Kahemba

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Kahemban Republic
Kahembani Jamhuri
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Flag
CapitalKigoma
Largest largest city Unguja
Official languages Swahili
English
Recognised national languages Mòoré
Mandinka
Ethnic groups (2010) 57.7% Sukuma
23.9% Tutsi
18.4% Hutu
Demonym Kahemban
Government presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Mizengo Lawassa
 -  Prime Minister Jakaya Mkapa
Establishment
 -  Independence from Cata Larga 8 March 1889 
 -  Democratic Constitution implemented 10 March 1889 
 -  1 March Coup D'etat 1 March 1963 
 -  People's Republic of Kahemba founded 3 March 1963 
 -  Kahemban Civil War 10 July 1973 - 19 November 1986 
 -  Kahemban Republic founded 22 November 1986 
 -  Current constitution 10 March 2009 
 -  Water (%) 2.6%
Population
 -  2014 estimate 48,390,000
 -  2010 census 45,220,604
GDP (PPP) estimate
 -  Total $68.27 billion
 -  Per capita $1,411
GDP (nominal) estimate
 -  Total $53.76 billion
 -  Per capita $1,111
Gini37.8
medium
HDI 0.488
low
Currency Muzi (Km)
Date format mm.dd.yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +255
Internet TLD .kah

Kahemba, officially the Kahemban Republic (Swahili: Kahembani Jamhuri) is a landlocked presidential constitutional republic in Central Ashizwe. It is bordered by Zambezi and Cata Larga to the north, Cata Larga and Ugala to the south and Dacia to the east. Kahemba's population of 48.3 million is highly diverse, composed of numerous ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Kahemba is a presidential constitutional republic, and since 1996, its official capital has been Kigoma, where the President's Office, the National Assembly, and some government ministries are located. Unguja, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, and leading commercial center.

The country was originally a colony of Ulthrannia, attached to the provinces of Cata Larga. When Cata Larga was granted independence in 1631, Kahemba as a province of Cata Larga was also granted independence. Kahemba would remain a province of Cata Larga until 1889, when with the threat of an organised uprising and a growing politically educated movement, Kahemba was granted independence, making it one of the oldest independent Ashizwean states. Although it had complete independence, it was highly dependent on Carta Largeunese business ventures and business individuals to ensure its economy survived, after centuries of being sidelined into agriculture and manual jobs, many Kahembans lacked the know all on how to run a successful business. By 1920, Kahemba's economy had become on the smallest in the world, with a regression into hunter-gather and basic subsistence farming becoming acute. However in the late 1950s, Benjamin Dovutwa assumed the presidency and with assistance from Free Pardes he greatly modernised the country's economy, building vast diamond, gold and copper mines in the country's heartland. By 1960, the country had become a major commodities producer, however the commodity wealth was not being sufficiently dispersed and in 1963, Dovutwa was overthrown in a communist coup, led by General Edward Msuya, who founded the People's Republic of Kahemba on the 2 March 1963.

The PRK immediately suffered from isolation, as Westonarian occupied Ugala closed their borders to PRK trade. In response, Msuya was forced to use increased repression to maintain his regime, sparking the Kahemban Civil War in 1973, which would last until 1986, when Msuya was shot dead in the presidential palace by anti-communist commandos. On August 21 1986, the Kahemban Republic was founded as a presidential constitutional republic. The country was rebuilt and a flourishing democracy began to emerge, the economy was also rebuilt and expanded at a great pace, however in 1992, President Joseph Sokoine stepped down as President after two-four year terms being completed, he was succeeded by Thimba Lawassa who would hold the presidency until the end of his second term in 2000; marking the first successful and peaceful transition of power in Kahemban history. In the 2000 Presidential election, Thimba's son, Mizengo Lawassa was elected president. However Mizengo's presidency has been marred with growing authoritarianism and an amendment to the constitution, lifting the two-term only limitation, he also led the way in restricting the freedom of speech, limiting the political activities of some opposition parties and has reportedly engaged in serious levels of corruption.

