Irkut language

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Irkut
Иркутана ыангуе
Irkutana llangue
Spoken in Irkutia
Native speakers 200 million (2013)
Language family
Writing system Cyrillic script (Irkut)
Official status
Official language in
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Irkutia
Regulated by Irkut Culture Commissariat
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ikt

The Irkut language (Иркутана ыангуе tr.Irkutana Yangue), alternatively called Circassian (Сирqуезион tr. Cirquezion) is an Western-Romance originating in the Circassia Prefect, a region in Irkutia. With over 300 million speakers, Irkut is the most widely spoken language within the Irkut People's Republic, and is the official language of the nation as well.

Irkut is a part of the Ulthrannic-Romance group of languages, which evolved from several dialects of common Latin in present-day Irkutia after the collapse of the removal of the Tarsan Empire. It was first documented in central-northern Irkutia in the ninth century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Cricassian Khannate into central and southern Irkutia. From its beginnings, Circassian vocabulary was influenced by its contact with Ulthrannic and other related Romance languages; and later absorbed many Arabic words during the conquest of the Akkadiyan territory.


Orthography

Since the early 20th century, Irkut has been written in Irkut Cyrillic. This system replaces an Arabic alphabet that had been in use since the 1600s.

Letter Name Latin equivalent
А а "Ah" A a
В в "Bee" V v (W w in loan words)
Г г "Gah" G g
Е е "Ay" UE ue
З з "Thay" Z z
И и "Ee" I i
К к "Kay" K k
Ҡ ҡ "Qu" Q q
Л л "L-ay" L l
М м "Em-ay" M m
Н н "En-ay" N n
О о "Oo" O o
П п "Pe" P p
Р р "Reh" R r
С с "Say" C c
Ҫ ҫ "Thay" Th th
Т т "Tay" T t (D d in loan words)
У у "Uh" U u
Ү ү "Yay" Y y
Ф ф "Effay" Ph ph
Х х "Chay" X x
Һ һ "Hay" J j
Ь ь silent '

Grammar

Irkut is a relatively inflected language, with a two-gender noun system and about fifty conjugated forms per verb, but with inflection of nouns, adjectives, and determiners limited to number and gender. Its syntax is considered right-branching, meaning that subordinate or modifying constituents tend to be placed after their head words. The language uses prepositions (rather than postpositions or inflection of nouns for case), and usually—though not always—places adjectives after nouns, as do most other Romance languages.

Irkut sentence structure is generally subject–verb–object, although variations are common. It is a "pro-drop", or "null-subject" language—that is, it allows the deletion of subject pronouns when they are pragmatically unnecessary. Spanish is described as a "verb-framed" language, meaning that the direction of motion is expressed in the verb while the mode of locomotion is expressed adverbially.

Subject/verb inversion is not required in questions, and thus the recognition of declarative or interrogative may depend entirely on intonation.

Nouns

Irkut is a bigendered language, having both female and male genders. Traditionally, male gendered words end in "-ue" (pronounced like "-ay" in "day," or "say"), though there are some exceptions where they end in "-o." Female gendered words typically end in "-a," "-ion," and "-z." Unlike other Romance languages, a feminine word doesn't change to masculine when spoken by a male.

To make a noun plural, "-n" is added to the end of the word, regardless of the gender of the noun. The exception to this is feminine nouns ending "-z," and "-ion." In words ending in "z," it changes to a "th" and the suffix "-en" would be added on. Words ending in "-ion" have "-es" added to the end.

Below is a table for the inflection of weak (regular) nouns:

Gender Singular Plural Meaning
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Masculine лЬниныуе (l'ninyue) уЬниныуе (u'ninyue) лЬниныуен (l'ninlluen) уЬниныуен (u'ninyuen) "child"
лоЬтелуефоно (lo'telephono) унЬтелуефоно (un'telephono) лоcЬтелуефоноон (loc'telephonon) унecЬтелуефонон (unes'telephonon) "telephone"
Feminine лаЬторма (la'torma) унаЬторма (una'torma) ласЬторман (lac'torman) унанЬторман (unan'torman) "room"
лаЬабесион (la'avecion) унаЬабесион (una'avecion) ласЬабесионес (lac'avecionec) унанЬабесионес (unan'avesionec) "song"
лаЬлуз (la'luz) унаЬлуз (una'luz) ласЬлуҫес (lac'luthec) унанЬлуҫес (unan'luthec) "light"

Below is a table of indefinite and definite articles:

Singular Plural Meaning
ло/ла (lo/la) лос/лас (loc/lac) "the"
ун/уна (un/una) унес/унан (unec/unan "a(n)/some"

Pronouns

Verbs

Punctuation

Vocabulary

Days and Months

Name Transliteration Meaning
Лони Loni "Monday"
Mapc Marc "Tuesday"
Mapcye Marcue "Wednesday"
Һуеса Jueca "Thursday"
Вендруе Vendrue "Friday"
Савуе Cavue "Saturday"
Солни Colni "Sunday"
Name Transliteration Meaning
Марка Marka March
Аврил Avril April
Маи Mai May
Һуена Juena June
Һуени Jueni July
Агуст Agust August
Сотуетем Sotuetem September
Октуетем Oktuetem October
Новуетем Novuetem November
Десуетем Decuetem December
Һанвер Janver January
Фуевер Phuever February

Numbers

Name Transliteration Meaning
Ун Un One
Ду Du Two
Ҫруе Thrue Three
Ҡатор Qator Four
Синк Cink Five
Суес Cuec Six
Сотуе Cotue Seven
Октуе Oktue Eight
Новуе Novue Nine
Десуе Decue Ten
Сен Cen 100
Мил Mil 1,000
Миыа Milla 1,000,000

Phrases

Greetings

Phrase Transliteration Meaning
Салгаз Calgaz Hello
Бен тыа Ben tya Good morning/day
Бен тарс Ben tarc Good afternoon
Бен нует Ben nuet Good night
Адиз Adiz Good bye
Апонт тесар Apont tecar See you later
Апонт туем Apont tuem See you tomorrow