined with the perceived abandonment of the northern provinces of the Empire caused many Argilians in these regions to surrender to the proto-Vitrians: by around 50 BCE, Boreiopolis, which by now became a ghost town was taken by the Neo-Sepcans without a fight. In 44 CE, Neo-Sepcan Emperor Toskotadi and his forces managed to sack Livadi. The sack of Livadi forced the Lysandrene Emperor Persius to return the capital back to Limani in 46 CE, as its distance and geography was sufficient to "protect it from the Sepcans."
With the relocation of the capital back to Limani, many Argilians whose poleis were near Livadi ceased cooperation with the Lysandrenes: the brother of Persius, Hector declared himself Aftokrátoras, or Emperor, thereby causing a civil war between the court who stayed in Livadi, and the court who remained loyal to Persius and moved to Limani with Emperor Persius.
Hector and his court established the Northern Lysandrene Empire, commonly known as the Hectorite Empire, although Emperor Hector claimed to be the Emperor of the Lysandrene Empire: many provinces near Livadi pledged allegiance to Emperor Hector, while in contrast, provinces near Limani pledged allegiance to Emperor Persius, who had returned to Limani.
With the start of the civil war, Neo-Sepcan Emperor Toskotadi and Emperor Hector made a deal to cooperate in exchange for the "eradication of the southern traitors." At the same time, the Southern Lysandrenes led by Emperor Persius began organizing their armies to try and cripple the Northern Empire. Thus, over the next two decades, the two factions fought it out: while the Southern Lysandrenes held a stronger defensive position, the Northern Lysandrenes and Toskotadi were able to take a good amount of land, until by around 55 CE, both sides reached a stalemate, with the southern Lysandrenes maintaining control only of the coastal areas around of the Gulf of Gelyevich. Emperor Persius died in 61 CE, and was succeeded by Emperor Nike. Nike of Limani proved to be very incompetent as a military strategist, and by 66 CE, only Limani itself remained under his rule: the rest was controlled by Hector's son, Argus. In 71 CE, after a nearly five-year siege, Limani was stormed by Argus' forces, ending the civil war in a pyrrhic victory for the Hectorite Empire: some historians consider it the end of the Lysandrene Empire, as the area was ruled by the Hectorite branch.
Following the fall of Limani, Toskotadi's successor, Chief Toprodoti betrayed Argus of Livadi, and took over Livadi, as well as much of the remaining provinces: thus, Argus was forced to move what was left of his court to Limani. Argus of Livadi thus invested in reconstructing Limani: however, the damage from the war drained the treasuries of both the Hectorites and Southern Lysandrenes. At the same time, the civil war enabled many tribes from both the north and the south to attack the remains of the Lysandrene Empire, causing the Empire to quickly lose its stature and importance in West Borea.
In 86 CE, Argus was succeeded by his son, Lysander the Ultimate (to distinguish him from Lysander the Great), after Argus died in a battle with barbarians in the southern peninsula. While Emperor Lysander attempted to repair the Empire and to try and restore it, in 96 CE, the Bo dynasty launched an attack on the remains of the Lysandrene Empire, quickly conquering their territories east of the Megalopotami River in what is now Katranjiev.
With the fall of the territories to the east of the river, Lysander the Ultimate began to try and wage a war against the Namorese invaders: while he was initially successful, especially west of the Megalopotami River, the Bo held their ground east of the Megalopotami River. While this stalemate lasted for a year, in January of 98 CE, the Bo launched an amphibious assault against Petrinopolis: this caught the Lysandrenes off guard, and forced the Lysandrenes to fight a two-front war against the invading Bo. Over the next two years, the Namorese were easily able to capture more and more towns to the east of Petrinopolis, while they were able to break through the defensive fortifications on the Megalopotami River.
By the October of 100 CE, the invading Bo were able to begin a siege of Limani: due to the heavy fortifications around Limani at the time, the siege lasted for twenty-one months. During the 21 months, Lysander and his men tried their best to repel the invading army, but as the invading Bo had more men than the defenders at Limani, despite the effective series of fortifications surrounding Limani, the losses built up, with Emperor Lysander the Ultimate no longer able to easily replace his men. The outer wall fell in May of 101 CE, which greatly demoralized the Lysandrene army. Despite this, the Emperor ordered the army to continue to defend the acropolis.
Finally, in July of 102 CE, following the fall of the inner wall surrounding the acropolis, the Emperor surrendered his empire to the Bo dynasty.
Age of Turmoil
With the fall of Limani in 102 CE, the remaining provinces under the control of the Lysandrene Empire either ended up under the control of the Neo-Sepcan Empire or else ended up under a brief occupation from Namor. However, Namor soon lost control of its cross-gulf territories in wars against the Neo-Sepcans, who granted significant autonomy to these areas and supported their reconstruction: thus, within a few decades, many of the old poleis, like Limani, were re-established in areas that had been occupied by the Bo.
During the ensuing Pantocracy, the Neo-Sepcans resettled Vitrians from their traditional homelands to Luziyca, bringing with them what would become the Luziycan language, as well as Tastanism. Over the centuries, Argilians outside of Mikrago became assimilated into Vitrian society, forming the basis for the modern day Luziycan people, due to intermarriage with the Vitrian settlers. At the same time, the local variety of Tastanism were shaped by the traditional Argilian religion that existed within Luziyca at the time.
