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|The Federal Republic of Karinzgrad
|Motto: "Die Republik wird für die Menschen stehen."
"The Republic shall stand for the people."
|Anthem: Mein Gelübde am Vaterland (German)
English: My Vow To The Fatherland
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|Ethnic groups||91% Karinzgradian
3.7% others / unspecified
|-||Reichsverfassung||17 August 1870|
|-||Verfassungsurkunde||1st December 1915|
|-||Federal Constitution||4 June 1960|
1,174,214 sq mi
|-||2015 estimate census||88,530,740|
|Currency||Karinzgradian Mark (KGM)|
|Drives on the||right|
The Federal Republic of Karinzgrad (German: Bundesrepublik Karinzgrad) is a sovereign state located in Southern Australis. It shares a land border with Arcevia to the north and east. The west coast of Karinzgrad borders the Sea of Spartans and the Southern coast borders the Antarctic ocean. The capital and largest city in Karinzgrad is Reichstadt situated in the more temperate north of the country. It is a federal parliamentary republic. It includes Nine constituent states and covers an area of 3,041,200 square kilometres (1,174,214 sq mi) with a largely cold climate with a temperate north. With 88 million inhabitants, Karinzgrad is the most populous country in the Australisian continent.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Politics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
The Federal Republic of Karinzgrad
Halfway through the 20th century the established Karinzgradian Confederation was in a state of chaos, of the nine member states six were threatening to leave due to the continuing weakness of the central government and it's inability to properly manage the interests of the varying members. For the previous twenty years there had been a series of border skirmishes between states which were threatening to escalate into open warfare.
On the 8th of March 1952, the fears of the Confederation had been realized. Six of the member states, including the two strongest (Viemarr and Östlich) declared their independence from the Central Government. The split left the Confederation with only three of it's weaker members, whilst the defecting states formed their own opposing coalition, declaring a new Federal State and a new constitution.
The newly founded Federation demanded the concession of the remaining three states under the Confederation and the dissolution of the Confederacy itself, or the Federation would send it's armies to occupy them. Considering it's options to either surrender or fight a civil war they could not hope to win, they accepted the demands and Confederacy was dissolved, leaving the three remaining states to accept the invitation to join the Federal Republic of Karinzgrad. Soon a new, more formal constitution was Drafted with the agreement of all members states. The Federal Constitution was signed by the respective leaders of all nine states in the newly formed Federal Parliament situated in the old Könige Palace in the Viemarrian Capital of Reichstadt, which was declared the new Capital of the Federal Republic, abandoning the old Capital of Fruedenstadt in the state of Haupsburg.
Vegetation in Karinzgrad is mostly taiga, with a tundra belt on the southern fringe, and temperate forests in the north. The climate of Karinzgrad varies, but almost all of it has short summers and long, very cold, winters. But it is on the southern coast where the summer is shortest (one month long summers) and the land is effectively locked in a perpetual winter.
Almost all the population lives in the Northern half of the country, with most of the southern settlements situated along the lines of the Südlich Railway or the coasts. The climate in the Northernmost part is temperate with cold winters but fairly warm summers lasting at least four months. With a reliable growing season, an abundance of sunshine and exceedingly fertile chernozem soils, southern Northern Karinzgrad is good enough for profitable agriculture. However the further south, the land becomes less suitable for large-scale agriculture. With shorter summers in the Taiga regions and poorer soil. Most of the population in this region relies on sustenance arable farming and intensive livestock farming of animals that can thrive on the abundant grasses (sheep, cattle) as well as game hunting.
At the southernmost regions of Karinzgrad, the climate is almost exclusively tundra, with very short summers generally one or two months long and a winter period that lasts the rest of the year. The region contains poor Gelisols frozen into permafrost. This soil is also susceptible to cryoturbation, making most of the land unsuitable for buildings or agriculture.
The nation also contains a vast Alpine region, created by the Moorian mountain range that takes up almost 20% of the land area and cuts through the southern part of the country and curves north, meeting the border with Arcevia. This range is 4100 kilometers long and reaching up to 4400 meters above sea level (the highest point being by the Arcevian Border). It was formed 80 million years ago and has since been eroded by glaciers, resulting in many prominent peaks and valleys. These mountains besides containing vast mineral resources, also provide the source of the most of the country's rivers, and during the summer heat the meltwater and resultant river saturation from these mountains contributes largely to summer precipitation across the country.
|Birkenfeld International Airport|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Regions and divisions
Karinzgrad comprises nine federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Each state has its own state constitution and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. For regional administrative purposes due to size and population disparity the of three states, namely Jagschwier, Schävaria, and Kaltenland, consist of a total of 22 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). As of 2013 Karinzgrad is divided into 605 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 391 rural districts and 214 urban districts.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is a constitutional and legislative body in Karinzgrad.
