Double Fourth Revolution
|Double Fourth Revolution|
|Democratic Brotherhood||22px Hào dynasty|
|Commanders and leaders|
| Hu Xang
| 22px Emperor Rungchi|
22px Bendan of Tuhao†
22px Nguyên Ngải (Governor of East Namor)
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22px Hùng Tú (Governor of Nozama Province)
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22px Quyền Dương (Chief Magistrate of Mojing)
|Casualties and losses|
The Double Fourth Revolution (Namorese: Сангси Комин or Sangsi Komin), also known as the Revolution of NMR 2250 or the Revolution of '50 (Кинзедеканин Комин or Kinzedekanin Komin), was a revolt started by the Democratic Brotherhood, a republican, anti-imperial revolutionary organization which would become the predecessor to the Republican Party of Namor, against the ruling Hào dynasty in Namor, which had been ruling for three centuries. The revolt took place on the year NMR 2250 (1910 CE), and broke out in major cities including the imperial capital of Namo, the second-largest port city of Mojing, Nozama, among other provincial-level cities. Since the first shots of the revolt broke out on the fourth of April (April 4), and the republicans insisted on using the Gregorian calendar instead of the traditional Namorese calendar, the revolt became known in later years as the "Double Fourth Revolution," as it started on the fourth day of the fourth month, hence "Double Fourth."
The revolt ultimately succeeded, despite efforts by the dynastic rulers in trying to suppress it. The death of Chancellor Bendan of Hào, who virtually controlled the imperial government, forced its subordinates into paralysis, causing the imperial army (which outnumbered the republicans four to one) to scatter due to low pay, poor conditions and severe cases of mutiny and defection. These factors, among others, led to Emperor Rungchi agreeing to abdicate and for the Democratic Brotherhood to occupy the imperial city. In turn, the Democratic Brotherhood gave immunity to Rungchi and the imperial family, allowing them to stay inside the imperial city (before they were banished years later). Rungchi announced the end of the Hào Dynasty, and the Republic of Namor was proclaimed, although it quickly fell into disunity within a few months due to disagreements between conservatives and reformers.
Today, the Double Fourth Revolution is celebrated as a public holiday in both the People's Republic of Namor and the Republic of Namor (Peitoa), as both governments view the revolution as a step forward in Namorese history.
The Hào dynasty has ruled Namor, prior to the revolution, for nearly three centuries. Powerful at first and acquiring much territory for Namor, the Hào reached its peak before declining at a rapid pace, unable to suppress independence movements in faraway lands and losing wars to foreign powers, being forced to give them indemnities and concessions. By the late 1800s, Namor's war with modern Luziyca which resulted in a loss of both money and territory infuriated many Namorese, who by then were convinced that the Hào rulers were too corrupt and inefficient to rule.
Efforts to reform imperial rule were adopted and supported by the Emperor Rungchi, but these efforts were slowed as Namor fought another unsuccessful war with Chorea and the conservative faction of the Hào court did whatever they could to prevent reforms from being carried out, including the assassination and removal of ministers or eunuchs considered leaders. Rungchi brought forth a constitutional monarchy of some sort by the NMR 2240s, promising elections of some sort where the imperial rule is limited, but these reforms only pacified the populace for a while.
As hostilities against dynastic rule continued, movements calling for a change in government grew more demanding and radical. One of these movements was the Namorese Democratic Brotherhood (Намора Миню Сунгтиhои; Namora Minju Sungtihoi). At first, the Brotherhood supported political reform, and had faith that Hào rule could be maintained in some way if it carries out democratic reforms. However, they grew increasingly frustrated with the Hào's slow efforts in carrying out the reforms. Hào rulers, on the other hand, began to see the Brotherhood as a genuine threat to their power, as the movement gained a significant following among foreign-educated Namorese, optimistic intellectuals and even highly-ranked officials in the imperial government. One minister, in a letter addressed to Emperor Rungchi, wrote that the "movement for a complete toppling of Your Imperial Majesty's august rule is reaching the point where it's become unstoppable and irrepressible." More conservative officials in the imperial government tried to convince Rungchi to pass laws that would limit and even proscribe the Brotherhood's activities and these of other affiliated anti-imperial organizations. One of the most outspoken supporters for a suppression of the republican movement, as well as a strong opponent to democratic governance, was Chancellor Bendan of Hào, who virtually headed the imperial government and its affairs since Rungchi was seemingly incompetent, and thus had high levels of influence.