Kahemba is one of the fastest growing Ashizwean economies with it experiencing 8% growth since 2002, it has large deposits of rare-earth minerals and other basic metals, its commodity exports has become dependent however on infrastructure links through Ugala to Westonaria and into Cata Larga, however between 2010 and 2014, the country received over $50 billion in investment from Rodarion and Ulthrannia in the hope of expanding and improving infrastructure in the country. However Kahemba is marred with ethnic conflict on its border with Ugala, with the Ugalan Langi people attempting to retake what they claim to be their ancestral homeland in southern Kahemba, there is also occasional ethnic violence between Kahemban Tutsis and Ugalan Hutus over several areas along the border area. Other issues include rising numbers of HIV/AID sufferers in the country and rising breaches of human rights by President Mizengo Lawassa, who has been in power since 2000, changing the constitution to allow unlimited terms in office.

Kahemba is one of the largest nations in Ashizwe by land and population, with the WC claiming in an Ashizwe Development Report in 2011, that Kahemba remains one of the most stable states in the continent and efforts by the Kahemban government to improve the lives of its citizens have been extensively praised. Many international analysts agree that Kahemba has the chance to become a continental leader, should its ethnic violence be dealt with.

History

Pre-colonial

Ulthrannic Kahemba

Kahemba Province of Cata Larga

Independence

1889 - 1956

1956 - 1963

People's Republic of Kahemba

Civil War 1973-1986

Kahemban Republic 1986-present

Geography

Politics and government

Kahemba is a presidential constitutional republic, with a strong presidential executive and a centralised unitary state. Legislative wise, it is a one party dominated state with the Chama Watu ya Kitaifa (CWK) (People's National Party) holding 75% of the seats in the legislature since the end of the civil war in 1986.

The parliament of Kahemba consists of two parts: the president and the National Assembly.

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Mizengo Lawassa has been President of Kahemba since 2000

The president and the members of the National Assembly are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms. The vice-president is elected for a five-year term at the same time as the president and on the same ticket. Neither the president nor the vice-president may be a member of the National Assembly. The president appoints a prime minister, subject to confirmation by the assembly, to serve as the government's leader in the assembly. The president selects his or her cabinet from assembly members.

The National Assembly, which is unicameral and has a maximum of 357 members. These include members elected to represent constituencies, the attorney general, five members elected by the Tribal Leaders Council from among its own members, the special women's seats that constitute at least 30% of the seats that any party has in the assembly, the speaker of the assembly (if not otherwise a member of the assembly), and the persons (not more than ten) appointed by the president. The Kahemba Electoral Commission demarcates the nation into constituencies in the number determined by the commission with the consent of the president.

Kahemba has a four-level judiciary. The lowest level courts are the Primary Courts. Appeal is to either the District Courts or the Resident Magistrates Courts. Further up, appeals are made to the High Courts of the Nation. The High Court of the Nation has three divisions – commercial, labour, and land – and 15 geographic zones. The labour division includes matters relating to industry and worker's rights. Judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Kahemba, except for those of the Court of Appeal and the High Court, who are appointed by the president of Kahemba. However growing cases of regular judge's appointments being blocked by the Presidency have become a concern for some pro-democracy movements and independent minded judicial figures, in 2009, Juma Akukweti was appointed a judge in the 14th District, where he was take lead of a case against the local CWK mayor over claims of corruption, Akukweti's appointment was overturned by President Lawassa on the grounds of ideological bias against the CWK, Chief Justice Hukwe Zawose resigned in opposition. In 2011, Zawose was shot dead outside his home in Kigoma.

