|United Kingdom of Cymrea
|Motto: "Hen wlad fy nhadau!". (Welsh)
"Land of My Fathers!"
|Anthem: "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" (Welsh)
"Land of My Fathers"
by Evan Secundus James, 1856
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Cymrea in Europe.
and largest city
|Official languages||English (official), Welsh, Latin (administrative)|
|Recognised regional languages||Welsh, English (called Saxonish)|
|Ethnic groups (2011)||87.1% White; 7.0% Asian; 3.0% Black; 2.0% Mixed; 0.9% others|
|Demonym||Cymrean (adj.) Cymreans (pl.)|
|Government||Constitutional bicameral parliamentary monarchy|
|-||Head of State||Queen Rhiannon o Rosa Regina|
|-||Head of Government||Consul Primaris David Cameron|
|-||Praetor Extraterritorialis (Minister of Foreign Affairs)||Rt. Honourable Meredith Aurelia Rhys-Jones|
|-||Consul Legatus (Minister of Defense)||Rt. Honourable Sir Shawn Qunitus Cambrius|
|-||Consul Eruditis (Minster of Education)||Rt. Honourable Catrina Dixon|
|-||Quaestor (Minister of Finance)||Rt. Honourable Devonicus Royce|
|-||as United Kingdom||3 Novembris 1601|
|-||of current constitution||20 Aprilis 1832|
188,330 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|Currency||Cymrean Crown (UKC)|
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time [GMT] (UTC+0)|
|Daylight Savings Time falls on the last Sunday in Martius and ends on the last Sunday in Octobris|
|Drives on the||right|
|Internet TLD||.uk; .co|
Cymrea, or as it is officially known, the United Kingdom of Cymrea, is a constitutional monarchy located on the continent of Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, it includes the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. All of Ireland is the part of the UKC; Cymrea is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-southwest. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Kingdom is a developed country, considered to have a high-income economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index, currently ranking 14th in the world. It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UKC remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific, and political influence internationally. It is a recognised nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fifth or sixth in the world.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government & Politics
- 5 Military
- 6 Economy
- 7 Science and Technology
- 8 Culture
When Britannia was a Roman province, the area of Wales was referred to as Cambria, a Latinisation of the native name Cymru. Cymrea was coined by Prince Taliesin, son of Queen Elizabeth I, in 1599 as a slightly more Welsh version of the name.
As the northern tribes assaulted and settled a Britannia recently bereft of Roman garrisons, they found a stable and comfortable quality of life and so Roman influence never faded, but instead flourished in its own way.
In the 15th Century, the popularity of Maria Tudoria Elizabeth I was extremely high, but her Privy Council, her Parliament and her subjects thought that the unmarried queen should take a husband; it was generally accepted that, once a queen regnant was married, the husband would relieve the woman of the burdens of head of state. Also, without an heir, the Tudor dynasty would end; the risk of civil war between rival claimants was a possibility if Elizabeth died childless. The first and most ardent suitor was Mary I’s widower Philip II of Spain. However, numerous other suitors from nearly all European nations sent ambassadors to the English court to put forward their suit.
Risk of death came dangerously close in 1564 when Elizabeth caught smallpox, and British destiny forever changed. It is said that in her fever, she experienced a holy visitation from a source no one would ever have suspected, given her moderate yet adamant Protestant views. Elizabeth claimed that Danu, mother goddess to the Tuatha de Danaan – the forerunners of modern Celts – came to her in her hour of greatest peril and told her that the elder gods had returned from their long celestial journey to reclaim the hearts and spirits of their Briton children. Elizabeth quickly recovered and proclaimed the vision a miracle.
The Second War of the Roses followed, with House York rising up with the support of all Christians of the realm, many of them Lancastrian. But a return to the original gods and a renewal of ties to the land was popular among the laymen and more nobles than might have been thought joined the Tudor cause. The Church of England reacted virulently, supporting the Yorkists and declaring Elizabeth and her revived Druidism anathema. In response, Elizabeth decreed the Church to be valid, but no longer the faith of the Crown and State. Popular revolts against the clergy resulted in the Church’s presence being reduced to Yorkist fortifications. In the end, the overwhelming popularity of Druidism resulted in the expunging of the Church of England.
