Habasha

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Republic of Habasha
የሐበሻ ሪፐብሊክ
Flag Emblem
Motto: ነፃነት እና እድገት
Nets'aneti ina Idigeti
(English: "Freedom and Progress")
Anthem: የዜግነት ክብር
Wodefit Gesgeshi
(English: "Marching Forward")
Habasha (dark green) in Aeia (grey)
Habasha (dark green) in Aeia (grey)
Capital
and largest city
Gondar
Official languages Mehare
Recognised national languages Mehare
Galla
Mensai
Sidamo
Official scripts Roman (Latin), Ge'ez
Demonym Habashi
Government Unitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
 -  President Yohannes Emanuel
 -  Prime Minister Hailemariam Tewodros
 -  Deputy Prime Ministers Negasi Legesse
Ahmed Amir
Legislature Congress of People's Representatives
Formation
 -  ?
 -  ?
 -  ?
 -  Republican Revolution 13 December 1967 
Area
 -  Total 509,796 km2 (?)
196,833 sq mi
Population
 -  2018 estimate 64,315,036 (15th)
 -  Density 139.27/km2 (?)
360.7/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
 -  Total $1.281 trillion (22nd)
 -  Per capita $19,918 (38th)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
 -  Total $949.354 billion (24th)
 -  Per capita $14,761 (41st)
Gini (2014)Steady 34.4
medium · ?
HDI (2017)Increase 0.787
high · ?
Currency Habashi talari (HBT)
Time zone GST (UTC+1)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +65
ISO 3166 code HB
Internet TLD .hb

Habasha (Mehare: ሐበሻ, Ḥabesha, pronounced /häβɛʃä/), officially the Republic of Habasha (Mehare: የሐበሻ ሪፐብሊክ, ye'Ḥabesha Rīpebilīk, pronounced /jɛhäβɛʃä ɾipɛbɨlik/ or /ɾipɛbɨlikɨ/) is a country in northern Majula. It shares a land border with Fahran to the east, Cebragas to the west, Kebesia to the south and south-west. To the north, Habasha borders the xx Strait, connecting the Asur Sea and Iranic Sea. The country has a population of 64 million people, the second highest in Majula and the 15th highest in the world. It occupies a total area of 509,796 km2 (196,833.3 square miles), being the xx largest country in Majula and xx largerst in the world. The capital and largest city is Gondar (ocassionally also spelled 'Gonder').

Traditionally, the origin of the modern Habashi state dates back to the 2nd century BC when the mythical king xx became the first Neguse Negest of the kingdom of xx. Etc.

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the prestige of the traditional Habashi monarchy, associated with the mythical Alydian Daamite Kingdom and the careful diplomacy of kings Yohannes IV and Tewodros VII safeguarded the independence of the country. The monarchy would ultimately be brought down in 1952 by the xx Revolution when King Tewodros IX was exiled. The divisions between revolutionaries along ethnic and ideological lines resulted in the 1954-1957 Habashi Civil War. The victory of Menelik Dengel ushered a period of authoritarian military rule in which the armed forced engaged in ethnic cleansing against the lowland ethnic peoples, (Galla, Sidamo or Danakil). In 1968, Menelik Dengel was ousted by a coup d'état led by pro-democratic forces. The first democratic election was held in 1970 and it returned a majority for the Democratic People's Party, which has governed the country since. The DPP rule period has been marked by rapid export-driven economic growth, as Habasha transitioned from one of the poorest countries in the world to a newly industrialised country.

Habasha is a unitary multi-party parliamentary democracy in which the Democratic People's Party has a dominant role, having governed the country uninterruptedly since 1970. The country is ranked a flawed democracy due to the entreched rule of the DPP and its control over the media. Thanks to the economic growth of the last four decades, Habasha is now classified as a newly industrialised country with a 'high' human development, ranking xx in Majula and xx in the world. The country is considered a regional power as it is the xx largest economy in Majula and the xx in the world. Its economy is export-driven where the largest industries are electronics, automobiles, ships, machinery, petrochemicals and tourism. Habasha is a member of the xx, the xx, xx and the xx

History

Etymology

The English term 'Habasha' and the Mehare ሐበሻ (trans. 'Ḥabesha' or 'Ḥabasha') are both derived from the Onzaian exonym أحباش (transl. 'al-Habash', pronounced /ʔħbaːʃ/). The Onzaian term first appears in the texts of Fahrani conquerors during the expansion of the Caliphate into northern Majula during the 3rd century CE. The term originally referred to the Habashi Lisanic language-speaking highlands people, the ancestors of the modern-day Mehare and Mensai peoples. The Onzaian term is supposedly borrowed from Giiz, a Lisanic language spoken in the Habashi highlands and the Medri Bahri until the 10th century CE and closely related to both Mehare and Mensai. In Giiz, 'ሐበሠ' (transl. HBS, theoretically vocalised as 'Habesh') referred to the inhabitants of Habashi Highlands. The term was probably borrowed to Onzaian from the local proto-Jeberti peoples.

