Geadish language

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Geadish language
Γαυδσκε Σπρωγ
Gaudste Språg
Pronunciation

Country





Region

Total Speakers

Language Family
 

[gaʊskə spʁɔ:x]

Geadland.png Geadland
LuziycanFlag.png Luziyca (Danzig, York, Acadia)
Namor.png Namor (Txotai)

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Rhomish Empire

Flag vyv.png Vyvland (Nevel)

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Semarland (Bondlund)

Britannoflag.png Britanno


Esquarium

52 million

Official Status
Official in




Regulated by
 

Geadland.png Geadland
 Luziyca
 Namor (Txotai)
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Rhomish Empire
Britannoflag.png Britanno

Royal Geadish Language Institute
Ρηικσακαδημε δεμ Γαυδσκε Σπρωγ
Raiksakadäme den Gaudste Språg

The Geadish language (also called Geadlandic, especially in Luziyca) is the dominant and official language of Geadland. The language is also native to parts of northeastern Luziyca and southwestern Namor in the regions originally settled by the Geads; a significant population of Geadish speakers also exists in the northeastern regions of the Rhomish Empire.

Geadish is a Germanic language derived from early Old High German and Old Norse. The adoption of Orthodox Christianity had a profound impact on the development of the language; through the church the language became written in a modified version of the Greek alphabet which is unique among the Germanic languages, while the language also adopted much Greek vocabulary. Several Latin alphabet spelling systems have also been devised for Geadish throughout history. In more recent times, the language has been shaped by Iglesian, German, Luziycan and English.

Orthography

Geadish was originally written in the Viking Runic alphabet before converting to the Latin alphabet when Christianity was adopted. However, as a result of the conversion to the Orthodox Church, from the 13th to 15th century, the Greek alphabet became adopted within the church and government. By the 17th century, it was used universally for all writing apart from for the Swedish-speaking minority in the north.

The Geadish alphabet is a modified version of the Greek alphabet. It omits the letters Θθ (theta) and Ψψ (psi) but includes the additional letters of Øø (ogehugd), Uȣ (ute), Ϙϙ (kope) and Cς (chi), while the letter Χχ is known as ghi rather than chi. The letters Iι (jote) and Yυ (upsilon) can also be spelt with a diaresis in order to represent consonants. It should be also noted that a miniscule sigma is σ, never ς which is miniscule chi.

There are two main schemes for transcribing the alphabet into the Latin script - the Kirk scheme, which is more commonly used, and the older Harling scheme. There is also a scheme for transcribing the alphabet into the Cyrilic script, which is sometimes used to aid communication in Namor.

Letter Name Pronunciation Sound Kirk scheme Harling scheme Cyrilic
Long Short
Α α alfe /ɑlfə/ /a:/ [ɑ], [a:], [ɑ:] a
Β β bäte /be:tə/ /be:/ [b], [v] b б
Γ γ game /ga:mə/ /ga:/ [g], [ç], [x] g г
Δ δ delte /dɛɫtə/ /de:/ [d], [t] d д
Ε ε epsilon /ɛpsi:lɔn/ /e:/ [ə], [ɛ], [ɪ] e
Ζ ζ tsäte /tse:tə/ /tse:/ [ts], [dz] ts z ц
Η η äte /e:tə/ /e:/ [ɛ], [e:] ä æ я
Θ θ täte /te:tə/ /te:/ Ommitted
Ι ι jote /jo:tə/ /i:/ [ɪ], [i:] i и
Ϊ ϊ hardjote /hɑ:d.jo:tə/ /jo:/ [j] j й
Κ κ kape /ka:bə/ /ka:/ [k] k к
Λ λ lamde /lɑmdə/ /la:/ [l], [ɫ] l л
Μ μ /my:/ [m] m м
Ν ν /ny:/ [n] n н
Ξ ξ xi /ksi:/ [ks] x кс
Letter Name Pronunciation Sound Kirk scheme Harling scheme Cyrilic
Long Short
Ο ο omikron /o:mɪkʁɔn/ /o:/ [ɔ], [o:] o
Ø ø ogehugd /o:gəhu:ɣd/ /ø:/ [œ], [ø:] ö ø ё
Π π pi /pi:/ [p], [b] p п
Ρ ρ ro /ʁo:/ [ʁ], [ɐ], [r], [ɹ] r р
Σ σ sigme /sɪgmə/ /si:/ [s], [z], [ts] s с
Τ τ tau /taʊ/ [t], [d] t т
Υ υ upsilon /ʊpsi:lɔn/ /y:/ [ʏ], [y:] ü y ю
Ϋ ϋ hardute /hɑ:d.u:tə/ /ʋa:/ [ʋ], [w], [v] v w в
Φ φ fi /fi:/ [f], [v] f ф
Χ χ ghi /ʝi:/ [ɣ], [ʝ], [h] gh ж
Ψ ψ psi /psi:/ Ommitted
Ω ω omäge /o:me:gə/ /ɔ:/ [ɒ], [ɔ:], [ɔ] å э
Ϙ ϙ kope /ko:bə/ /ha:/ [h], [ɦ] h х
C ς chi /çi:/ [x], [ç] ch х
U ȣ ute /u:tə/ /u:/ [ʊ], [u:] u у
The standard layout of a Geadish keyboard. The red "Mod" key is used to type modified letters, while the "Alt Gr" key is used to type Roman letters. The Roman letters in blue are not normally displayed.