In late NMR 2249, just a few months before the Double Fourth Revolution would break out, Chancellor Bendan presented a 2,000-word memorial to Emperor Rungchi, urging the Emperor to "save the great rule of Your Empire began Heaven renders it too late." The memorial, which would later be known as "Bendan's Memorial," blamed the Hào Empire's problems on "a few subject citizens who are unwilling to submit to the rule of Your Majesty." Reiterating Confucian values which long shaped Namorese political culture, Bendan said that "it is the law of Nature that the subjects must all revere, respect and obey the Emperor...the cause of the falls of many past dynasties were caused by discontent from Heaven, which in turn was triggered by refusal to observe natural values of governance, including that of mandatory support to the Sovereign from the populace..." Bendan concluded his memorial by asking the Emperor to go on an all-out offensive against the republican movement. "Your Majesty is the Son of Heaven. Heaven supports You, knowing that You will do whatever to please Heaven and your honorable ancestors...there is no need to fear a backlash the dogs [describing the republicans] warn will come if Your Majesty suppresses them. You are the Emperor, and as the Sovereign You have that Right. The Empire is in danger because of the actions of these dogs."
At last, Rungchi agreed to Bendan's Memorial. Some historians believe he agreed to the memorial simply because of how it was delivered to the Emperor; according to witnessing courtiers, Bendan himself carried the memorial on a six-wheeled chariot (which was supposedly made at a large expense of the imperial treasury), delivered to the Sky Palace followed by a loyal procession of conservative ministers who supported the memorial when having read it before. Rungchi appointed Bendan to head the elite force in suppressing the republican movement, and announced an imperial decree calling for authorities to arrest and execute any suspected supporters of the republican movement on sight. Arrest warrants were distributed in want of major leaders of the Namorese Democratic Brotherhood, including its chairman, Jacob Cho.
In the short few months following the imperial decree, imperial authorities arrested thousands of individuals suspected of sympathizing with the republican movement. Many of these suspects were executed in public, while others were banished out of the Empire, tortured in prisons and left to die, or even allegedly fed to the dogs. Jacob Cho, who heard of the decree while roaming the streets of Mojing, was forced to flee to the countryside, where he resided covertly and avoided arrest, as did many other leaders. Few leaders of the Brotherhood, facing the repression, abandoned the movement and fled overseas, where they lived until death.
Plans for Revolution
Those who chose to stick with the Brotherhood met with Jacob Cho in the countryside of East Namor, where it was decided that Hào rule had reached its "twilight hours," and must be overthrown through violent revolution. Cho supported this motion. Although a conservative reformer and opposing radical revolution, he said that "change in Namor cannot come without blood spilled."
In order to carry out the revolution, however, Cho had to link up with Hu Xang, a general within the Hào legion who was then in charge of commanding the armies in the boroughs surrounding Namo. Although his allegiance lies with the Hào Emperor, Hu himself was distraught with Bendan's Memorial and had no confidence in the Emperor's suppression campaign. There were many ideological differences between Cho and Hu - Cho supported the creation of a full republic; Hu, although disapproving of Hào rule, believed that a change in dynasties, rather than the set up of a "foreign" democratic system, is best in Namorese interests. Sentiment against Tuhaoese, however, managed to allow the two to cooperate and formulate a joint plan in overthrowing the dynasty.
The plans of revolution involved a quick overthrow of the dynasty through besieging the imperial palace, which would hopefully force the powerless Rungchi Emperor to plead for negotiations and peacefully abdicate. The plan also made sure the revolution tried its best in avoiding chaos from taking over once the Hào authority collapses, although civil strife was inevitable once the Hào were later overthrown. Cho and Hu hoped that the Emperor's abdication was enough for governors of distant provinces to submit to the central authority, although this, too, wouldn't happen as later events show.
The revolt was initially planned to happen on April 10th, but plans for a revolt were leaked to imperial authorities, who planned to station many troops in the streets of the capital on that day to make sure that doesn't happen. When hearing that intelligence for the imperial authorities captured several documents which detailed the date and time of the revolt, the Brotherhood and Hu met in an emergency meeting, and it was finally decided that the date of the revolt would have to be rescheduled to an earlier date before the Hào stage a heavier crackdown.
Revolution and "Three Uprisings"
Uprisings occurred in towns and cities across Namor, although the most prominent ones happened in Namor's three largest cities - Namo, Mojing and Nozama. These became known as the "Three Uprisings."
On April 4, Hu, who commanded the City-Surrounding Legion of the Hào Army (the legion responsible for guarding the outskirts of Namo), suddenly ordered that the legion surround Namo and prepare to attack it. They approached Namo's city gates, demanding that they be let in. Since Hu's entry was uninvited and without imperial permission, access was denied by gate guards. Nonetheless, Hu ordered for the city gates to be blown up by cannon fire, and soon it was overrun by legion troops. From all four directions, Hu's troops made their way towards the imperial city in the center of Namo. News of the attack reached the Sky Palace, and Emperor Rungchi ordered that Chancellor Bendan lead the Palace Guardsmen and other authorities within the city to drive back General Hu.
Resistance put up by imperial guards was initially successful, as it almost put a halt to Hu's offensive, but soon broke down. The guards scattered once assassins belonging to the Democratic Brotherhood (believed to be Kannei Namorese bandits) killed Bendan. Without a commander, the guards ran off, effectively ending any real imperial resistance against Hu Xang's attack. The fighting had lasted for hours, and killed thousands of people. As Hu proclaimed that he was in Namo to topple the Emperor, many distraught Kannei Namorese commoners joined his ranks.