Written evidence from this period suggests that the Mehare and Mensai polities did not identify with this term. Instead, records indicate that the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Daamt identified as 'መሐረመ' (transl. 'mehare'am') meaning 'the beautiful people'. There are no records of the use of the term 'ሐበሻ' as an endonym until the 16th century writings of King xx, who identified his territories as the 'Land of the Habash', stretching from the Asuran Sea to the River xx in the south. After his death in the Battle of xx against the xx Emirate, the term would become more widely used to refer to not only the territories encompassing the traditional lands of the xx Dynasty in modern day xx but also the Irsadic lands of the Medri Bahri. These territories, ruled by West Cataian or Dhawamal emirs were depicted as under foreign occupation and in need of liberation.

Early history

Irsadic wars

Great Chaos

Ruins of the ancient capital of xx, destroyed by Leul Ras xx in 1679.

Imperial era

Recent history

Geography

View of the Habashi Highlands in the district of xx.
Southern Habasha is characterised by a semi-arid savannah environment.
Habasha is the xxth largest country in Majula and the xxth largest country in Aeia with a total landmass of 509,796 km2 (196,833.3 square miles). The country lies between the xx and xx latitutes. Habasha shares a land border with, clockwise, Fahran, xx, Kebesia and Cebragas. The country also borders to the north the xx Strait, a large body of water connecting the Asur and Iranic seas. Something about disputed territories. The highest peak in Habasha is Mount Bwahit, in the Debubi Mountains, with an estimated altitude of 4,520 meters above sea level. The lowest point is the xx Depression, in the xx Desert, with an altitude of 15 meters below sea level. Gondar, the capital city of Habasha is the highest capital city of Majula, being situated at over 2,500 meters above sea level.

Habasha is generally thought to be divided into three main geographical regions, the

Climate

Climate data for Gondar
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30
(86)
28
(82)
30
(86)
29
(84)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
32
(90)
28
(82)
27
(81)
30
(86)
28
(82)
32
(90)
Average high °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
24.5
(76.1)
25.4
(77.7)
24.8
(76.6)
25.2
(77.4)
23.4
(74.1)
20.7
(69.3)
20.7
(69.3)
21.7
(71.1)
22.7
(72.9)
23.0
(73.4)
22.9
(73.2)
23.21
(73.78)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.4
(59.7)
16.6
(61.9)
17.9
(64.2)
17.9
(64.2)
18.0
(64.4)
17.0
(62.6)
15.9
(60.6)
15.8
(60.4)
16.2
(61.2)
15.7
(60.3)
14.8
(58.6)
14.9
(58.8)
16.34
(61.41)
Average low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
8.7
(47.7)
10.5
(50.9)
11.1
(52)
10.8
(51.4)
10.6
(51.1)
11.1
(52)
11.0
(51.8)
10.7
(51.3)
8.7
(47.7)
6.7
(44.1)
7.0
(44.6)
9.53
(49.16)
Record low °C (°F) 1
(34)
1
(34)
3
(37)
6
(43)
6
(43)
1
(34)
0
(32)
6
(43)
4
(39)
2
(36)
0
(32)
0
(32)
0
(32)
Rainfall mm (inches) 13
(0.51)
30
(1.18)
58
(2.28)
82
(3.23)
84
(3.31)
138
(5.43)
280
(11.02)
290
(11.42)
149
(5.87)
27
(1.06)
7
(0.28)
7
(0.28)
1,165
(45.87)
Avg. rainy days 3 5 7 10 10 20 27 26 18 4 1 1 132
 % humidity 47 51.5 47.5 54.5 53 67.5 79.5 79 71.5 47.5 48 45.5 57.67
Mean daily sunshine hours 9 9 8 7 8 6 3 3 5 8 9 9 7
[citation needed]

Biodiversity

Habasha features a large range of environmental habitats. As a result, Habasha has a large variety of indigenous plant and animal species. As of 2008, there were at least 279 species of mammals, 268 species of birds, and over 6,700 species of plants throughout the country. Of these, 30 mammal species are considered to be endemic to Habasha, such as the red jackal the Daamite ibex, the balbok or the Imperial zebra. Habasha is also home to twenty-two endemic bird species.