The Bundestag was established by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Karinzgrad in 1961 as the successor to the earlier Eidgenossehaus. It meets in the Könige Palace in the Viemarrian Capital of Reichstadt. Carl Schnyder is the current Chancellor of the Bundestag. Representatives of the Bundestag are directly elected, usually every four years although earlier if the Chancellor loses a vote of no confidence and asks the President to dissolve the Bundestag and hold an election.
Together with the Bundesrat, the Bundestag is the legislative branch of the Karinzgradian political system. Although most legislation is initiated by the executive branch, the Bundestag considers the legislative function its most important responsibility, concentrating much of its energy on assessing and amending the government's legislative program. The committees play a prominent role in this process. Plenary sessions provide a forum for members to engage in public debate on legislative issues before them, but they tend to be well attended only when significant legislation is being considered.
The Bundestag members are the only federal officials directly elected by the public; the Bundestag in turn elects the Chancellor and, in addition, exercises oversight of the executive branch on issues of both substantive policy and routine administration. This check on executive power can be employed through binding legislation, public debates on government policy, investigations, and direct questioning of the chancellor or cabinet officials. For example, the Bundestag can conduct a question hour (Fragestunde), in which a government representative responds to a previously submitted written question from a member. Members can ask related questions during the question hour. The questions can concern anything from a major policy issue to a specific constituent's problem. Understandably, the opposition parties are active in exercising the parliamentary right to scrutinize government actions.
Members serve four-year terms, with elections held every four years, or earlier in the relatively rare case that the Bundestag is dissolved prematurely by the president. The Bundestag can be dissolved by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor if the latter has lost a vote of confidence in the Bundestag, if the recommendation is made and accepted before the Bundestag acts to elect a new Chancellor. The procedures for these situations are governed by Articles 67 and 68 of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Karinzgrad.
All candidates must be at least eighteen years old; there are no term limits. The election uses the MMP electoral system. In addition, the Bundestag has a minimum threshold of either 5% of the national party vote or three (directly elected) constituency representatives for a party to gain additional representation through the system of proportional representation. Thus, small minority parties cannot easily enter the Bundestag and prevent the formation of stable majority governments as they could under the Confederate constitution.
As it currently stands, there are five parties that occupy seats in the Bundestag, these are the largest parties in the Federal Republic and hold the most power:
The Karinzgradian National Party: 309 Seats
The Coalition of Catholic parties: 182 Seats
The Constitutional Party: 60 Seats
The Social Democratic Party: 36 Seats
The Unity Party: 18 Seats
The Karinzgradian Bundesrat ("Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the nine Länder (federal states) of Karinzgrad at the national level. The Bundesrat meets at the former Viemarr House of Lords in Reichstadt. The Bundesrat participates in legislation, alongside the Bundestag, the directly elected representation of the people of Karinzgrad, with laws affecting state competences and all constitutional changes requiring the consent of the body. It elects the President of the Federation, who acts as the constitutional Head of State. Despite the Chancellor being the official leader of the nation, the Federal President has a role which is more than ceremonial with the office being a genuine political office with extensive discretion regarding the way the President exercises their official duties. The Federal President gives direction to general political and societal debates and has some important "reserve powers" in case of political instability, the Federal President represents the Federal Republic of Germany in matters of international law, concludes treaties with foreign states on its behalf and accredits diplomats. Furthermore, all federal laws must be signed by the President before they can come into effect; however, they can only veto a law that they believes to violate the constitution.
The political makeup of the Bundesrat is affected by changes in power in the states of Karinzgrad, and thus by elections in each state. Each state delegation in the Bundesrat is essentially a representation of the state government and reflects the political makeup of the ruling majority or plurality of each state legislature The composition of the Bundesrat is different from other similar legislative bodies representing states. Bundesrat members are not elected—either by popular vote or by the state parliaments—but are delegated by the respective state government.
Normally, a state delegation consists of the Prime-minister of the State and other cabinet ministers. The state cabinet may appoint as many delegates as the state has votes. The state has to cast its votes en bloc, i.e., without vote splitting. As state elections are not coordinated across Karinzgrad and can occur at any time, the majority distributions in the Bundesrat can change after any such election.
The number of votes a state is allocated is based on a form of degressive proportionality according to its population. This way, smaller states have more votes than a distribution proportional to the population would grant. All of a state's votes are cast en bloc—either for or against or in abstention of a proposal. Each state is allocated at least three votes, and a maximum of six. States with more than:
- 5 million inhabitants have 4 votes,
- 12 million inhabitants have 5 votes,
- 18 million inhabitants have 6 votes.