Originally, ghi was used for transcribing a number of sounds, including [x], [h] and [ɣ]. During the 16th century, the letter kope was introduced to represent [h], based on the archaic Greek letter Qoppa. The form of sigma used on the ends of words (ς) in Greek was also often used as an alternative to ghi for [x] in the middle of words.

In the early years of usage of the Greek alphabet, the digraph ou (oυ) was used to represent the /u/ phoneme, while upsilon itself (υ, or u) represented the /y/ phoneme. The /ø/ phoneme was represented with the digraphs "oɛ" or "ɛo", until the "Danish letter Ø was imported (its name "ogehugd" means "o crossed"). The letter ute originates from the ou ligature often used in some Greek writing to represent "ou". This was originally used as a ligature in the middle of words only.

The "hard" forms of iota and upsilon are represented using a diaeresis. These represent the [j] and [w] consonants, the consonant versions of the /i/ and /u/ phonemes the vowels represent (though upsilon has represented /y/ since the Middle Ages). Since then, the latter has shifted from [w] to [ʋ] in most dialects, or even to [v].

The Republic of Geadland introduced spelling reforms to remove irregularities and regional differences in the standard system. The reforms were first proposed by the Orthography Commission in 1851, a division of the newly created National Geadish Language Institute. The commission suggested creating seperate letters for [x] and [ɣ], with the latter keeping ghi. Chi was then introduced using the end-of-word form of sigma (ς) for miniscule form and C (a Latin import) for majescule form. Likewise, "ute" was upgraded from a ligature to a letter, with another Latin letter (U) imported for majescule form.

The reformed spelling system soon became used for government purposes, but it did not catch on until the government of Tomas Kirk. Kirk favoured eventual conversion to the Latin script but as a compromise permitted the Greek alphabet to be used provided that it abided by the reformed spelling system, with the goal of phasing it out within 20 years. He also devised a system to transcribe the alphabet into Latin. This alphabet was adopted by Geadish regions of Luziyca in 1888.

Phonology

Like most Germanic languages, Geadish vowels can be divided into long and short vowels. Vowel sounds, especially those of long vowels, often affect the pronunciation of the consonant on the end the syllable. Compared to other related languages, however, there is less contrast between the long and short vowels and they often exist as allophones of a single phoneme. For example, Geadish does not contrast [œ] and [ø:] or [ʏ] and [y:], though it does contrast [ɛ] and [e:] such as in med [mɛd] and mät [me:d]. Geadish orthography usually uses the same letter for both its long and short sound, though sometimes letters may be doubled or written in combinations to represent long sounds.

Consonants

Geadish consonants
Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Nasal m n ŋ
Stops p, b t, d k, ɡ
Affricates ts, (dz) (tʃ), (dʒ)
Fricative f, (v) (θ), ð s, (z) ʃ, (ʒ) ç, ʝ x, ɣ ʁ
Approximant ʋ (ɹ) j (ɥ) (w)
Flap/Trill (r)
Lateral l

Progressive consonant shifts have caused Geadish consonants to be subject to a lot of allophony. The pronunciation of most consonants is altered if they come directly after a back vowel; others are affected by other vowels as well.