The red jackal is a canid endemic to the central Habashi highlands.
Environmental degradation beginning in the 20th century and greatly accelerated as a result of the rapid economic growth of the last third of the 20th century has resulted in considerable and rapid wildlife populations decline due to logging, pollution, poaching, and other human factors. One particular cause behind the reduction in the biodiversity of Habasha is deforestation. At the beginning of the 20th century, an estimated 36.8% of the Habashi landscape was forested. By 1993, this percentage had gone down to 11.8%. Deforestation contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats, and reduction in biodiversity.

Since 2002, the Habashi government has launched a major reforestation programme in order to stop the processes of desertification and loss of biodiversity. As of 2016, the percentage of forested land in Habasha had increased to 18.5%. The creation of a network of national parks and nature reserves is also a part of a comprehensive conservation effort aimed at regaining loss wildlife diversity and reverse the downward trends of wildlife numbers. Of these, the most iconic campaign has been the Save the Lions (አንበሶችን ያስቀምጡ, Anibesochini Yasikemitu) programme, that has contributed to the growth of the two lion sub-species present in Habasha, the Panthera leo melanochaita and the Northern lion. Both species are traditionally linked to the trappings of Habashi polities.

Politics

Habasha is a parliamentary constitutional republic with a unicameral legislature, known as the Mikiri Bēti (Mehare: ምክር ቤት). The executive branch is headed by the President, currently Yohannes Emanuel, although effective political power is wielded by the Executive Council headed by the Prime Minister, the country's chief executive. Like in other parliamentary systems, the legislature is the most important element of the political system, as it elects the members of the Executive Council, passes legislation, approves or rejects international agreements, treaties and passes the annual budget.

The executive branch is divided between the head of state, the President (የሐበሻ ፕሬዚዳንት, yeḤabesha Pirēzīdaniti) and the Prime Minister (ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር, T’ek’ilayi Mīnīsitiri). The President has a very limited executive power, however, as his role is largely ceremonial, serving as the representative of the Nation and the State. The President is elected for a non-renewable single term of 8 years by an electoral college formed by the members of Congress and an equal number (360) of district delegates. Unlike other heads of state, the President does not serve as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, instead, this position is held by the Minister of Defence. The Prime Minister is constitutionally the head of government and presides the Executive Council (አስፈፃሚ ካውንስል, Asifet͟s’amī Kawinisili). The Prime Minister depends on the support of the legislative branch and can lose power as a result of a confidence vote. The Prime Minister names the ministers that make up the Executive Council. The current Prime Minister is Hailemariam Tewodros, who has served in that post since 2006.

The legislative branch is formed by a unicameral legislature, the Congress of People's Representatives (የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት, yeHizibi Tewekayochi Mikiri Bēti). The Congress' 360 members are directly elected every six years in 55 multi-members constituencies through proportional representation. In its legislative role, the Congress is aided by two consultative bodies, the Socio-Economic Council (ማህበረ-ኢኮኖሚያዊ ካውንስል, Mahibere-Ikonomīyawī Mikiri Bēti), which brings together different economic interest groups and civil society organisations; and the Council of Districts (የወረዳዎች ምክር ቤት, yeWeredawochi Mikiri Bēti), where representatives of the country's administrative divisions provide input into the legislative process. Neither body can propose legislation. Instead, their legislative function is akin to that of an informal upper house, proposing amendments and serving as a nexus with civil society and territorial and ethnic interests.

The politics of Habasha are characterised as being a dominant party system, a flawed democracy with a 'mostly free' ranking in the Aeian Freedom Index. International human rights watchdog organisations like the Aeian Human Rights Monitor consistently rank the freedom of speech and press freedom situation in Habasha as poor. DPP politicians have often employed to the country's strong anti-hate speech and libel laws to go after critical opposition leaders and journalists, seeking to drive them to bankruptcy. The government also names the head of the public broadcasting corporation, the HSAM, which has been accussed of acting as a de facto party media entity. Elections are up to international standards in terms of their conducts, which is guaranteed by the independent Electoral Court, however critics argue that the country's electoral system is designed to favour the DPP by creating smaller electoral districts in urban areas where the DPP support is higher.