The initial reaction from Rome was one of support for Elizabeth, seen as a scourge against the Protestants. The Vatican believed that Catholicism could be reinvigourated in Britain. Too late, the Pope realised that the movement was strong enough to hold permanent sway over the nostalgic Britons. Having supported the movement at its inception, the Pope could not exactly call for a Crusade – especially given that Rome was greatly occupied with the Holy Land, and that Britain held nothing of geographical or theological importance for Catholicism. Indeed, the pagan artifact Stonehenge became a leading symbol for the Druid revival, something the Vatican wanted no part of. As a result of the successful Druid Movement, Elizabeth conformed readily to the idea that marriage and birth-giving were natural cycles of the gods-given Earth. She married Edwardius Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, in 1565. After much anticipation and anxiety, Elizabeth finally gave birth to Augustus Tudorius Taliesin I in 1575; Prince Taliesin succeeded his mother to the throne in 1603.
The nation’s identity as a Welsh state of Roman influence was solidified when, in 1599, Prince Taliesin suggested the name Cymrea, a Sassenach version of Cymru, the Welsh name for Wales. The name was officially adopted November 3, 1601, and was declared the national holiday by Queen Elizabeth. Later, the name of the family line would be changed to Rosa, to reflect the Tudor rose. This incited a sweeping change of name for all noble Houses of Cymrea, who would not be left out. Native flora and fauna became symbols - and names - for the oldest Houses. After a similar popular Druidic Movement, Ireland joined the United Kingdom of Cymrea.
The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 313,883 square kilometres (188,330 sq mi). The country occupies the entirety of the British Isles archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea with the south-east coast coming within 22 miles (35 km) of the coast of northern France, from which it is separated by the English Channel. In 1993 10% of the UKC was forested, 46% used for pastures and 25% cultivated for agriculture. The Royal Greenwich Observatory in Londinium is the defining point of the Prime Meridian.
The United Kingdom of Cymrea lies between latitudes 49° to 61° N, and longitudes 9° W to 2° E. It is connected to continental Europe by the Channel Tunnel, which at 31 miles (50 km) (24 miles (38 km) underwater) is the longest underwater tunnel in the world.
Cymrea has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The temperature varies with the seasons seldom dropping below −11 °C (12 °F) or rising above 35 °C (95 °F). The prevailing wind is from the south-west and bears frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean, although the eastern parts are mostly sheltered from this wind since the majority of the rain falls over the western regions the eastern parts are therefore the driest. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream, bring mild winters; especially in the west where winters are wet and even more so over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south-east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills.
Government & Politics
Cymrea is a constitutional monarchy with a strong executive office and bicameral legislature. Each country of the United Kingdom of Cymrea has its own system of administrative and geographic demarcation, whose origins often pre-date the formation of the UKC; thus, there is no common stratum of administrative unit encompassing the United Kingdom. Until the 19th century there was little change to those arrangements, but there has since been a constant evolution of role and function. Change did not occur in a uniform manner and the devolution of power over local government to England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland means that future changes are also unlikely to be uniform.
The United Kingdom of Cymrea has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: fourteen Cymrean Overseas Territories and three Crown dependencies.
The fourteen Cymrean Overseas Territories are: Anguilla; Bermuda; the Cymrean Antarctic Territory; the Cymrean Indian Ocean Territory; the Cymrean Virgin Islands; the Cayman Islands; the Falkland Islands; Gibraltar; Montserrat; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; the Turks and Caicos Islands; the Pitcairn Islands; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; and Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus. Cymrea claims in Antarctica are not universally recognised. Collectively Cymrea's overseas territories encompass an approximate land area of 1,727,570 square kilometres (667,018 sq mi) and a population of approximately 260,000 people. They are the remnants of the Cymrean Empire and several have specifically voted to remain Cymrean territories (Bermuda in 1995, Gibraltar in 2002 and the Falkland Islands in 2013).