Table of allophones
Phoneme Pronunciation
in syllable onset: in syllable coda:
/p/ [pʰ] [b] after long rounded vowels and [a:], otherwise [p]
/b/ [bʱ] [ʋ] after front rounded vowels, [v] after other long rounded vowels, otherwise [b]
/t/ [t̪ʰ] [d̪] after long rounded vowels and [a:], otherwise [t̪]
/d/ [d̪ʱ] [ð] after front rounded vowels, long unrounded vowels and [a:], otherwise [d̪]
/k/ [kʰ] [g] after long rounded vowels and [a], otherwise [k]
/ɡ/ [gʱ] [ʝ] after long/rounded front vowels, [ɣ] after long back vowels and [a:], otherwise [g]
/ts/ [ts] [dz] after long vowels and [a:], otherwise [ts]
/f/ [f] [ʋ] after front rounded vowels, [v] after other long vowels, otherwise [f]
/s/ [s] [z] after long vowels, otherwise [s]
/ʃ/ [ʃ] [ʃ]
/ç/ [ç] [x] after back vowels and [a:], otherwise [ç]
/ʝ/ [ʝ] [ɣ] after back vowels and [a:], otherwise [ʝ]
/h/ [h]  
/ʋ/ [ʋ]  
/j/ [j]  
/r/ [ʁ] [ɐ̯], or [ʁ] for some short words
/l/ [l] [l]
/m/ [m] [ɱ] before labiodental consonants, otherwise [m]
/n/ [n] [ŋ] before velar consonants, otherwise [n]

Vowels

Geadish Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i:, y: u:
Near-Close ɪ, ʏ ʊ
Close-Mid e:, ø: o:
Mid ə
Open-Mid ɛ, œ ɔ ɔ:
Near-Open ɐ
Open a: ɑ ɑ:, ɒ

Like most Germanic languages, vowels come in pairs, each pair represented by a letter and having a "short" and "long" sound. The arguable exception is the letter /ɛ/ ("e"), which represents either [ɐ] or [ɛ]. Some linguists have described the former as being the "stressed" form of /ɛ/ and the latter as the "unstressed" form. Others have described them as being equivalent of the "short" and "long" form of other vowels, although [ə] is short in length.

Geadish contrasts the [e:] sound with the [eɪ] diphthong. A common shibboleth among English and Luziycan is the word σςηδε (shäde, meaning "shame"), pronounced /ʃe:ðə/. Speakers of English and Luziycan normally pronounce it as /ʃeɪðe/ - exactly like σςηιδε ("shaide"), which is a swear word equivalent to "shit" (and a cognate of it). Tomas Kirk was well known for making this mistake, such as his infamous "No more shit" speech in Bondevik.

Geadish tends to replace vowel hiatuses with consonant seperation. The first vowel becomes "long" and the second vowel becomes "short", while a consonant sound is inserted inbetween them depending on the type of vowel the first one is. This consonant sound is [j] after unrounded front vowels, [ɥ] after rounded front vowels and [w] after back vowels.

Stifröst

The stifröst ("stiff voice") effect is a form of accenting on syllables, usually achieved by speaking in a laryngealised "creaky voice", though some dialects use a glottal stop instead. It is related to the Stød effect in the Danish language. Middle Geadish had a pitch accent and this survives in some dialects, especially in the west, the islands and the mountains. In Horgalund, the Da Hegner accent has the stifröst, while the rest of the county uses the pitch accent.

The stifröst provides contrast between some words which would otherwise sound the same, particularly certain nouns and verbs, such as the stifröst-accented röst ("voice") and stifröst-free röst ("to voice"). The stifröst occurs in words which only had one syllable in Old Norse or Old Geadish if their stressed syllable contains a diphthong, a long vowel or a voiced consonant on the end.

  • A noun with the stifröst will retain it when the definitive suffixes -en/-et are added to it, since these were later additions.
  • Plural words ending in -er have the stifröst, as do their definitive forms.
  • Weak verbs never have the stifröst, since they usually had -en/-an suffixes which were dropped in Middle Geadish.
  • Two-syllable words ending with -er/-el have the stifröst, such as finger (derived from Old Norse fingr) unless they were derived from another word.
  • The stifröst is retained if the unstressed prefixes be-/för-/ge- are added.
  • Words usually lose the stifröst when they become the first part of a compound word but retain it if they become the second part.