The system of sualny resulted in Neo-Sepcan subdivisions increasingly expanding their power and becoming effectively independent states, with Mikrago elevated to a kingdom in around 730 CE with the coronation of Loukas I. Pristanische became home to the Kingdom of Mirak, with its first monarch, Adrijan being crowned by around 800 CE. By 840 CE, the first King of the Kingdom of Bethlehem, Vladimir I, gained his status. Like elsewhere on the continent, as imperial authority receded, the power of the Tastanic church expanded in society and the system of the Bibliocracy was established.
By the 900s CE, trade between the states in Luziyca and Namor blossomed, with the creation of what would become known as the Golden Spice Road that would connect West Borea with East Borea through the Gulf of Gelyevich. In 921, Mstis received revelations in Oteki, and later founded the religion of Costeny. The Neo-Sepcan Empire's formal collapse in 939 barely affected Luziyca as Neo-Sepcan control was very much all but a formality by the 10th century, but provided opportunity for increasing self-assertion by the Luziycan states, many of which granted themselves imperial titles based on a claim to Podslynitsia.
The Panoles plague struck West Borea in the 1050s, depopulating Luziyca severely as with other regions. The Bibliocracy and its institutions collapsed in the chaotic aftermath as peasants and nobles alike converted en masse to Costeny and rebelled against church authority; Tastanism as a whole was dealt a severe blow in the Cositene expansion. Cositene states established themselves in Luziyca, but soon conflicts between them began as the initial expansion slowed down and their interests clashed. The appearance of Adytum reunified Cositene efforts, and the Guardianship of the First Abode, an authority covering Oteki, was established at the Investiture of Peregnevy on Adytum's orders.
The Cositene expansion achieved a decisive victory during the Razarian Hegemony with the Petrolevian Empire's destruction; following this a long period of peace began, and prosperity returned to the region. In the 1300s, the trade routes between West Borea and East Borea (known in modern times as the Golden Spice Road) blossomed, forming major trade networks as the cities of Limani, Ishikul, and Gusev grew rich from the trade and their positions on the Gulf of Gelyevich, which formed an important corridor for international trade across the Borean continent.
Over the next few hundred years, many vassals went under the protection of either Mikrago, Mirak, or Bethlehem, greatly increasing the powers of these three states: by around 1300, it was estimated that there were 24 states, of which just five, Mikrago, Mirak, Bethlehem, Oteki (under the Guardianship of the First Abode), and Katranjiev were not vassals to another state. At the same time, the Eparchate had a time where while Mikrago recognized the See in Limani, Oteki, Mirak, and Bethlehem recognized the See in Bethlehem: by 1345, the Council of Krasimir resulted in the recognition of the Bethlehem See, in exchange for the papal seat to be moved to Limani.
In 1365, the Black Death decimated around 40% of the population within three years, but in some regions, especially the present-day state of Marshiya, as high as 90%. It is believed by historians that the Black Death came from ships from Namor or other Monic countries in Ishikul. As a result of the plague, many vassal states were merged into the three regional powers. While the plague subsequently came and gone over many centuries, the impact was not as devastating as in the 1365-1368 outbreak.
In 1416, following Theodosius VI's accession to the Papacy following the murder of his predecessor, he issued a papal bull calling on a crusade against Mikrago. Thus, within two years, the "Holy Coalition" waged an attack against the Kingdom of Mikrago to depose Xenakis V. Over the next four years, despite initial successes by the Mikragans, their pyrrhic victory in the Battle of Arkouda, combined with increasing anger by peasants over the high taxes needed to support the Mikragan army enabled the Holy Coalition to take over huge swaths of Mikrago. Following the fall of Limani in 1422, the Grand Duchy of Solomon was established from the northern fiefs, thereby cutting off Mikrago from Lake Yeri.
By the 1460s, the borders have become largely static, with a few tributary states, corresponding with the Patriarchates, to the major Empires (Mirak, and Mikrago, as well as the Kingdom of Bethlehem). At this point, many referred to the entire collection, plus the only non-tributary countries without their own tributary states (i.e. Katranjiev) as Luziyca, due to their interconnected economies and existence of substantial Vitrian populations in their respective areas, especially in the northern and western regions: the southeastern region of the country was still heavily Argilian.
The Anagenisi has been argued to have begun as early as 1365, during the Cositene golden age, but the traditional view, agreed by most scholars was that the anagenisi of Luziycan culture began in 1501, when Abraham Malyugin, noted author and painter, released the first major book in the Luziycan language that was not religious-related or anything mundane: the Criticism of Lusatian Culture, which was a critique of how rudimentary Luziycan culture is, and how it was being overshadowed in favor of Argilian and other foreign cultures. This book helped spur on a Luziycan cultural revival, and led to a anagenisi in Luziycan culture.
In 1524, the King of Bethlehem commissioned artists, with a stipend of ten lira per month, and a two hundred lira payment for every work of art done. As a result, artists began flocking to Bethlehem. Paintings began appearing en masse, and by the 1540s, Mikrago and Mirak also offered similar offers. However, by 1550, the artist craze died down, although the economy as a whole picked up.