Law

The Supreme Court is one of the two courts of last resort within the Habashi judicial system.
The Habashi judicial system is based off Asuran civil law although incorporating elements of Habashi customary law, particularly in matters dealing with civil law. Habasha has a long tradition of written law, dating back to the Fetha Nagast and the Kebra Nagast, codified by King Malak Sagad around 1250.

The Constitution of 1970, also known as the Third Constitution (ሶስተኛ ህገ መንግስት, Sositenya Hige Menigisiti) is a codified basic law serving as the supreme legal document in Habasha, enshrining the principles and organisation of the State, as well as the relations between the various branches of governments and between the national and subordinate levels of government. Below the Constitution, there are a series of codes of law each covering a legal strand. The autonomy of judges is limited, as their role is limited to the interpretation of laws within the boundaries set by the principle of jurisprudence constante.

Typically, the Habashi legal system is divided into three different streams: civil, criminal and administrative law. Civil law matters are usually divided between those that affect matters of family law and the rest. Family law cases (like marriage, divorce or inheritances) are resolved in religious tribunals where both parties are from the same religious background, and in the case of Irsad, the same school. Both criminal and law cases are heard by the same court of last resort, the Supreme Court. Administrative law matters, however, operate separately and have their own hierarchy, with the Superior Administrative Court acting as its court of last resort.

The only court able to carry out judicial review over primary legislation is the Constitutional Court (የሰውነት ፍርድ ቤት, yeSewineti Firidi Beti). The Constitutional Court's decisions are binding and serve as precedent. Any piece of legislation under review from the Court will be temporarily suspended until a verdict is reached. Any citizen or institution, as well as lower, ordinary courts, can raise matters before the Constitutional Court.

Law enforcement in Habasha is carried out by three different police forces. The main police force in Habasha is the National Police (ብሄራዊ ፖሊስ, Bihewari Polis), a civilian police force tasked with a wide range of duties, from urban and highway patrolling to dealing with organized crime, terrorism or drug legislation enforcement. The second major police force is the Civil Guard (ሲቪል ዘበኛ, Sivili Zebenya), tasked with the patrol of rural areas, particularly pastoral areas in southern Habasha as well as with customs enforcement. Lastly, each county and the autonomous city also has its own local police force, typically known as yeKetema Zebenya (የከተማ ዘበኛ) tasked with matters such as community policing.

Administrative divisions

Habasha is divided into 32 counties (Mehare: አውራጃ, Ewraja) and 5 free cities (Mehare: ነጻ ከተማ, Netsa ketema). Each county is itself into divided into a number of municipalities or kebele (ቀበሌ). There are a total of 847 kebeles. The autonomous cities are divided into boroughs or kifle ketema (ክፍለ ከተማ). For statistical and investment purposes, the 37 counties and cities are grouped into 7 statistical regions (እስታቲስቲክ ክፍለ ሃጌረ, Isitatīsitīki Kifle Hager).

Each county is headed by a Governor (እንደራሴ, Enderase), named by the national government. The governor forms a county's Executive Board together with 3 to 5 aldermen (ዳኛ, danya) elected by the county assemblies from among its members. The County Assembly (ስብሰባ, Sibiseba) is directly-elected by the citizens residing within one county every four years. Its size is proportional to the population of a district and ranges from 25 to 80 members. The autonomous cities operate in a similar fashion, with a Mayor (ከንቲባ, Kenitība) named by the national government, who heads the executive branch, cooperating with a locally-chosen City Assembly.

As a unitary state, the competencies of the counties are limited, being largely limited to the regional implementation of national policies. However, they possess some autonomy in the areas of regional spatial development, environmental matters, regional public transportation and accesibility, economic promotion and the management of sports facilities, libraries and the promotion of regional cultural production.

Template:Habasha subdivisions

Foreign relations

Military

Habashi Land Force soldiers during military exercices in central Habasha.
The Habashi Defence Forces (Mehare: የሐበሻ የመከላከያ ኃይል, yeḤabesha yeMekelakeya Hayili) are the armed forces of Habasha. The Defece Forces are divided into three branches: the Habashi Land Force, the Habashi Navy and the Habashi Air Force. The command of the Defence Forces lies with the commander-in-chief, the Minister of National Defence, currently Demeke Andargachew. The combined manpower of the Defence Forces consists of 395,158 military personnel, 176,200 of which are active, with the remaining 218,958 reserve troops. In 1999, Habasha finished its transition from a conscript military to a full-time, all-volunteer force, however although compulsory attendance has been abolished, but not conscription itself.