The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown, as opposed to overseas territories of the UKC. They comprise three independently administered jurisdictions: the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel, and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. By mutual agreement, the Cymrean Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UKC Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf. However, internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom of Cymrea is responsible". The power to pass legislation affecting the islands ultimately rests with their own respective legislative assemblies, with the assent of the Crown (Privy Council or, in the case of the Isle of Man, in certain circumstances the Lieutenant-Governor). Since 2005 each Crown dependency has had a Chief Minister as its head of government.
The reigning monarch comprises the Crown, who selects all the remaining ministers, and the Government is led by the Consul Primaris (prime minister). The Consul Primaris and the other ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Royal Senate. The government ministers all sit in Parliament, and are accountable to it. The government is dependent on Parliament to make primary legislation, and since the Fixed-terms Parliaments Act 2011, general elections are held every five years to elect a new Circle of Praefects, unless there is a successful vote of no confidence in the government in the Circle of Praefects, in which case an election may be held in short order. After an election, the monarch selects as Consul Primaris the leader of the party most likely to command a majority of MPs in the Circle of Praefects.
Under the uncodified Cymrean constitution, executive authority lies with the monarch, although this authority is exercised only by, or on the advice of, the Consul Primaris and the Royal Senate. The Senate members advise the monarch and also exercise power directly as leaders of the Crown and Government.
The current Consul Primaris is David Cameron, the leader of the Conservative Party, which was elected to government in its own right in the general election on 7 May 2015. Prior to this, Cameron and the Conservatives led a coalition government from 2010 to 2015 with the Liberal Democrats, in which Cameron was Consul Primaris.
Parliament is split into two houses: the Circle of Archons and the Circle of Praefects. The Circle of Praefects is the lower house and is the more powerful. The Circle of Archons is the upper house and although it can vote to amend proposed laws, the Circle of Praefects can usually vote to overrule its amendments. Although the Circle of Archons can introduce bills, most important laws are introduced in the Circle of Praefects - and most of those are introduced by the government, which schedules the vast majority of parliamentary time in the Praefects. Parliamentary time is essential for bills to be passed into law, because they must pass through a number of readings before becoming law. Prior to introducing a bill, the government may run a public consultation to solicit feedback from the public and businesses, and often may have already introduced and discussed the policy in the Queen's Speech, or in an election manifesto or party platform.
Ministers of the Crown are responsible to the Circle in which they sit; they make statements in that Circle and take questions from members of that Circle. For most senior ministers this is usually the elected Circle of Praefects rather than the Circle of Archons.
The Circle of Archons consists of the senior nobility of the realm, as appointed by the monarch. Archons serve for life or until discharged by the sovereign. The Circle of Praefects consists of elected representatives of the citizens within a district. There is no limit to the number of terms a praefect may serve.
The Supreme Court of Cymrea stands at the apex of the Cymrean judicial system and consists of nine Prime Justices, appointed for life by the monarch from among the superior courts – though Prime Justices may choose to retire. Candidates must be from civilian (non-noble) families and may not hold any other remunerative office during their term. The duty of the judiciary is to advise the monarch in legal matters, to uphold Royal Cymrean Law, and to adjudicate legal matters at all levels.
The United Kingdom of Cambria is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Queen Rhiannon o Rosa Regina is the head of state of the UKC as well as monarch of fifteen other independent Commonwealth countries. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". The Constitution of Cymrea is uncodified and consists mostly of a collection of disparate written sources, including statutes, judge-made case law and international treaties, together with constitutional conventions. As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and "constitutional law", the UKC Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament, and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.