In the early 1600s, Old Argilian became a dead language, as Luziycan, Western Argilian and Mirakian became accepted among the ruling elites as proper languages. Thus, during the seventeenth century, more and more writing was done in these vernacular languages while less and less writing was done in Old Argilian or Literary Vitrian. At the same time, increasing trade with the rest of Esquarium led to greater prosperity for the three major powers, thereby enabling more people to focus on other things besides agriculture.
By the 17th century, sualny as practiced traditionally came under increasing attacks; the empires in Luziyca began to break large sualnic estates down into smaller ones and weaken the nobles in control of them, while also promoting rural landowners to powerful posts. These acts not only put more resources under the state's power and strengthened it, allowing the Luziycan states to assert themselves regionally with the recession of the Zesmynian Hegemony, but also pushed the development of the nabory. Serfdom was also broken down, with Mirak emancipating serfs in 1713, except those under the control of the church. In 1742, Mikrago abolished serfdom and emancipated the serfs not belonging to the church. Bethlehem would only abolish serfdom in 1806, while the church only abolished it in 1873.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th century Luziyca as new technologies and optimized enterprise management combined to allow an explosion in productivity. Luziycan nabories played a key part in the spread of industrialization, as their expansive operations that crossed borders allowed the entire West Borean continent to form a market that supplied the resources for industry to process, and demanded the resulting products. At the same time, the ideals from the Aucurian Revolution in the late 1790s as a result of the Aucurian enlightenment sparked a similar process in Luziyca in the early 19th century known as the Enlightenment in the East, as it converged with a revival of local rationalist theology and philosophy. The enlightenment in Luziyca led to a rise in a movement to unify the people in "southern Vitria" under one government. As there were many different monarchies, thinkers such as Yuliy Sakharov advocated the creation of a republic under Cositene principles, as the common religion, despite the different languages spoken by the Vitrian populations in Mikrago and Bethlehem, would help "integrate Luziyca together." These and the Apostolic Postal Service helped pave the way towards a more united Luziyca.
At the same time, the growing economic prowess of the Luziycan states, especially with a rising bourgeoisie and middle class meant that the traditional forms of power were unlikely to be maintained, despite efforts by all three major powers to maintain it. The economic prowess and increased trade between the three also helped ensure the unification of the states in Luziyca.
Unification and early years of the Cositene Republic
In 1860, discontent in Mikrago led to a revolution that on August 19th, 1860, deposed the Emperor of Mikrago. Former lawyer Huswa Varanken was chosen to lead the Republic of Mikrago, but he was the one that supported a "Greater Luziyca," unification of all regions considered to be Luziycan. After the abdication of the Emperor of Mikrago, he declared the creation of the Republic of Luziyca, but he ruled as a virtual dictator at that point.
When Empress Sofia I heard of the revolution in Mikrago, she transformed the Empire of Mirak into a constitutional monarchy, and the Mirakians elected the only Prime Minister, Ilir Gabrovec. On Oct. 13, 1861, the Empire of Mirak was dissolved and integrated into the Republic of Luziyca following a series of military defeats culminating in the Battle of Pristanische.
Due to the balance of power, following the fall of Mirak, the Kingdom of Bethlehem put up a stubborn defense to attempt to slow down the Republican advance and ideally force the rebels to turn back. While the Kingdom of Bethlehem did score some victories against the rebels, the Kingdom of Bethlehem surrendered to the Republic of Luziyca after the death of their King on March 25th, 1863. Following this act, a constitutional convention took place in order to draw up plans for a new constitution for a unified Luziyca.
In 1864, the Republic of Luziyca (with Huswa Varanken serving as its only President) was abolished, exactly one year from its unification. With a new constitution being approved, the Cositene Republic of Luziyca was finally born. Over the next few years, the Cositene Republic began policies to increase the connectivity between the various regions of Luziyca: the amount of railway tracks tripled between 1865 and 1875. At the same time, the adoption of democratic practices under the auspices of the Luziycan constitution helped enable the creation of a unified Luziyca.
By the 1880s, the Cositene Republic began focusing outward to the rest of Esquarium, especially in regard to Nautasia, where Luziyca established a presence in the Pearl Coast (present-day Mazaristan), and, following the Chen Minko Rebellion, in Namor, then governed by the Hào dynasty, Luziyca began to grow its influence in Namor, especially in Kenyen. The resources from these spheres of influence fuelled the industrial economy that had slowed when West Borea itself had fully industrialized, and also turned to a new wave of protectionism as its powers competed, impeding resource flow; the reinvigorated growth of Luziyca elevated its position economically and politically. During the same decade, Luziyca joined the Rongzhuo Pact to increase cooperation with countries in Eastern Borea.
Thus in 1893, was pushed into the Great Borean War on the side of the Rongzhuo Pact. During the early years of the Great Borean War, Luziyca launched an invasion of Kheratia when their Vitrian minority were denied permission to fight alongside Luziyca. As well, the Luziycan government supplied its allies with food and weaponry.
However, in 1895, following the Kenyen Incident, where half of the Luziycan population was massacred following an attempt by the Hào to impose taxes and the defeat of a revolt staged by the Luziycan expatriate community in Kenyen, the Luziycan government launched the campaign against Namor, which not only involved taking Nantai, but also, with the support of the Patriarchate of Gusev, led to the expulsion of Namorese officials from Oteki and the establishment of a de-facto independent state in the region. In 1897, it was concluded with the Second Treaty of Vetpei: as part of the agreement, the Hào ceded both Nantai and Oteki, extraterritoriality was given to all Luziycan citizens, and the Hào Dynasty also had to pay ₤20,000,000 as reparations.