The Habashi Land Force (የመሬት ኃይል, yeMereti Hayili) is the land-based branch of the Habashi Defence Forces. The Land Force is by far the largest component of the Defence Forces.

The Habashi Navy (ባህርይ, Bahiriyi) is the

The Habashi Air Force (አየር ኃይል, Ayeri Hayili) is the

Economy

View of Gondar's central business district, Habasha's economic and financial hub.

Agriculture

Wheat is something

Manufacturing

Tourism

Habasha receives over 29 million visitors every year, with the number projected to further grow to over 35 million by 2025. Tourism formed a cornerstone of the Habashi process of industrialisation and

Transportation

Aerial view of the Port of Agordat, the main cargo port in Habasha.
The Gondar Metropolitan MRT connecting Gondar with its metropolitan area is Majula's most extensive light rail system.
Infrastructure development has been a key element of Habashi economic planning. Since the 1980s, over xx,xxx kilometres (miles) of roads and xx,xxx kilometres (miles) of railways have been built. The country's difficult orography has represented a major problem to the development of Habasha's transportation network, by increasing costs. The control by the xx Canal Company of the xx areas means that until the 1990s these areas used a different rail gauge from the rest of the country, hampering the connectivity to the coastal areas of Habasha, particularly the port of Agordat (Barka).

Various state-owned companies operate and maintain the Habashi road network. National roads and the country's network of highways is run by Bimeasku. County roads are maintained by regional operators owned by county governments. Local roads are built and maintained by municipalities. As of 2018, the total length of the Habashi road system is xx,xxx km (xx miles), of which 54% are paved. The number of vehicles driving on Habashi roads has greatly increased over the last 3 decades, with over 40 million vechicles registered as of 2017 and most likely several unregistered million more. The government is currently invested in the construction of a series of expressways around the major metropolitan areas to deal with the increase of traffic.

Habiba (ሐብባ), a state-owned enterprise runs the Habashi national railways. Gondar Central Station is the terminus of all major national railways. The majority of lines are single-track with the exception of xx, although there are plans to increase to double most lines. As a part of the government's Vision 2035 plan, a high-speed train line will be created connecting Gondar with Debre Marqos, with construction set to begin in late 2019. xx also operates all the commuter trains and rapid transit lines in the country with the exception of Gondar and Selale. Instead, the Gondar Metropolitan Transport Corporation (GMTC) manages an integrated network of all public transportation in Gondar's metropolitan area, particularly the Gondar Metropolitan MRT, the country's oldest and most extensive light rail system. The Jimma Municipality is currently studying the construction of Habasha's first metro system.

Domestic air transport is dominated by the national carrier, Biahaku, and two major private companies, Habashi Air and Mayayi. The country has 103 airports with 63 paved runways, in addition to 6 heliports. The busiest and more important airports are the Gondar International Airport and the Debre Marqos International Airport. Low-cost carriers have become prevalent since 2007, including xx, xx and xx.

Cherson Canal

The Cherson Canal is the main passageway for most Cataian goods to Asura.
The Cherson Canal is located in between Habasha and Kazhwir, serving as the boundary between both. The canal was built between 1854 and 1864 by Midrasian private investors thanks to the support of the xx Emirate which leased the land along the xx and xx lakes. The territories surrounding the canal would be directly controlled by the XX Canal Company until 1950 when it was nationalised. Today, it is controlled by a binational commission known as the XX Canal Authority.

The Cherson Canal is artificial sea-level waterway connecting the Asur Sea and the xx Sea. The canal allows for a reduction of the travel time for goods between Asura and Catai down to sixteen hours by eliminating the need to navigate around Majula and Arabekh. The Canal is a vital economic link, in 2017, 46 vessels traversed it per day, adding up to 16,790 vessels a year. The Canal has also served as an important economic hub for Habasha's economic development, by placing it in a position fo acting as a major economic entrepôt.

Energy

Hydroelectricity is the primary source of electricity production in Habasha.
Habasha's electricity distribution and productions markets are dominated by the state-owned Elkuko company, although some private thermal power plants and solar power plants do exist. The primary share of elecricty production in the country comes from various forms of renewable energies thanks to the country's optimal geographical situation and its orography. Hydropower, wind power and solar power constitute the vast majority of sources of renewable energy production. Of them, hydropower is the main source, providing 32% of the national electrical consumption. Reservoirs for hydroelectrical production also helps in setting up irrigation projects while buffering the impact of droughts. Thermal power plants (primarily oil and natural gas) provide 41% of the national electrical consumption.