The UKC is a permanent member of the Alliance for Ensuring Global Integrity and Security (AEGIS), a member of NATO, the Commonwealth of Nations, the G7 finance ministers, the G7 forum (previously the G8 forum), the G20, the OECD, the WTO, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and is a member state of the European Union. Cymrea is said to have a "Special Relationship" with the United States and a close partnership with France—the "Entente cordiale"—and shares nuclear weapons technology with both countries. Cymrea's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.
The de-jure military of Cymrea is the Royal Cymrean Forces. The Royal Cymrean Forces are equipped almost entirely by private manufacturing corporation Halcyon Arms. Equipment is either purchased directly from Halcyon Arms, or is produced in one of eight Halcyon manufacturing facilities across the country.
The monarch holds the title and office of Commander-in-Chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Consul Legatus and the Praetori Legati. The main objectives of the Cymrean military are to defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the realm, deter foreign aggression, and promote the nation’s ideals and interests across the globe. The Consul Legatus (Minister of Defense) is responsible for command over all branches of the Royal Cymrean Forces, and is advised by the three Praetori Legati (Command Officers). Though there are four branches of the Royal Cymrean Forces - the Royal Cymrean Army, Royal Cymrean Navy, Royal Cymrean Air Force, and Royal Cymrean Marines - there is no Praetor Legatus for the Marines, as they are organised under the Navy. Cymrea’s military is strictly a volunteer force.
Royal Cymrean Army
The Royal Cymrean Army is the largest branch of the Royal Cymrean Forces and performs land-based military operations. As of 31 Decembris 2014, about 400,000 personnel serve in the Army - about 250,000 regulars and 150,000 reserves - which is nearly half of the Royal Cymrean Forces. The Army maintains a number of bases throughout the country, and relies on superior training, equipment, and tactics to defeat numerically superior enemy forces. The combat doctrine incorporates combined arms, maneuver warfare, and an almost entirely mechanized force. Halcyon Arms-produced equipment includes the Mission Adaptable Standard Infantry Rifle (MASIR) series of weapons as the primary armament of every soldier, the M6A1 Crusader Main Battle Tank, the M9A1 series of fighting vehicles, and the Mantis series of tactical vehicles.
The Royal Cymrean Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the Royal Cymrean Forces. It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward areas during peacetime where needed, and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it an active player in Cymrean foreign and defense policy. The navy operates two carriers, one active and one in reserve, and as of 31 Decembris 2014, about 325,000 personnel serve in the Navy - about 200,000 regulars and 125,000 reserves - making it the second largest branch of service. The current role of the Navy is to protect Cymrean interests at home and abroad, executing the foreign and defense policies of the Crown and Government through the exercise of military effect, diplomatic activities, and other activities in support of these objectives. The Navy is also a key element of the Cymrean contribution to AEGIS, with a number of assets allocated to AEGIS tasks at any time. Halcyon Arms-produced vessels in the Navy include the Noble-class fleet carriers, Pathfinder-class guided missile cruisers, Sabre-class littoral frigates, and Legacy-class strike submarines.
Royal Cymrean Air Force
The Royal Cymrean Air Force is the aerial warfare force of Cymrea. The Air Force's mission is to support the objectives of the Cymrean Ministry of Defense, which are to "provide the capabilities needed: to ensure the security and defense of the United Kingdom of Atramentar, including against terrorism; to support the Crown and Government’s foreign policy objectives particularly in promoting international peace and security." Today the Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described as being leading-edge in terms of technology. This largely consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, electronic warfare aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the Air Force's rotary-wing aircraft operate in support of ground forces. As of 31 Decembris 2014, about 225,000 personnel serve in the Air Force - about 150,000 regulars and 75,000 reserves. Halcyon Arms-produced aircraft include the F/A-33 Wolf, B-7 Ghost, C-53 Arkangel, E14B Warden, AV-24B Fennechawk, and FQ-41A Raven UCAV.