While Oteki was given independence in 1901, Nantai was intended to become an integral part of Luziyca, and the Luziycan government attempted to attract ethnic Luziycans to settle in the area, although the policy did not achieve much success in making ethnic Namorese a minority in their own land.
During the 1910s and 1920s, economic prosperity grew, with the cities of Pristanische, Limani and Bethlehem becoming major economic centers, and the secondary sector became a very important part of the Luziycan economy, displacing the primary sector.
Age of Prosperity
Beginning in the 1930s, the economy really picked up steam, due to the expanding middle class. The growing middle class led to a rise in the service sector. At the same time, with Liberationism being adopted in Namor and Katranjiev, many refugees fled to Luziyca from both countries, enabling companies to reach out to them. The refugees who came to Luziyca were predominantly middle class, with many of their businesses that were based in either Namor or Katranjiev moving to Luziyca.
During the 1940s, this, combined with decreasing regulations pursued by the federal government attracted corporations from across Esquarium to invest in Luziyca, leading to increased economic growth. This led to President Isaac Ichabod in 1946 declaring that Luziyca now "lived in an Age of Prosperity," as for the first time, the standard of living for most Luziycans have increased, instead of just the elites.
In 1951, the federal government began the creation of constituent republics through the Fourth Amendment to the Luziycan constitution, first in Nantai that year, and followed in 1958 by both the constituent republics of Mirak and Mikrago. The late 1950s and early 1960s was when economic growth peaked: many Luziycan multinational corporations like Karshev and Frederick's Fries date back to this period.
In the 1960s, the Cositene Republic began major secularization, starting with the election of President Khranovi Semrov, when in 1962, he passed a law enabling the election of the Senate by people (prior to that, one seat of most states was appointed by the legislature, the other by the Church), which began to reduce the power of Cositene clergy. Over the next few years, society became secularized: schools were forced in most states to become either public or parochial schools, the church rapidly lost influence, and by 1968, the Cositene Luziycan Party split into two, over the issue of religion, the more conservative faction becoming the National Luziycan Party, but the former kept the CLP name until 1976 when it became the Whigs.
In Mirak, the Quiet Revolution had a profound effect. Until the 1960s, Pristanische was the buckle of the Bible Belt, and the expression, "Banned in Pristanische" referred to work that authorities there banned for "moral corruption." During the 1960s, the Mirakians rapidly the shed the image of the Church, and in under a decade, the buckle of the belt moved southwards to Greenwich State, as well as liberalizing the culture in that state.
However, things took a sharp turn when in 1971, the Third Namo-Luziycan War broke out following the Vulan Incident. Despite its short length, the war caused considerable damage to oil production and the ecosystem in the Gulf of Gelyevich, thereby decimating the local fisheries. Over the course of the 1970s, Luziyca started to undergo deindustrialization, resulting in many Luziycans losing their jobs. This, combined with the energy crisis and stagflation led the Luziycan economy to tank throughout the decade. While the federal government made improvements to the education system, by creating the Standard Achievement Test in 1972, and made the government more "efficient and effective," they did little to help reduce the effects of stagflation.
Just as things were about to get better, the Recession of 1980 in Ainin spread to Luziyca. The recession spiked the unemployment rate to 12.5% at its peak in January of 1981: while the Luziycan government under President Luke Melech tried to improve the economy, their general laissez-faire approach did not help improve the Luziycan economy, or help it recover. While the Luziycan economy slowly recovered from 1981 onwards, it was not as fast as in neighboring Katranjiev or Namor, and the recession continued in Luziyca until 1983. This helped contribute to the election of Simon Josip of the National Luziycan Party in 1983. During the mid-to-late 1980s, the Luziycan economy transitioned from one focused on the secondary sector to one based off the tertiary sector. This, combined with an improvement in Namo-Luziycan relations meant that by the time detente began in 1990, the Luziycan economy received a substantial boost as trade began to occur between the People's Republic of Namor and the Cositene Republic.
During the 1990s, under the presidency of William Mishnev, Luziyca's economy became swept up in the dot-com boom, as the advent of the world wide web and the rapid adoption of it (from 5% around 1994 to 52% in 2000) meant that many companies were keen to cash in on the "wild frontier." As well, Mishnev saw a more open foreign policy, with Luziyca joining the Gelyevich Gulf Commission, and beginning to increase its soft power.
In the following decade, as relations between Namor and Luziyca matured, succeeding Presidents continued on Luziyca's cooperation with other regional powers, namely Ainin on varying issues, such as combating terrorism and protecting their interests in Nautasia. At the same time, Luziycan culture has gained more acceptance, especially as Luziyca became an observer state of the Esquarian Community in 1990, before it became a full member in 1994. In 2016, the death penalty was abolished for most crimes. However, since Pivec's election, Luziycan influence in Esquarium has started to diminish, although it still is the largest economy and maintains a sizable economic influence in Esquarium.
Luziyca has Congress, that first convened in 1864, after the passing of the Constitution. From 1863 to 1976, it was largely dominated by two parties, the Cositene Luziycan Party (Luziycan: Kristen Luziycan Parti), and the Liberals, before the former renamed itself to the Whig Party in 1976.