The Habashi government is promoting the development an indigenous nuclear power, with the construction of the country's first nuclear power plant at xx completed in 2013, and another four plants set to be completed in 2021. Currently, the xx nuclear power plant provides 3% of the national electric consumption, although this number is expected to quintuple by 2025.

The xx Basin in north-eastern Habasha is a desert zone bordering Fahran where 4.1 trillion cubic feet natural gas underground reserves where found. Drilling began in 2017 with production set to begin by 2019. The majority of the production will be exported. These gas fields are managed by the state-owned Biyenko enterprise. Part of the profits will be reinvested into the development and research of a homegrown Photovoltaic and nuclear technological industry.

Demographics

Ethnic groups in Habasha
Ethnic group Percentage
Mehare
  
36.74%
Galla
  
25.16%
Mensai
  
11.08%
Jeberti
  
6.21%
Sidamo
  
4.10%
Danakil
  
4.07%
Wolamo
  
2.33%
Dhawamal
  
1.77%
Gamo
  
1.53%
Others
  
7.09%
Habasha is a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society with an estimated population of 64.32 million people, the xxth largest population in Majula and xxth in the Aeia. The country's population growth rate was among the highest in Aeia during the first two thirds of the 20th century but has substantially decreased as a result of the demographic transition towards lower mortality and birth rates. As of 2013, the estimated fertility rate is 2.3.

The Habashi government recognises 52 major ethnic groups, on top of which there is an estimated number of 15 other minor ethnic groups. Of these, the most significant one is the Mehare people, who represent 36.74% of the population, or 23.6 million people. The Galla are the second largest group, with 16.2 million people, or 25.2% of the national population. The Mensai and Jeberti peoples make up 11.08% and 6.21% of the population respectively, or 7.1 and 3.99 million people each. Other major ethnic groups are: Sidama 4.1%, Danakil 4.07%, Wolamo 2.33%, Dhawamal 1.77% and Gamo at 1.53%. Other minor ethnic groups add up to 7.09% of the population.

The various major ethnic groups, with the exception of the Mehare, tend to live in ethnically and religiously homogeneous areas. The Sidamo, Wolamo and Gamo primarily inhabit the southern lowlands and some still follow a nomadic, pastoralist lifestyle. In coastal Habasha, the majority the population is Irsadic, with Jeberti settled primarily in the western half of the Medri Bahri, and Danakil and Dhawamal in the east.

Although culturally and linguistically close, the Mensai and Jeberti are not considered one single ethnic group as the overwhelming majority of Mensai live in the northern section of the Habashi Highlands whereas the Jeberti are more likely to live in the northern lowlands, close to the Irsadic majority coastal areas.

The Mehare are the most urbanised ethnic group, forming a majority of the population in all but one (Mekele) of the country's autonomous cities. As a result, many urban dwellers from other ethnic groups, particularly the Galla and Mensai are known to have assimilated with ethnic Mehare.

Languages

Manuscript copy of the Suerit, written in Mehare, employing the Ge'ez script.
Habasha's various ethnic groups typically speak their own mother tongue within their communities. The 1972 Constitution recognises as official the sixty-seven languages of the country's 67 recognised ethnic groups, however, it only recognises five languages as working languages of the state. These are Mehare, Standard Galla, Mensai, Jeberti and Sidamo. Citizens in those counties and free cities where their ethnic group represents over 12% of the population are entitled to interact in their own language with state authorities. Mehare, the language of the homonymous ethnic group, the country's most numerous, has become the unofficial lingua franca of the rapidly-growing urban areas.

Most Habashi speak a language member of the !Afroasiatic language family from the !Semitic and Kermatic branches. The members of the former family, like Mehare, Mensai or Jeberti are predominantly spoken in the northern and central parts of the country and are, combined, the largest group by the number of speakers. The Kermatic languages are unevenly distributed, divided into two geographical areas, one northern, including the Danakil and the Dhawamal languages, which also extend into Fahran; and another in the south, comprised of the speakers of the Galla dialectal family - including standards Galla - and other minor languages like Sidamo.

Mehare, Jeberti and the majority of Habasha's !Semitic languages are written using the Ge'ez script, an abugida originally developed as an abjad in the 6th century BCE. Most of the languages spoken in the Medri Bahri, like Jeberti, Dhawamal and Danakil are written using the Arabic alphabet, as a result of the region's ties to Irsad and western Catai. A few languages, particularly those from the Galla dialect continuum, can be interchangeably written in Ge'ez or in the !Latin alphabet.

Religion

Religion in Habasha (2016 census)

  Alydianism (55.1%)
  Irsad (28.2%)
  Non-religious (11.8%)
  Waaq (2.8%)
  Other (1%)
Habasha is a secular state that recognises freedom of religion as a constitutional right. Although Habasha is a Alydian-majority state, the country is home to a very large Irsadic minority which is geographically concentrated on the northern, coastal areas of the country. According to the 2016 census, over 35 million Habashis, or 55.1% of the population are affiliated to the Alydian faith. Of the 35 million, 30 are members of the Orthodox Church and 4.1 million are self-described Eucideans. The second largest religious denomination is Irsad, with about 18 million followers, or about 28.2% of the population. Habashi folk beliefs are followed by a small minority of the population, about 2.5 million people, of these, the Galla Waaq faith is by far the most important. The is a small minority of Ksaiists in the greater Gondar metropolitan area. 7.5 million Habashis, or 11.8% of the population are not religiously affiliated, of these, the majority (5.2 million) identify as atheist. The remaining 2.3 million identify as spiritual albeit not religious or agnostic.

Compared to the 2006 religious census, in 2016 the number of people who identify as non-religious had increased by 3 percentage points. This increase was particularly marked in large urban areas. It came mostly at the expense of the percentage of adherents to the Alydian faith, and to a lesser degree from more liberal schools of Irsad. The increasing secularisation of urban areas has been a common pattern in all censuses since the 1980s. Religious adherence and regular service attendance remain higher in rural areas and small cities.

The Alydian festival of the Kidusi Isati is held annually on the the summer solstice.
Alydianism was brought to modern-day Habasha by Saint xx in the first century BCE and it spread quickly, becoming the official religion of the xx Kingdom after the conversion of xx. The pushbacks that the faith suffered during the Irsadic Wars reinforced its relationship with the Mehare and Mensai statelets, remaining the official state religion until 1970. To this day, over 80% of the Mehare and Mensai are Alydians. Alydians in Habasha are largely Orthodox, belonging to the Alydian Church in Habasha, led by the Primate of Jimma, Abuna xx. There is a significant minority of Eucideans in the western counties of xx, xx and xx. Although only a tenth of all Alydians, Eucideans are a culturally and politically influential group.

Irsadis are geographically concentrated in the northern third of Habasha, particularly along the coastlines, a region known as the Medri Bahri. Like in most Irsadic Majulan and Arabekhi states, there is a significant divide between urban and rural areas. Rural areas in Irsadic-majority regions usually follow the Zikrist schools of thought, which appropriate elements of pre-Irsadic faiths and of Alydianism. Historically, urban areas have been home to 'purer' forms of Irsad. In Medri Bahri, the majority of urban dwellers are Rafada. The Rafada branch spread to the xx and xx emirates in the 12th century CE, as the Jemir and Danakil emirs rejected the idea of subjugation to a foreign religious authority.

Urbanisation

View at night of Furi, one of several residential planned cities built around Gondar in the 1990s.
Since the so-called economic miracle began in 1970, Habasha has experience some of the highest urbanisation rates in Aeia. In 1970, only an estimated 22% of the Habashi population lived in urban areas. By 2018, this number had risen to 69%. The combination of an urban baby boom and rural exodus as a result of the country's rapid industrialisation resulted in the development of large-scale slums during the 1970s and 1980s. Starting in 1991, the government of Desta Yaqob launched the Objective 2000 housing programme. The goal of the plan, and its successor from 2001 to 2011, was to reduce urban congestion and overcrowding in the major urban centers (Debre Marqos, Jimma, Adama, Mekele and especially Gondar) through a combination of slum clearance and an ambitious plan to build networks of planned commuter towns in the major cities' metropolitan areas. The result of this initiative was the development of new urban centers such as Furi and Entoto in the county of Selale, both located within 35 kilometres (21.7 miles) of Gondar. Since the 2000s, a combination of rising housing prices and public policy has pushed rural migration towards medium-sized urban areas, like Yesmala (North Dembiya).


Education

View of the Liberal Arts Faculty building of the National University of Gondar.
As of 2018 is 93.8% of the population over age 15 is literate, up from 59.7% in 1970. Compulsory education runs from ages 6 to 16, and is provided by the government free of charge from ages 6 until 19. The number of primary and secondary schools has greatly increased over the last two decades with an average of 298 schools built every year in the 2000-2018 period. The Habashi government launched in 2012 a pilot programme in the Mocha county by offering vouchers for nurseries. As of 2017, the Habashi government spends 5.7% of the national GDP in the country's education system.