Development

Vowel Shifts

  • [o:]→[u:] e.g. kronkrun (crown)
  • [u:]→[ʉ:]→[ø:] e.g. hushös (house)
  • [æ:]→[ɛ:]→[e:] (umlauted "a")
  • [ɒ:]→[ɔ:]
  • [ɑl]→[ɑu]→[aʊ] e.g. aldaud (old, ancient)
  • [ɛl]→[ɛu]→[eʏ]→[øʏ] e.g. hjelphjöüp (help)
  • [ol]→[ou]→[u:] e.g. holmhum (medium-sized island)

Consonant Shifts

  • [ʀ]→[ʁ]
  • [ʀ]→[ʁ]→[ɐ] on the end of syllables, [ʁ] otherwise
  • [w]→[ʋ]
  • [dʀ]→[dɣ]→[ɣ]→[ɣ] after back vowels, [ʝ] otherwise, e.g. dreghe (three)
  • [tw]→[sw]→[sʋ]→[ʃʋ] e.g. twaswasva (two)

Dialects

Most people learning the Geadish language learn a dialect called Standard Geadish, which is based on the accent spoken in Audholm outside of Bondhaven. Bondevik is often said to have the accent which resembles this dialect most closely. In Geadland, this dialect was associated for a long time with newsreaders, though in recent years news programs have tried employing people with different accents. It is also associated with tannoy announcements.

Rhotic and Non-Rhotic accents

File:GeadlandAccents.png
Map of the rhotic-non rhotic divide:
     Rhotic Accent
     Non-Rhotic Accent

In most dialects, the rhotic consonant of Geadish is the uvular approximant/fricative [ʁ], though its manner of articulation varies subtly between a voice fricative and an approximant. However, the majority of the Geadish population speak the language with a non-rhotic accent. When the /ʁ/ phoneme appears on the end of a syllable, it is vocalised to [ɐ]. In the cases of "ar" and "år", these become [ɑ:] (or [a:]), while an unstressed "er" which becomes [ɐ], with the rhotic phoneme disappearing altogether in these three cases. On the other hand, the /ʁ/ is pronounced in a few monosyllabic words. Only short vowels may come before a rhotic phoneme on the end of a syllable.

Historically, the rhotic consonant was a uvular trill [ʀ]. This survives in some "mountain" dialects, but in most dialects was reduced to a weaker approximant. The modern non-rhotic accent orignated amongst the aristocracy in Audholm in the 18th century and due to its desirable association with the aristocracy, it has gradually spread to the rest of the population. In Horgalund and amongst the Geadish-speaking minority in Leghel, the rhotic phoneme transitioned instead to an alveolar trill [r]. In the Solned Delta and southwest, the rhotic phoneme is [ʁ] after front rounded vowels, and a non-guttural [r], [ɾ] or [ɹ] in other positions. The general trend in these regions is a gradual shift towards a non-rhotic accent.

Start of Syllables End of Syllables Dialects
[ʁ] [ɐ] Standard Geadish; the dialectal pronunciation in Sorbia, Audholm, Robertöü and Storholm
[ʁ] Langöü and most of the minor islands, some rural parts of Sorbia
[ʀ] [ɐ] Northern and central Mearland and Eskraulund
[ʀ] Mountains
[r] [r], or [ɾ] if unstressed Da Hegner, Nordport
[r] Rest of Horgalund, Swedish-speaking regions
[r] [r], or [ʁ] after FRVs Venden and northern Langemark
[ɹ] [ɹ], or [ʁ] after FRVs Sofjastad
[ɾ] [ɾ], or [ʁ] after FRVs Rest of Solned

W-Fronting

The diaresis-marked version of the letter upsilon (Ϋϋ) is pronounced as a [ʋ] in standard Geadish. Originally, the standard pronunciation was as [w]. The diacritic on the letter upsilon was used to indicate that the [w] sound is the approximant counterpart of /u/ (though upsilon represents /y/ instead). This is similar to how diaresis-marked iota (Ϊϊ), which represents the [j] sound, is the approximant counterpart of /i/.

In the last 200 years, most dialects have experienced a shift from the labio-velar approximant [w] to the labiodental approximant [ʋ] known as "w-fronting". Because of this, transcriptions of Geadish into the Latin script now represent the sound with a "v" rather than a "w". However, many prominent dialects have resisted this change, including Bondhaven, Da Hegner and Storholm. Therefore, the Latin spelling of place names in these areas uses "w" instead, such as the settlements of Walen and Wenger.