Congress comprises of an eighty-six member Senate, with 2 Senators per state, territory or autonomous republic and elected every 4 years, while the 625 Representatives represent the peoples of Luziyca, and elected every two years. It meets in Bethlehem. However, the Head of the House of Representatives is the Speaker, while the Vice-President of Luziyca leads the Senate. Both could be called to organize a tie-breaking vote if the vote is tied. The current head of state and government is the President, Damir Agapov.
|Leader of the Opposition||Paul Nikolovich|
|Country (Feel free to add your own country here)||Current state of relations|
|Toksan||The relationship between the Commonwealth and the Christian Republic of Luziyca have been exceptionally close in recent years. The relations have expanded beyond strong economic and commercial links to other spheres, including defence, tourism, culture and scientific cooperation. The Commonwealth operates a Godeung Panmugwan in Bethlehem to maintain strong relations with Luziyca whilst providing consular services to Freyhillian Citizens within the Christian Republic as well as multiple other Consulates across the country, whilst Luziyca operates an Embassy in Goldglass as well as multiple Consulates across the country. Both the Commonwealth and the Christian Republic of Luziyca co-founded the now defunct Esquarium Union.|
|Vyvland||Although Vyvland and Luziyca have had intertwined histories for a long time, the two countries have not always got on well. Luziyca's support for the overthrowing of the government in the Vyvlander Civil War was widely condemned within Vyvland and internationally, and East Luziyca's support for the harsh South Vyvlander regime was disliked by many, including supporters of the nationalist government. Many nationalist supporters felt East Luziyca was meddling in their affairs, for example through the installation of Erman Sanker. East Luziyca was more sympathetic to the Northern government. Since Vyvlander reunification, relations have improved, although the Luziycan military base at Syfmion in Vyvland has been a source of tension between the two countries.|
|West Cedarbrook||Luzyica is a leading trade partner for West Cedarbrook, both in exports and imports. Trade and travel agreements include Cedarbrookese membership in the Greenwich Area. There is a bilateral defense agreement between the two states pertaining to the Southern Ocean. Trade between West Cedarbrook and certain less stable nations is conducted using the lira as payment, and through Luziycan banking clearinghouses.|
The Luziycan Armed Forces are divided into three major branches: the Luziycan Army, the Luziycan Air Force, and the Luziycan Navy, and two minor branches, the Luziycan Marines and the Coast Guard. It is estimated that Luziyca has 40,000 warheads, but is unknown, except the methods of launch (land-based ICBMs, sub-based, and aircraft dropped missiles). The total of people employed by the army is 4,250,000 people, many of them on desk duties but are on reserve.
In peacetime, the Luziycan Army has 350,000 soldiers, with approximately 3,000 tanks. The main battle tank is the M1 Abrams with 1,280 tanks, and the M60 Patton with 1,000 tanks. The remainder of the tanks are of other designs. The main service weapon is the M4 Carbine. During war time however, it can go up to around one million people, and is one of the most celebrated branches within the fatherland. The primary task of the Luziycan Armed Forces is to preserve the peace and security and provide for the defense of Luziyca and her allies and overcome any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of Luziyca.
The Navy in peacetime is the second largest with 185,000 soldiers, with 3 aircraft carriers, 6 battleships, 10 destroyers, 30 frigates, and 47 submarines, as well as 2 hospital ships. The aircraft carriers are of the Nimitz-class, the battleships are of the Iowa-class, the destroyers are of the Iroquois-class, and the submarines are of the Upholder/Victoria-class.
The Air Force in peacetime is the third largest with 25,000 soldiers, with 670 fighter jets, of the F-35 and F-16 classes, 400 bombers of the B-1 Lancer class, 2500 helicopters of the UH-1N Twin Huey, and 300 refueling aircraft of the KC-135 Stratotanker class.
The Marines in peacetime has 12,500 soldiers. Unlike the other branches, they rarely use heavy equipment, strongly relying on mobility as a tactic. They are more heavily trained, and are considered to be the showpiece of the military.
The Coast Guard is the smallest branch of the military. It mostly functions as a small-scale green water navy. It has roles in maritime homeland security, maritime law enforcement, search and rescue, and the maintenance of river, intra-coastal and offshore aids to navigation. The Coast Guard usually is deployed every day. With a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on even the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is frequently lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies.
Until 1970, Luziyca demobilized their military every Christmas Day, but since 1971, it has ceased doing so, due to the loss of Oteki when the Otekian military did so in 1969 and 1970, despite claims by Namor that it is false.
A mountain range, the Pine Cordillera (Luziycan: Peshumontzeya, Mirakian: Borovje gore, Western Argilian: Πευκοδάσα, Pefkodása) covers the northern portion of Luziyca, named for the pine trees (known as spruce elsewhere in the world) that give the mountains their green color. In many cases, the tree line is only several meters from the snow line.
The area of Luziyca is 1,584,670 km², including Nantai.
Due to the large size of Luziyca, there are huge variations when it comes to climate. Clockwise, the northeast has a humid continental climate, characterized by distinct seasons, with warm summers and cold winters, but not very extreme. Towards the east, it transitions into a desert, which is generally hot year-round, although there are cool evenings. In the south, it is subtropical, with the conditions perfect to grow grapes. In the west, it is warm, but it is generally wet. In the north, it is similar to the northeast, except snow comes less often, and the Pine Cordillera also has an alpine climate.