The Federal Republic of Karinzgrad has an overall good human rights record, however accusations of Police Brutality are common, as well as the constant refusal of the government to acknowledge any kind of LGBT-rights, lack of anti-discrimination laws, their grip on freedom of expression and noticeable gender inequality paints them in a somewhat negative light. Although they do not actively oppress minority groups, offering them the same legal protections and status as any other citizen of the Federal Republic.
The Bundeswehr (German for "Federal Defence") is the unified armed forces of Karinzgrad and their civil administration and procurement authorities headed by the Minister of Defense. The individual States of Karinzgrad are not allowed to maintain armed forces of their own, since the Federal Constitution states that matters of defence fall into the sole responsibility of the federal government. In 2015, military spending was an estimated 4% of the country's GDP.
The Bundeswehr is divided into a military part (armed forces or Streitkräfte) and a civil part with the armed forces administration (Wehrverwaltung). The military part of the Federal Defense Force consists of the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air Force) Branches.
The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Federal Constitution as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1983 the term "defense" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Karinzgrad, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Karinzgrad anywhere in the world.
As of March 2015 the Bundeswehr employed 450,000 professional personnel and 240,000 volunteer reservists across all branches of service, giving the Bundeswehr a total of 690,000 personnel at it's disposal, making it the X largest military force on the Australis continent.
Prior to the suspension of the Conscript Act by the Federal Court in 2008, military service in the Federal Republic was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors however could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst (civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services. Since 1999 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction, but they have never been subject to conscription.
The social market economy (German: Soziale Marktwirtschaft) is a form of market capitalism combined with a social policy favouring social insurance, and is sometimes classified as a coordinated market economy. The social market economy was originally promoted and implemented in Karinzgrad by the Coalition of Catholic Parties under Chancellor Eugen Hautzig in 1968. Its origins can be traced to the previously abandoned Confederate Freiburg school of economic thought.
The social market economy was designed to be a third way between laissez-faire economic liberalism and socialist economics. It was strongly inspired by ordoliberalism, social democratic ideas, and the tradition of Catholic social teaching or, more generally, Christian ethics.
The social market economy refrains from attempts to plan and guide production, the workforce, or sales, but it does support planned efforts to influence the economy through the organic means of a comprehensive economic policy coupled with flexible adaptation to market studies. Effectively combining monetary, credit, trade, tax, customs, investment, and social policies, as well as other measures, this type of economic policy creates an economy that serves the welfare and needs of the entire population, thereby fulfilling its ultimate goal
The service sector contributes around 60% of the total GDP, industry 39.1%, and agriculture 0.9%. Exports account for the majority of national output. The top 10 exports of Karinzgrad are vehicles, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, chemical goods, timber, electronic products, electrical equipment, industrial equipment, coal and Defence products.
Karinzgrad is rich in timber, iron ore, potash, salt, uranium, nickel, copper and anthracite coal. Energy in Germany is sourced predominantly by fossil fuels, followed by nuclear power second, then gas, wind, biomass (wood and biofuels), hydro and solar.
The resource concentration in the Country is primarily focused around the central belt of Taiga that forms the middle of it and meets the vast mountain range curving up from the south. It is here where the massive timber industry works alongside intensive livestock ranching and mining industries to exploit the wealth of the region.
Agriculture in the Federal Republic is split into three primary sectors. Primary Arable Farming, Primary Livestock Farming and Land Unsuitable for Sustainable Agriculture.
Agriculture is inevitably tied up with climate, as Karinzgrad's is not the most forgiving or lenient. Karinzgrad does not get much warmth from the Akkadiyan , or from the warmer climes of Australis because of the mountains to its East. Therefore, the only sides of Karinzgrad which are not blocked off by a geographical barrier are the north and east, opening up the area to the bitter cold of the Sea of Spartans. To add to these agricultural disadvantages, most of Karinzgrad's soil is acidic podsol, which is not a good match for agriculture. However, there are rich, fertile black earth belts in the North (known as chernozem), as well as scattered pockets of rich land in other parts of central Karinzgrad, however the land to the far south is completely unsuitable for any form of agriculture. Despite the many drawbacks for cultivating Karinzgradian lands, there exists a multitude of rivers and lakes that can be put to use for irrigation. In the less fertile areas in the central taiga where large grassy plains are common, the most common form of agriculture is still intensive livestock farming with arable farming acting as a secondary source of food.
In terms of geographical location, there are two main agricultural centres in the fertile areas of Northern Karinzgrad, one being near the Arcevian Border in the state of Falkland and the other located on the River Rednitz around the city of Neukirchen in Viemarr. Despite the much more favourable conditions that prevail in these Northern parts, there do exist, however, pockets of suitable farming lands to the south. While the climate and Geography posed difficulties for the Karinzgradian farmer, there was still agricultural success to be had in the region
In the south west, in the region on the coast however, hunting is still practised as the main source of gathering food, with agriculture acting as a secondary source.
Electricity by source: