Cuirpthe

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Cuirpthean Republic
Cuirptheach Repoblicht
Flag
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: "Conáigh."
"Onward."
Anthem: Cuirpthe Above All
MediaPlayer.png
CapitalBallinluska
Largest city Portlaoise
Official languages Cuirpthean
Recognised regional languages Newreyan
Ethnic groups 43% Cuirpthean, 24% Lhaeraidd, 19% Newreyan/Midrasian, 11% Alemannic, 3% Other
Demonym Cuirpthean
Government Unitary Parliamentary Republic
 -  Prime Minister Micheal Wilson
 -  Chancellor Aidan Henderson
Legislature Rialhairle
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Delegates
Area
 -  Total 186,873 km2
72,152 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 3.8
Population
 -  2017 census 34,245,102
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $1,482,000,000,000
 -  Per capita $40,963
Gini (2017)positive decrease 34.3
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.913
very high
Currency Cuirpthean Gaolda (GDA)
Time zone West Asuran Standard Time (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) West Asuran Summer Time (UTC+0)
Date format YYYY/MM/DD
Drives on the right
Calling code +91
Internet TLD .cu

Cuirpthe (Cuirpthean: Cuirpeath ), officially the Cuirpthean Republic (Cuirpthean: Cuirptheach Repoblicht ) is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan Cuirpthe in western Asura and the archipelago of Saint Aratóir off the northern coast of Rennekka. Metropolitan Cuirpthe is located along the southern coast of the Lhedwinic Channel, extending in to the northern portion of the Vaellenian Mountains. The capital of Cuirpthe is Ballinluska, and the largest city by population is Portlaoise, both of which are located on the banks of the Ballisodare River, which runs from the foothills of the Vaellenian mountains to the northern coast, emptying into the Morgune Bay. Cuirpthe borders tir Lhaeraidd to the west and south, Newrey to the east and Midrasia to the southeast.

The sovereign state of Cuirpthe is a unitary parliamentary republic. The nation is divided into 11 administrative regions, which are further subdivided into a total of 26 provinces. The legislative power of provinces are derived from the central government, while regions lack the ability to pass and enforce laws.

Cuirpthe's roots are in hundreds of ancient nomadic tribes that once existed within its borders, warring over resources and raiding other cultures. These people were referred to as 'barbarians' by the Fiorentines, a way of calling them inferior and brutish, as well as grouping them with their neighbors. Raids against the Fiorentine Empire would occur until their eventual absorption into the southern power, when Fiorentine culture intermingled with that of the barbaric northerners. This Fiorentine influence would last long after the fall of the empire, and lead to a period of warring states, as approximately 60 small nations were formed, building small fiefdoms in the wake of Midrasian rule. Three kingdoms would form from this, and later one unified Cuirpthe, larger than the one we know today. Eventually, a royal marriage would result with the unification of Cuirpthe and its neighbor Newrey, creating a Commonwealth that would become a powerful force in northern Asura, but causing oppression of Cuirpthean culture by Newreyans.

Following the breakup of the Commonwealth in the Mydro-Commonwealth wars, Cuirpthe would build its Asuran and overseas influence, both by gaining power back on its home continent and building colonies in the far off reaches of Aeia. Its influence could only last so long, however, as the outcome of the Great War left it crippled, a weak republic that could barely support itself, and was eventually consumed by rebels in the People's Uprising. Eventually, Cuirpthe was able to retaliate and defeat the communist rebels, forming a much stronger republic in its wake; That republic is what today is known as Cuirpthe.

Cuirpthe is a pioneer of information technology, home to a multitude of technical colleges, and is the leading force in the journey beyond Aeia into space. The Cuirpthean educational system is above average, on par with their neighbors in western Asura. Also located in Cuirpthe are a multitude heritage sites, ranging from several ancient monuments to Fiorentine structures to Great War era battlefields. Despite the horrible instability caused by the post war Republic, Cuirpthe has reclaimed its former glory as a new pillar of democracy, surviving the collapse of monarchism and the rise of communism within its own borders. Cuirpthe is a developed country with an exceptionally large economy. The Cuirpthean economy has been drifting toward post-industrial society, however due to the growing popularity of Cuirpthean electronics, vehicles and other goods, manufacturing remains an important part of economic growth.

Etymology

The Cuirpthean name for the country, Cuirpeath (irregularly pronounced [ˈkɔɐ̯pjəx]), as well as the Newreyan name Cuirpthe, ultimately originate from the word corp meaning "person"; a form of this word in Old Mawrish was cuirp and this form was used in deriving the adjective cuirpeath originally meaning "of the people" or "popular". Eventually the word corp and its derivatives came to refer to the Cuirpthean people in contrast to outsiders, and so the adjective took on the meaning "Cuirpthean". This was applied to the territory inhabited by Cuirptheans, eventually becoming the regular word for referring to Cuirpthe. A new derivative form Cuirptheach was developed to refer to the Cuirpthean people, leaving corp and Cuirptheach as entirely distinct words. From a very literal perspective, therefore, Cuirpeath means "(place) of the people" and Cuirptheach means "of the (place) of the people".

During the time of the Newreyan-Cuirpthean Commonwealth, the word Cuirptheach was Newrickised as Cuirpthe, with the adjective misunderstood as referring to the country. Spelling pronunciation led to the <th>, by this time silent in Cuirpthean, being reintroduced as /θ/ by the Newreyans. Due to the supremacy that the Newreyan language had in this period, it was this adaptation that typically spread to other languages.