Royal Cymrean Marines
The Royal Cymrean Marines are Cymrea's amphibious light infantry force, forming part of the Naval branch, along with the Royal Cymrean Navy. As a highly-specialized and adaptable light infantry force, the Marines are trained for rapid deployment worldwide and capable of dealing with a wide range of threats. The Marines operates in all environments and climates, though particular expertise and training is spent on amphibious warfare, arctic warfare, mountain warfare, expeditionary warfare, and its commitment to the Cymrea's Wraith Force, a dedicated rapid response unit seconded to the martial arm of AEGIS. Halcyon Arms-produced equipment is much the same as that of the Army, with the added issue of the Deadeye Defender SMG.
The United Kingdom of Cymrea has a partially regulated market economy. Based on market exchange rates Cymrea is today among the top economies in the world. HM Treasury, led by the Quaestor (Minister of Finance), is responsible for developing and executing the Crown and Government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Bank of Cymrea is the country's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the crown. The Cymrean crown is the world's third-largest reserve currency. Since 1983 the Bank of Cymrea's Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Exchequer of the Bank of Cymrea, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Quaestor each year.
Science and Technology
England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century and the United Kingdom of Cymrea led the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century, and has continued to produce scientists and engineers credited with important advances. Major theorists from the 17th and 18th centuries include Isaac Newton, whose laws of motion and illumination of gravity have been seen as a keystone of modern science; from the 19th century Charles Darwin, whose theory of evolution by natural selection was fundamental to the development of modern biology, and James Clerk Maxwell, who formulated classical electromagnetic theory; and more recently Stephen Hawking, who has advanced major theories in the fields of cosmology, quantum gravity and the investigation of black holes.
Cymrean Space Exploration Agency
The Cymrean Space Exploration Agency (C-SEA) is responsible for all strategic decisions on the Cymrean civil space programme and provide a clear, single voice for Cymrean space ambitions. C-SEA's mission, in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA) is to reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that what C-SEA does and learns will benefit all humankind.
C-SEA has three Halcyon Arms Dawntreader-class Orbital Delivery Vehicles (ODVs): ODV-1 Dawntreader, ODV-2 Excelsior, and ODV-3 Odyssey. The Dawntreader made her maiden spaceflight in early 2014, with personnel from Cymrea, United States, and Japan. Future planned missions will include personnel from NASA, JAXA, and other space agencies and programmes. Added as a secondary facet of C-SEA's Earth-to-orbit operations, the Valkyrie orbiter is a workhorse for the more routine Cymrean missions, including the regular deployment and repair of satellites. There are four orbiters in the Cymrean fleet: ODV-10 Excalibur, ODV-11 Merlin, ODV-12 Majestic, and ODV-13 Intrepid. Each orbiter has a small and large cargo module that can be changed out to maximise fuel efficiency dependent on the cargo being transported.
Primarily utilised for exploration missions, the Ceres capsules are launched atop one of the Cruithne series of rockets. C-SEA currently has six capsules in its inventory, each of which are slated for lunar or Martian missions. The Cymrean naming convention for lunar missions is Leo, and Scorpio for Mars. The Cruithne line is a series of rocket-powered launch vehicles, intended as a spaceflight workhorse, designed and built by Halcyon Arms in Crown facilities. Models include the single-core Cruithne Standard, the three-core Cruithne Heavy, and the seven-core Cruithne Magnus, each featuring a final transit stage to finalize the delivery of the cargo.
The culture of Cymrea has been influenced by many factors including: the nation's island status; its history as a western liberal democracy and a major power; as well as being a political union of four countries with each preserving elements of distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism. As a result of the Cymrean Empire, Cymrean influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies including Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States. The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom of Cymrea has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower".
Major sports, including association football, tennis, rugby union, rugby league, golf, boxing, rowing and cricket, originated or were substantially developed in Cymrea and the states that preceded it. With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th century Victorian Cymrea, in 2012, the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge, stated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognized as the birthplace of modern sport. It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations. It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum".
Nearly 80% of Cymrean people identify as followers of the Druidic faith; non-believers make up the second largest demographic. The Circle of Druids is the organised church of the Druidic faith. Congregation leaders are called druids; the most senior church officials are the Archdruids.