Hu's army swiftly reached the Sky Palace and its adjacent buildings, surrounding it and threatening to kill the Emperor if he doesn't present himself in front of the revolutionaries for negotiations. The Emperor did not hesitate in surrendering to Hu's troops, and allowed Hu and other generals participating in the Namo Uprising to enter the Sky Palace and engage in negotiations. There, Hu forced Emperor Rungchi to stamp a document which called for his abdication, and the abolishing of all offices sanctioned by the Hào government. In turn, Hu allowed Rungchi and the imperial family to stay in the Sky Palace so long as they do not conspire to restore the imperial authority. The Namo Uprising saw a quick end to the top echelons of Hào authority.
Hours after the Namo Uprising occurred, forces loyal to Jacob Cho staged an uprising in the city of Mojing in East Namor, then ruled by Nguyên Ngải, Governor of East Namor, and Quyền Dương, Chief Magistrate of Mojing. Although considered less in significance than the Namo Uprising (which actually saw the emperor abdicate), the Mojing Uprising was actually more violent and bloody than the Namo Uprising, primarily due to the stubborn resistance put up by imperial loyal forces.
Cho managed to gain hold of parts of Mojing by allying his forces with mutinied shipyard workers and soldiers in the southern districts of the city. Working their way up to capture the entire city, Nguyên Ngải summoned the most powerful units of the East Namor Legion to suppress the uprising. Mass firefights took place between both sides, and atrocities were committed, with Nguyên's troops assaulting demonstrators and students and the revolutionaries cleansing Mojing's ethnic Tuhaoese neighborhoods. The uprising lasted until revolutionaries finally besieged the Governor's House in Mojing, and Nguyên Ngải along with Quyền Dương were captured by revolutionary soldiers as they tried to escape the city disguised as refugees. Both officials refused to submit to republican authority even when news of the emperor's abdication came from Namo through cable.
A tribunal was held for both Nguyên Ngải and Quyền Dương, which resulted in Nguyên being sentenced to death for anti-revolutionary crimes and Quyền pardoned due to his lack of involvement in the suppression of revolutionaries. Nguyên was shot to death by firing squad in public, a spectacle which was covered by foreign journalists there.
In Nozama City, a revolt of similar nature broke out between republicans and monarchist forces. Brotherhood forces under the leadership of Komin Chang and Lang Mang took over several government buildings in the city, provoking a reaction by Hào troops. Fighting lasted until republicans captured the Governor of Nozama Province, Hùng Tú, and had him executed.
Elsewhere in Namor, small-scale uprisings occurred as well. After the Namo Uprising, Hu Xang sent armies to neighboring prefectures to inform locals about the revolution. Some clashes occurred, but in most cases authority swiftly ceased to exist and revolutionaries easily took over. New governments didn't take direct power everywhere - in some places officials belonging to the imperial government simply broke off their allegiances and stayed in power, although this time serving as either independent officials or nominal officials of the new republic. This would become a major factor in the strife that occurred in Namor following the Double Fourth, since leaders were unable to agree with each other on which faction should guide affairs in the new republic. By December NMR 2250 (1910 CE), all Hào authority in mainland Namor had practically ceased.
Khao - which had belonged to Namor under Hào rule - declared independence. Once news of the Double Fourth Revolution reached the capital of Ngam by cable, Phusai Ekalad, the king of Khao, decreed the expulsion of all Hào Namorese officials from the country, ending Namorese control over Khao which would not be restored until decades later.
The Governor of Shanpei Province, John Vang, a Namorese Christian, broke allegiance with the Hào Throne and declared independence from the Hào Dynasty. A military government loyal to the republicans was set up, supposedly with Luziycan aid, since the region has been under Luziycan political influence since the signing of the Treaty of Tatra.
Oteki, which had already declared nominal independence since the First Namo-Luziycan War and its aftermath, merely reiterated its status as an independent entity when news of the Double Fourth Revolution reached Gusev, and expressed hopes that the Republic of Namor would recognize its statehood.
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- Arkiasis: Following the Arkiasia Revolution in 1895 which saw the overthrow of a monarchy in Arkiasis, the government of Arkiasis echoed a fierce pro-republican ideology and rhetoric and thus supported the Revolution and provided financial aid and armaments to the Democratic Brotherhood. The Republic of Arkiasis immediately recognized the Republic of Namor following its establishment in 1910.
- Luziyca: The Christian Republic of Luziyca supported the Double Fourth Revolution, with Samuel Varanken saying that the revolution will "spark a new birth of freedom for Namor, and that a fair and just society shall be born."
- Error creating thumbnail: File missingWest Cedarbrook: Reaction was favorable in the press to the Revolution, although the Department of External Affairs remained neutral throughout the conflicts. The Neches Administration extended recognition to the Republic of Namor in 1912.