Back Fricatives

The letters Cς (chi) and Χχ (ghi) can either represent both palatal fricatives ([ç] and [ʝ]) or velar fricatives ([x] and [ɣ]). In Standard Geadish and most dialects, they represent both through allophony. This is comparable to the ich-Laut and ach-Laut distinction in German. The letters represent velar fricatives ("hard sounds") after back vowels and [a] and palatal fricatives ("soft sounds") after front vowels or when on the start of a syllable. If the phonemes are on the end of the syllable which has [ʁ] sound at the start, they are always pronounced as velar fricatives.

Some dialects only use one pair of sounds. In the north (e.g. Da Hegner), the hard sounds appear after all vowels; likewise in the south, the soft sounds appear after all vowels. Another distinction is that many dialects such as Bondhaven and Da Fugh replace the soft ghi sound with [h] on the start of syllables and omit it altogether on the end of a syllable (lengthening the consonant before it). Thus Da Fugh is pronounced as [da fuɣ] in Standard Geadish and [dafu] in the local dialect.

Other Variations

  • The digraph "σς" (sch or sh) is pronounced [ʃ] in most dialects. In Swedish-speaking zones and the northwestern islands, it is pronounced as the Swedish Sj-sound [ɧ]. This sound is not well defined, but usually is considered a combination of [ʃ] and [x]. In the southwest, the diagraph is pronounced as [sx]. This is why the Latin spellings of southwestern towns contain "sch" rather than "sh", e.g. Scholps.
  • In mountain dialects, [s] does not become [ʃ] in consonant clusters on the start of a syllable.
  • In Eskrau, /kʁ/ and /gʁ/ on the start of a syllable become [kx] and [gɣ] through assimilation.
  • In Da Hegner, /h/ becomes a more breathy [ɦ].
  • In Elhaas and Fajum, /ɒ/ has shifted to a short [ɔ].
  • In Mearland, the schwa [ɛ] phoneme is pronounced as [a]/[ɑ], usually on the end of words only.
  • In Vest Geadland in Luziyca, they implemented virtually all Kirk's reforms that while still mutually intelligible, there are significant differences in Geadish between the two nations.

Grammar

Nouns

Traditionally, Geadish had three genders for nouns - masculine, feminine and neuter. However, in most dialects the masculine and feminine genders have merged in most dialects to a single gender, known as common. The only major difference between the behaviour of masculine and feminine nouns is the behaviour of nouns which end with -e. However, masculine nouns ending with -e are often treated as being irregular.

Geadish formerly used seperate definite articles and these survive in some rural dialects. However, Standard Geadish now uses suffixes to represent definite articles: -en for common nouns and -et for neuter nouns. Nouns with this suffix then become plural by adding -s.

Below is a table for the inflection of weak (regular) nouns:

Gender Singular Plural Meaning
Modern Old Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Common Masculine an poik poiken poike poikens "boy"
an fitsar fitsren fitsre fitsrens "cyclist"
an ske skeen skee skeens "spoon"
Feminine an kvinde kvinden kvinder kvindens "woman"
an värtin värtien värtine värtiens "hostess"
Neuter Neuter at lün lünet lüne lünets "flash"
at äble äblet äbler äblets "apple"
at bankend bankent bankde bankents "knock"

Strong (irregular) nouns either experience some form of stem change when converting into the plural, or don't change into the plural. The most common change is the umlaut effect, where a stressed /a/, /o/ or /u/ phoneme respectively becomes /e/, /ø/ and /y/. For example, the inflections of the verb mand (man) are manden, mände and mändens. For bond (farmer), these are bonden, bönde and böndens.

Pronouns

There are a few differences between the pronoun systems of Geadish and English. Geadish retains two singular 2nd person pronouns, with "dau" being the informal version and "I" (always capitalised) being the formal version. In either cases, "I" is always the plural but is usually written in lower case, except in formal writing. Geadish also has a seperate reflexive pronoun for the 3rd pronoun, equivalent to "himself"/"herself"/"itself" in English, and three pronouns have seperate accusative and dative forms.

There are two words for "we", vi and ver. "Vi" is the "inclusive" form and refers to the speaker, the person(s) being addressed and (optionally) third parties. "Ver" is the "exclusive" form and is used to refer to the speaker and third parties, but excludes the person(s) being addressed. Old Geadish had two forms of we, a "dual" form for a group of two, from which "vi" is derived, and a "plural" form for any group larger than two, from which "ver" is derived.