Flora and Fauna
Due to it being a widely diverse country, Luziyca has a plethora of animal and plant species. The national animal is the bald eagle, which is common in the Pine Cordillera and the northeastern bowl that includes the capital city, Bethlehem.
Luziyca has three constituent republics, and twenty-six states. Thus, there are twenty-nine administrative divisions comprising the Cositene Republic of Luziyca herself. In addition, there is a claim over a section of Hyporia which is recognized by no sovereign entity.
Largest cities or towns in Luziyca
|2||Bethlehem||Bethlehem||8,548,581||12||Sveti Peter na Ozere||Markov||942,557|
Luziyca is a large multi-ethnic nation, which is diverse at around three hundred and ten million people. The largest ethnic group are the Luziycans at around 50%, followed by Mirakians at 10%, Argilians at 10%, and followed by Namorese at 10% of the population. Nautasian Luziycans comprise 8% of the population, mostly from Mazaristan. The remainder are other ethnicities, like Shudri, as well as many recent immigrants.
There are 10 ethnic groups which are a plurality or majority in all counties within the Luziycan nation. Unlike Namor, despite the large population, there is no two-child or one-child policy, with many politicians opposing it due to the fact that it conflicts with Article 1, Section 1 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, declaring that "everyone has the god-given right to the ideals life, liberty, democracy, and property."
The Mirakian language is mostly spoken in the northern areas of the country, notably in Mirak. Approximately 5% of Luziycans list Mirakian as their native language, and nearly 50% of Luziycans can speak the language at an intermediate level.
Luziycan is the native language of most of the country, and is the lingua franca of Luziyca. Around 54% list Luziycan as their native language, and 99.1% speak Luziycan at an intermediate level.
Western Argilian is mostly spoken in the southwestern regions of the country. About 10% speak it as a native language, and 40% speak it an intermediate level. It is more predominant in Mikrago and surrounding areas.
Luziyca is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. The church and the state have been separated ever since the republican revolution of 1863. However, it has an official religion: Costeny, with the current eparch being . In Mirak, Tastanism is also official alongside Tastanism.
A majority of Luziycans follow some kind of religion. Only around 36% of Luziycans claim that religion isn't very important to them, and only 2% claim that religion doesn't mean anything at all to them.
The transport network in Luziyca is very large, with over 6,586,610 km of paved roads, with 455,000 km being federal highways. There are 18 federal highways, the longest being Highway 1, beginning in Frontiersburg, Kraya-Nord and ending at Semprihevosk. Then, there are state highways, controlled by the constituent states of Luziyca. With the Highway network, the nation has been connected, since when the Federal Highways were formed in 1959. Roads are extremely common, with the Federal Highways using concrete, and the State Highways using asphalt. They have a system of road signs. In addition, there are license plates in Luziyca, which are required in order to operate a vehiclein many areas of the country.
There is a railroad network, operated by Luztrak, with the Evangeline (Semprihevosk-Yerevan) high-speed line the busiest, followed by The Eagle (Semprihevosk-Bethlehem).
As of 2010, around 73% of people are insured, the remaining people being too poor to be insured. Health insurance is seen as a necessity to get healthcare within Luziyca. Since 2000, the Department of Health is disbanded and healthcare is fully privatized with no government funding. One who does not have insurance must pay all the costs, which often are extremely high, and even insurance only covers at least 10%. There are 12,596 hospitals, and 38,681 clinics.
Life expectancy in Luziyca is 81.5 years, 83.1 years for females and 79.9 years for males. The most common cause of death is heart disease as of 2015.
The Education System in Luziyca was devised by the Education Act, 1869, and the curriculum is set by the state, not the federal government, although the federal government regulates education to some degree via the Department of Education.
It has two years of optional pre-kindergarten, mandatory Kindergarten, then mandatory Primary School from Grade 1 to Grade 8, followed by Grade 9 to 12. They are owned by the government but delegates its authorities to school boards, of which there is usually two in a given area, the Cositene School Board, and the Public School Board. Both have school fees, and the main difference is that Cositene is taught as fact (as per the Bethlehem Papacy).
After Grade 12, one can enter the workforce directly, enter a Polytechnic, or attend University.
There are 88,314 primary schools, and 32,587 secondary schools. 15,681 schools are K-12, and 1,698 are other (usually Middle Schools, or Special Education Schools). Thus, in total, there are 138,280 schools in Luziyca proper. There are 3,687 colleges, and 146 universities.
In Luziyca, there are 61,151,190 students, from Kindergarten to Grade 12, or 19.8% of the population.
Coal traditionally has been a major source of energy, and while coal is still the most widely used source of energy, today, only 39% of the country's electricity comes from coal.
Luziyca has a capitalist free market economy, which is fueled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity.