Military and foreign relations

Military

See: Kahemban Liberation Army

The Kahemban Liberation Army consists of the Kahemban Liberation Ground Force (KLGF) and the Kahemban Liberation Air Force (KLAF), with 85,000 active personnel and 136,000 in reserve it is one of the largest in Central Ashizwe. Formed in 1983 following the conclusion of the Kahemban Civil War, it has been reformed and modernised within the limits of what the government can afford to spend. Despite peace with a majority of its neighbours, the KLA operates a large force due to low level insurgencies to its east and north, with constant threat of raids by the Lord's Liberation and Resistance based in Ugala.

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KLA infantry on patrol along the Kahemba-Ugala border in 2010

Since 1983, the KLA has been involved in three conflicts, two being domestic; the Mwanza Crisis (1990-1993) and the Shinyanga Insurgency (1999-2001) and external, when Kahemba intervened in the Ugalan Insurgency in response to a LLR raid on a Kahemban border town, the external conflict inflicted heavy losses on deploy KLA units and the intervention only lasted two years. Despite its set back against the LLR, many international observers have noted that the KLA operates at a competent level and is coordinated, cohesive and loyal to the central government which is rare in the politically unstable continent. Politically, the KLA has been known to back the general population against corrupt governments, in the mid-2000s the KLA almost deposed the authoritarian president, George Mwathethe, in face of the army backing the people he resigned the presidency. The KLA's senior commanders have stated on numerous occasions that it's loyalty lies with the people and not a president.

Economy

Although Kahemba is the biggest and most advanced economy in central Ashizwe, and has an affluent urban minority, it has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.488, ranked XX out of XX in the world. As of 2005, 27.7% of Kahembans lived on less than $1.25 a day. The important agricultural sector is one of the least developed and largely inefficient, employing 75% of the workforce compared to less than 3% in the food secure developed countries. Kahemba is usually classified as a frontier market or occasionally an emerging market, but it is not one of the least developed countries.

The economy has seen much expansion, seen by strong performance in mining, higher education and telecommunications, and acceptable post-drought results in agriculture, especially the vital tea sector. Kahemba's economy grew by more than 7% in 2007, and its foreign debt was greatly reduced. It has also been a major recipient of investment from foreign economies, with over 60% of foreign direct investment going into developing Kahemba's mining industry. In 2013, large natural gas deposits were found in the south of the country, if fully exploited could add up to $120 billion to the national economy within 25 years.

Central Ashizwe's biggest economy has posted tremendous growth in the mining sector, boosted by rapid expansion in telecommunication and financial activity over the last decade, and now[when?] contributes 62% of GDP. 22% of GDP still comes from the unreliable agricultural sector which employs 75% of the labour force (a consistent characteristic of under-developed economies that have not attained food security – an important catalyst of economic growth) A small portion of the population relies on food aid. Industry and manufacturing is the smallest sector, accounting for 16% of GDP. The service, industry and manufacturing sectors only employ 25% of the labour force but contribute 75% of GDP. President Mizengo Lawassa announced a series of reforms on land ownership aiming to modernise agriculture and hopefully achieving food security.

As of May 2011, economic prospects are positive with 5–6% GDP growth expected, largely because of expansions in mining, telecommunications, transport, construction and a recovery in agriculture. The World Bank estimated growth of 4.3% in 2012. In March 2013, the presidents of Kahemba, Zambezi, and Ouagadougou discussed the formation of the Central Ashizwean Community (CAC). The CAC's objectives would include harmonising tariffs and customs regimes, free movement of people, and improving regional infrastructures, however political crises in the two latter countries stalled the process.

Kahemba is Ashizwe's hub for Financial services. The Kigoma Securities Exchange (KSE) is ranked 4th in Ashizwe in terms of Market capitalisation. The Kahemba banking system is supervised by the Central Bank of Kahemba (CBK). As of late July 2004, the system consisted of 43 commercial banks (down from 48 in 2001), several non-bank financial institutions, including mortgage companies, four savings and loan associations, and several core foreign-exchange bureaus.

Demographics

Culture