In the pronoun table below, possessive pronouns are listed with the common form first, followed by the neuter/plural form:

Number Person Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive Possessive
Singular 1st jeg migh mir min mine/mint
2nd dau digh dir din dine/dint
3rd Masculine han hom hom hans hanse/hant
3rd Feminine hun hen hen hens hense/hent
3rd Common da dan dan den sine/sint
3rd Neuter dat dat dat det sine/sint
Plural 1st Exclusive ver uk uk uke uke/uket
1st Inclusive vi us us vars vare/vart
2nd i er er ers ere/ert
3rd der dem dem des sine/sint
Either 2nd Polite I Er Er Ers Ere/Ert
3rd Reflexive - sigh sir sin sine/sint

"I" is normally used when addressing teachers, strangers or people in business meetings. It is occassionally used in familiar situations in order to "soften" a sentence which would otherwise sound rude. For example, the I-form command tüst Ers translates as "be quiet", while the dau-form tüsts digh translates as "shut up".

Weak Verbs

As with other Germanic languages, verbs in Geadish can be divided into strong and weak verbs. The following table shows the standard conjugation of a weak verb:

Type Form Active Passive
Non-Finite Infinitive som veer gesomd
Past Participle somd been gesomd
Past Adjective gesomd n/a
Present Participle/Noun somend beend gesomd
Noun (definite) soment n/a
Present Jeg som ar gesomd
Dau soms art gesomd
Han/Hun/Da/Dat soms ar gesomd
Ver/Vi/Der som sin gesomd
I som sit gesomd
Imperfect Jeg somde ur gesomd
Dau somdes vas gesomd
Han/Hun/Da/Dat somde vas gesomd
Ver/Vi/Der somde ur gesomd
I somdet ur gesomd
Perfect Jeg hab somd hab been gesomd
Dau has somd has been gesomd
Han/Hun/Da/Dat hat somd hat been gesomd
Ver/Vi/Der/I ha somd ha been gesomd

The "-d" suffix for forming past tenses is pronounced as either [d] or [t] depending on whether the consonant proceeding it was voiced or voiceless; it is also pronounced as [d] after vowels. After "t" and "d", the suffix becomes "-ed", pronounced [əd].

Strong Verbs

Strong verbs have a change of stem for the past tense. Most of these verbs once followed a regular pattern of vowel mutation; Class I comes from the umlaut and Class II comes from the ablaut. However, various pronunciation shifts have made the vowel changes is generally unpredictable. For the verbs shong (to sing) and stik (to stick), the conjugation is as follows:

Type Form Class I Class II
Non-Finite Infinitive shong stik
Past Participle shöngd stakd
Past Adjective geshöngd gestakd
Present Participle/Noun shongend stakend
Noun (definite) shongent stakent
Present Jeg shong stike
Dau shongs stiks
Han/Hun/Da/Dat shongs stikt
Ver/Vi/Der shong stik
I shong stike
Imperfect Jeg shönge stak
Dau shönges stake
Han/Hun/Da/Dat shönge stak
Ver/Vi/Der shönge stako
I shönget stako

Anomalous Verbs

A few essential verbs have a change of stem that does not derive from the strong and weak mutations. This includes the verb veer (to be), the most commonly used verb, which comes from two different verbs:

Type Form To be To have
Non-Finite Infinitive veer had
Past Participle been hebend
Present Participle/Noun beend hebd
Present Jeg ar hab
Dau art has
Han/Hun/Da/Dat ar hat
Ver/Vi/Der sin ha
I sit ha
Imperfect Jeg ur heb
Dau us heest
Han/Hun/Da/Dat us heet
Ver/Vi/Der ur heed
I ur heed

Punctuation

In both the Greco-Geadish and Latin alphabets, the Geadish language uses a set of punctuation with some notable differences from that of English. Some particular puncutation marks do not have directly corresponding marks in English.