The private sector was estimated to constitute 91.7% of the economy, with government activity accounting for 4.2% and local government activity the remaining 4.1%. While its economy has reached a postindustrial level of development and its service sector constitutes 71% of GDP, Luziyca remains an industrial power. The leading business field by gross business receipts is wholesale and retail trade; by net income it is manufacturing. Chemicals, petroleum products, foodstuffs, computer parts, automobiles and electronics are the leading manufacturing fields. Luziyca is one of the largest producers of oil in the region; there are ample reserves of oil off the shore of Luziyca and especially in the plains of Eastern Luziyca. Luziyca is also one of the largest producers of chromium, coal, copper, iron, nickel and uranium. While agriculture accounts for just under 3% of GDP, Luziyca is one of the the world's top producers of wheat, barley and meat, which is typically produced in western Luziyca. Tourism is also a large source of income for many people, although the amount of tourists entering the country has lessened after travel restrictions were put in place by several countries hostile to Luziyca.
As of 2010, the labor force comprise 267,864,152, or around 63% of the entire population. The Government of Luziyca, in total as of 2010, employs 20,182,591 people (an example being Luziycan Post or the United Space Agency), while the largest private sector is health care, at 19,481,596 people, followed by retail, at 19,381,287 people.
Luziyca has had some significant income inequality since the 1970s (on the eastern side, 1991 on the western side), with a GINI co-efficient of 41.1. However, people within Luziyca do not see it as a problem, since they believe that they should only donate to the poor that at least try to work hard, and is considered that they should succeed or fall at their own merits.
The currency of Luziyca since 1863 is the lira, with an average exchange rate of 1 lira = 2 dollars, and it actually is worth more than the dollar. The total GDP (PPP) of Luziyca is ₤8,482,797,257,028 ($16,965,594,514,056), while the GDP per capita is ₤27,298.50 ($54,597), which is among the highest in the region.
Major corporations include Coinstar and Bank of Bethlehem (banking), ZNK, (oil and gas), Karshev (retail), Dawson's (consumer goods), Xavier's Donuts and Frederick's Fries (fast food), Velocity (soft drinks), Vostgavan (automobiles), and Rassvet (printers and photocopiers).
Law and Order
In Luziyca, law enforcement is done by the various police agencies. The police of states and republics, usually as (name here) State/Republican Police, and then below that are city police.
There is no national police, and in Semprihevosk and Bethlehem, the police of the surrounding state has jurisdiction over their territories. For border control, the Department of Homeland Security is in charge and also gives out passports.
The nation's main intelligence agency is currently the Central Intelligence Agency, although there are plans to reform it.
In Luziyca, they use common and civil laws, as a basis for their legal system. Prior to 1863, both systems were used, many realms having favored common law, while Mirak favored civil law. In 1863, they adopted a mixture, and had them organized. Today, there are 382 County Courts (which don't correspond with the borders of the counties), followed by forty-three Superior Courts (on the state or republic level), and then six Circuit Courts (often grouped in uneven chunks of 6 states or territories), and then the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court has 9 Justices and a Chief Justice, who currently is Jenkins Ratburn. It requires a 5-4 yes or nays at minimum for a decision to be made.
The death penalty is used, prior to 1968 having burning at the stake as a form of execution, alongside hanging, which remained in use until 1970. Since then, lethal injection has been used. For crimes in the military that are severe enough to warrant execution, since 1863, they use execution by firing squad.
However, in 2016, Terezika Pivec approved legislation that would only see it being used against terrorists, war criminals, those who commit genocide, and those who commit treason after January 1, 2017: offenses prior to January 1, 2017 can still be given the death penalty.
However, due to her use of the presidential pardon, she commuted the sentences of all people on death row, reducing the number of people on death row from 3,293 in August 2016 to 63 in September 2016.
The Luziycan governments describes the goals of the justice system of being to deter crime and give appropriate punishments to criminals. However, there have been frequent reports of torture and human rights violations, as well as suppressing of political opposition.
The 1957 Prison Act reorganized the prison system and placed it under the supervision of the Federal Government, although private prisons have been allowed. Prisons are placed in five categories and are arranged by code, while Detention Centers only have names. Other prisons may also have names but codes are used for organizational use.
- A - Supermax: Only a single prison, Oksana A1 is a supermax facility, since it first opened in 1989, and is located near Oksana, Khariton.
- B - Maximum: There are 35 Maximum Security Prisons scattered throughout the country, the first one being Dhenen B1, that opened in 1957.
- C - Medium: There are 150 Medium Security Prisons scattered throughout the country, the first one being Aluk C1, opening in 1957.
- D - Minimum: There are 300 Minimum Security Prisons scattered throughout the country, the first one being Bethlehem D1, opening in 1957.
- Detention Center: There are 100 Detention Centers, where criminals are held before their trial, the first one being the Richard Adam Cross Detention Center opening in 1963.
The media in Luziyca is rated the freest in the world, according to a 2013 Gallup Poll. Luziyca has a plethora of media choices, with major television networks involving LRT and OBS, and has about 15,000 television stations. It also has a lot of newspapers, with the most well-known papers being Den Konstitution and the National Enquirer. It also has a lot of commercial radio and community radio stations (numbering around 25,000 in total on all frequencies), and it has a wide presence on the internet, with 95% of all Luziycans having access to the internet.
The cuisine of Luziyca has had many influences, although in recent years, it has become more Westernized, with fast food springing up and hamburgers becoming popular. Traditional Luziycan cuisine, while only consumed on foreign occasions has food like vareniki, valki, as well as khaleb, the traditional bread, and the traditional meat, vertel. However, it tends to have regional variations, with fish being consumed on the coast (Mirak cuisine has a lot of fish dishes, from salmon to meatballs, to the most notorious, gnile ribe, although gnile ribe has declined in popularity since the 1960s), while inland, more meat is consumed (as well as bread). As well, Mikrago has more vegetables in their cuisine due to the climate (and is the only area of Luziyca where grapes can be grown, of which most are grown for their wine), and is home to many local foods like pizza.