The Habashi education system is divided into four tiers: Primary education (6-12 years), lower secondary school (12-16 years), upper secondary school (16-19 years) and tertiary education. Upper secondary and tertiary education is divided between an academic pathway and a technical or vocational pathway. Around 55% of upper secondary school students attend institutions that use a TVET education methodology. Of the students who finish the lower secondary school, 63% of students continue their education by attending an upper secondary school, although this number falls to 52% in rural areas. In 2012, 78% of Habashi have received secondary education.

Tertiary education in Habasha is available for both academic and vocational pathways, although it is not free of charge. Tuition fees are partially subsided by the government and entrance is free for students from a historically discriminated ethnic group with above-average grades in upper secondary school. Higher vocational education is provided by a network of state-run polytechnic universities, known as Nanetu (ብአምትይ, Biawmitiji). Enrollment rates for higher education have increased dramatically over the last three decades, with over 28 per cent of secondary graduates attending a higher education institution. The number of higher education institutions has expanded from 68 to 185 since 2000. The most important academic institutions are the National University of Gondar, the Metropolitan University of Jimma and the Technical University of the Medhri Bahri. A number of foreign universities operate private campuses in Habasha, including the xx and the xx.

Health

Habasha has a two-tier univeral health care system, in which a public national healthcare insurance co-exists with private insurance. The private system is typically centred on urban areas and is typically equipped with advanced medical treatments, equivalent to those in Asura, catering to the urban middle and upper classes. Healthcare provision in rural areas, particularly in the far-south and certain valleys of Habasha remains problematic. To counter this issue, the Habashi government is expanding the coverage and number of clinics and has developed a system of primary telehealth. The public system suffers from a significant shortage in the medical workforce, especially of highly trained specialists; thus, certain medical care and treatment are available only in large cities

Habashi life expectancy at birth stands at 76.2 years for women and 72.9 for men (2011). Under-5 Infant mortality per 1000 live birth rate has greatly diminished over the last twenty years, currently standing at 11.8, a number slightly above that of most developed countries. Non-communicable diseases form the major burden of morbidity and mortality, while infectious diseases including malaria and tuberculosis, as well as traffic accidents, are also important public health issues. Pollution is considered a major health risk as a result of the country's industry-driven economic growth, with an estimated 55,000 deaths per year caused by air pollution.

Culture

Entertainment

Media

View of the HSAM headquarters in Gondar's Addis Ketema kifle ketema.
The Habashi media landscape is dominated by the state broadcaster, the Habashi Broadcasting Network (የሐበሻ የስርጭት አውታረ መረብ, HSAM). The Habashi government and the governing party, the Democratic People's Party, exercise direct or indirect control over the country's media. The Aeian Human Rights Monitor reports that the major private media networks, particularly in television, practice self-censorship. Besides HSAM, there are two major national private radio and television networks in Habasha, Canal 5 and Network 6. Canal 5 is typically considered more independent from the government, however, Network 6 is owned by Abadula Kamil, a businessman with close ties to the DPP. The major television networks usually broadcast in Mehare and Galla. The majority of HSAM's programming is in Mehare, however, there are two channels, xx and xx that broadcast in various minority languages.

The major newspapers in Habasha, like the Journal of Gondar are owned by the government or by the governing Democratic People's Party, as is the case of the People's Voice, the most widely circulated newspaper in the country. Some of the major opposition parties also have their own journals, which are openly sold alongside regular newspapers. Nevertheless, there is a greater degree of freedom to report in the written press than on radio and television, particularly for weekly or monthly magazines, like xx, which are historically quite critical of the DPP.

Freedom of the press is limited by the Broadcasting Review Agency (xx, xx), a regulatory body that has been routinely accused by international observers as well as by opposition parties of enforcing censorship. The Agency is tasked with the enforcement of the country's strict laws on ethnic or religious hate speech. The Council has reportedly employed this mandate to engage in political censorship by excluding critical media personalities and commentators from appearing in television and by censoring or shutting down opposition newspapers. Censorship in the Internet is very rare, and largely limited to a list of 115 pornographic sites.

Cuisine

A traditional Habashi meal, consisting of injera flat bread served with several kinds of vegetarian wat (curry).

Holidays

Sports

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