Symbol Purpose
. Full stop
, Comma, for minor pauses in the middle of a sentence and the decimal point
 : "Impact mark", used to end a sentence with a command or if it requires emphasis
 ; Question mark. This can be used in conjunction with an impact mark (as :;)
« » Quotation marks
- "Pause mark", for major pauses in the middle of a sentence, especially after commands or introducing lists and speeches
[] Brackets, though () and {} are also used in some cases

Vocabulary

Counting

Number Geadish Romanised Pronounced
1 αν an /ɑn/
2 συα sva /ʃʋa:/
3 χε ghe /ʝe:/
4 φιρ fir /fiɐ/
5 φεεμ feem /fe:m/
6 σεςσ sechs /sɛç/
7 συφ süf /sʏv/
8 ωςτ åcht /ɒxt/
9 ναι nai /neɪ/
10 τιν tin /ti:n/
11 øυφε öüfe /øʏvə/
12 τȣφε tufe /tu:və/
13 τερτο terto /tɛɐto:/
14 φιøρτο fjörto /fjœɐto:/
15 φεεμτο feemto /fe:mto:/
16 σεςτο sechsto /sɛç.sto:/
17 συφτο süfto /sʏvto:/
18 ωςτο åchto /ɒxto:/
19 ναιτο naito /neɪto:/
20 σκορ skor /skɔɐ/

The ordinal form of the number is given by adding the suffix -ske (common) or -ste (neuter) depending on the gender of the noun it describes. The exceptions to this are for 1, 2 and 3, which respectively are airske/airste, svage/svade and ghige/ghide.

Days and Months

As with European languages, the names of months derive from Latin:

English Geadish Romanised Pronounced
January ιανουαρ janouar /jɑnuɐ/
February φεβρουαρ febrouar /fɛbʁuɐ/
March μαρτ mart /mɑ(ʁ)t/
April απριλ april /ɑpʁil/
May μαι mai /maɪ/
June ιουνι jouni /jʊni:/
July ιουλι jouli /jʊli:/
August αυγoυστ augoust /aʊgʊst/
September σεπτεμβερ september /sɛptɛmbɐ/
October οκτοβερ oktober /ɔkto:vɐ/
November νοφεμβερ nofember /no:vɛmbɐ/
December δεσέμβερ desémber /dəsɛmbɐ/

As with English, the Geadish days of the week are named after the sun, the moon and four Ancient Germanic gods. The difference is that Saturday, instead of being named after the Roman god Saturn, is instead named "lördag", which originally meant "wash-day". This comes from the Viking tradition of having a weekly wash on a Saturday.

English Geadish Romanised Pronounced
Monday μωνδαγ måndag /mɒndɑx/
Tuesday τιρσδαγ tirsdag /tiɐsdɑx/
Wednesday ουνσδαγ ounsdag /ʊntsdɑx/
Thursday τορσδαγ torsdag /tɔɐsdɑx/
Friday φρηιδαγ fraidag /freɪdɑx/
Saturday λøρδαγ lördag /lœɐdɑx/
Sunday σøνδαγ söndag /sœndɑx/

Neither the days or the week nor the months of the year are capitalised. The long format for writing the date "Thursday 1 May 1997" would be "τορσδαγ #1 μαι 1997", which is read out as torsdag airsten o mai, 1997. In short form, the dd-mm-yyyy or dd-mm-yy formats are the most commonly used; use of American formats which put the month before the day are likely to cause confusion.

Samples

Greco-Geadish Alphabet Kirk Scheme Harling Scheme IPA English
Uke Fader i Himmlen Uke Fader i Himmlen Our Father in Heaven
Ere naum ves Göülogd Ere naum ves Gøylogd Hallowed be your name.
Moi Ert Raik kum May your Kingdom [Realm] come
Ert telis som ghord Ert telis som ghord your will be done
på Jorden lik da i Himmlen som. på Jorden lik da i Himmlen som. on Earth as it is in Heaven.
Gi uk i dag ukt daglegh bröd Gi uk i dag ukt daglegh brød Give us today our daily bread
ogh sünchor uk fra ukt amartie ogh synchor uk fra ukt amartie and forgive us for our sins
stönd ver förlåt der sum mod uk amart. stønd ver förlåt der sum mod uk amart. as we forgive those who sin against us.
Led uk ik in peirasmus Led uk ik in peirasmus Lead us not into temptation
men fröüs uk fra ond men frøys uk fra ond but deliver us from evil
ford raiket, kraften ogh prakten sin din ford raiket, kraften ogh prakten sin din For the Kingdom, the power and the glory are yours
nå ogh altidens. Amen. nå ogh altidens. Amen. now and for ever. Amen.