In the past several decades, Aininian food has caught on, like hot dogs, hamburgers, French fries, and as a result, American customs are being adopted, and traditional Luziycan food is starting to decline in popularity.
Luziyca has a long and storied literary tradition. Initially, many books were dedicated to religious matters, and literacy was generally only reserved for monks. However, with the invention of the printing press in 1450, literacy began rising and thus, the topics of literature changed, with many sagas and legends being transcribed, as well as pamphlets beginning to be more common. By the 1800s, many could read and write, and new topics like romance, fantasy novels, and children's books emerged, as well as science-fiction in the 1950s. During the division of Luziyca, the literature of the west suffered, with hacks generally churning out low quality books, while the east became renowned for its literature.
Today, popular topics for books involve young adult novels, science-fiction, romance, and fantasy.
Due to the large area in Luziyca and significant diversity of cultures, there have been a lot of traditional styles of music. Generally, choirs predominate in the north, while as one goes south, it tends to be more instrumental, though choirs are still common in local music. Church music however was surprisingly similar in various areas.
However, beginning in the 1600s, with Pero Hribernik from Mirak, Zivek Pivovarsky from Bethlehem, and Crespignano Carpinello from Mikrago adopted a classical style which became quite popular and help create a common genre. Generally, they are calming music, with elements of opera as well. With its popularity, more people began to use this musical style, and expanded upon it.
After the 1860s, folk music began to emerge on the popular scene, but classical music was seen as high culture, whilst in contrast, folk music was seen as low culture. The first major music genre to be accepted upon both upper and lower classes though was jazz music, which the popularity peaked in the 1920s. Blues music also took hold, especially during the Great Depression and the Luziycan Civil War.
Following the division, the west adopted a socialist style, involving military marches and operatic singing, but in the east, rock and roll took hold, with the most popular band being Životnye. During the 1970s, country music told hold, before it emerged towards pop music by the 1980s.
Boy bands took hold in the early 1990s, with Krasota being one of the most popular bands, from 1994 to 2002 when they were put on indefinite hiatus. After this, girl singers emerged, and pop music was seen as becoming more about money, drugs, or sex. Despite this, it kept its popularity. Since 2011, there has been a revival of boy bands.
Luziyca has had a major art tradition, dating centuries back. Near Calore, there is evidence of cave drawings around 30,000-15,000 years old. Each center evolved their own style of art, but those of the major powers were generally more influential, and more of their work survives.
Generally, art was focused on the expression of subjects about Biblical and religious culture, and used styles that showed the higher glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned (flat) forms, but during the renaissance, realism became more dominant with a greatly increased emphasis on the realistic depiction of the material world, and the place of humans in it, reflected in the corporeality of the human body, with the development of perspective.
Today, modernism is a common style in sculptures, and abstract paintings are more common. Plays are extremely popular in Luziyca.
Cinema in Luziyca dates back to the earliest years that the medium was invented. During the silent era, films were commonly exported throughout the region, but since the first talkies, Luziycan-language films have been largely confined to Luziyca and its former colonies, while English-language films are still exported, with one of the largest film industries in the region. Notable actors include Kevin Dhakov, Rybak Semrov, and Khranovi Titov, as well as directors David Prostoy and Breuvi Froder. Popular genres are fantasy, adventures, war films, and horror movies.
The most popular sport in Luziyca is association football (usually simply known as football). It is so popular that it is often considered to be the de-facto national sport. The Luziycan Premier League is home to the top teams in the Luziycan football scene, and is a major competitor in the Coupe d'Esquarium, having won the inaugural cup, achieved second place in the third CdE, and third place in the seventh CdE, as well as having hosted said edition. However, it lost the quarter-finals to Vyvland in the second CdE, and did not make it out of the group stage in the forth CdE. It was defeated in the round of sixteen by Senria in the fifth edition of the CdE, and by Arkiasis in the quarter-finals in the sixth edition.
As well, baseball is a major sport within the country, especially in the southern regions of the country.
Luziyca has eleven public holidays on the federal level: in general, they are all celebrated secularly except for Christmas and Easter, where many attend church services, although in recent years, Christmas in particular has become more and more secularized. In addition, there are nine holidays celebrated at the state level.
|New Year's Day||January 1st||Celebrates the first day of every year in the Gregorian calendar.|
|Unification Day||March 25th||Celebrates the completion of unification of Luziyca under Huswa Varanken|
|Good Friday||Moveable feast||Commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus.|
|Easter Monday||Moveable feast||Celebrates the resurrection of Jesus.|
|Labor Day||First Monday of September||Celebrates economic and social achievements of workers.|
|Remembrance Day||October 1||Commemorates the war dead in all Luziycan wars. Falls on the end of the First Namo-Luziycan War.|
|Prazdnik urožaya||Second Monday of October||Gives thanks to the harvest|
|Christmas Eve||December 24th||Celebrates the day before Christmas|
|Christmas Day||December 25th||Commemorates the nativity of Jesus|
|New Year's Eve||December 31st||Celebrates the end of the Gregorian year|