History

Prehistory

A typical proto-Asuran simple chopping-tool. This example is from the Vaellenian Mountains.

The first recorded Cuirptheans are estimated to have migrated north from Midrasia about 1.6 million years ago. This is based on evidence such as tools and fossils found scattered through the Vaellenian mountains, as well as across southern Cuirpthean valleys, where evidence of temporary settlements has been shown across major rivers. Structures presumably built by primitive societies are located in parts of southern and eastern Cuirpthe, under study from scholars from multiple nations in Asura. Caves in these regions contain images of large animals, and hunters with primitive weapons. Tools found have ranged from simple cutting tools to spears and other weapons.

Similarly to the southern migrating Mydras people, ancient Cuirptheans traveled toward the coasts of the Lhedwinic Channel and Sea of Vrnallia, and established small farming and fishing settlements. Many of these settlements would be abandon, but some would go on to form major Fiorentine cities. These cities would become trade centers in the north, both for the Fiorentines and the kingdoms that succeeded them.

Antiquity

Map of the Fiorentine Empire at its greatest extent in 80 CE

In ancient times, the land today known as Cuirpthe was dominated by hundreds of small barbarian tribes. These tribes were disorganized and in a state of near constant war, competing for resources with tribes across northern Asura. Their cultures, while ultimately similar, had vast differences in their customs and way of life. Generally, the ancient Mawrish people of Cuirpthe referred to themselves as the Már, similar to the Mawr Lhaerraidh Mór, or people. Despite the vast amount of tribes, they grouped themselves into three cultures based on location and culture. The Márléibe (Fiorentine:Maralibi), or "people of the mountains", were a large culture of nomads that traveled the foothills of the Vaellenian mountains, living off what they hunt. The Mármaige (Fiorentine:Marbacci) or "people of the fields", lived off the land, with agriculture and domesticated animals being the main source of food. Horseback riding, as well as workhorses, became a major part of Mármag culture. To the far north was a large group that lived along the coasts, with fishing and early boats being central to their culture. Their name for themselves is today unknown, and the Fiorentines adopted Boreamari (northern Már) as a general term for them. This status quo would last for thousands of years, with little change in Cuirpthean way of life. The eventual cause for change would come from the rapidly approaching rise of the Fiorentine Empire, providing a reason for the tribes to unite against a common enemy.

The Fiorentine Empire, long since in control of the Padanian Basin, had been slowly taking land from their tribal neighbors. The land to their west, called Aquinum, or "water place"(later Aquineccum and finally Aquidneck) had been integrated into the empire, and the regions of Carcoja, Bevenia and Vvarden were under partial control. Excursions through the Intermodum Pass, a natural area of low elevation in the southern Vaellenian mountains, were becoming more frequent, later resulting in a major trade city (Intermodium, modern name Invern) being founded on the northern side of the mountain. The Márléibe were wary of the southerners, who forced them further and further away from their normal hunting grounds. peace stretched ever thinner until the Fiorentines declared what would later be known as the first of the Marric Wars, a series of conquests by Fiorentines of the Cuirpthean and Lhaeraidh regions lasting from 8 BCE to 6 CE, when the north fell to Fiorentine rule. The modern city of Tuagore, of which the Fiorentine name is unknown, was a major trade city through which proto-Crylantian and Fiorentine cultures intermingled and grew from one another.

Imperial rule lasted until the year 453 CE. Over the centuries, the Empire's control waned and barbarian attacks of Fiorentine settlements increased in frequency. Cuirpthean clans rose up in defiance of the soldiers that controlled their land, and drove them out over several wars. In 453, a final attack against Fiorentine armies would push them back across the Vaellenian Mountains and out of northern Asura. The Betrayal at Mydroll officially marked the death of the Empire with Emperor Salonius's death, betrayed by the King of the Mydroll, Marciús Braga. By 504, Cuirpthe was entirely controlled by newly founded kingdoms, duchies and lordships, many of which were now vying for control in the newly created power vacuum. An era of war had begun in Cuirpthe, set to last for the the better part of the next millennium.

Middle Ages

Rímór Castle in eastern Cuirpthe

The early Middle Ages were a time of turmoil for Cuirpthe and the neighboring regions of northern Asura. In the wake of the Fiorentine collapse, the people of Cuirpthe began proclaiming their tribes the rightful ruler of the land. The Mármaige, by far the largest and most widespread of the Cuirptheans, founded the short lived Kingdom of Mármaga, spanning much of the south and west of Cuirpthe. The Márléibe would be easily defeated, their nomadic hunting ways no match for the Fiorentine fighting tactics adopted by the Mármaige. Mármaga dominated most of Cuirpthe from 504 to 576 CE, when repeated raids from the Boreamári and the sacking of the capital city of Ballinluska brought the kingdom to ruin. Of the nations to succeed Mármaga, three would rise to prominence. These were the Duchy of Narraghmore along the east, the Lordship of Dromleigh and the Duchy of Corragh(Formerly the Duchy of Ballinluska). The Duchy of Corragh was in control of many of the major core states of former Mármaga, and had access to the resources, weapons and manpower of the once great Kingdom, quickly gaining dominance in the southwest. Narraghmore controlled a considerable amount of land, as well as the most natural resources, extending northward to the coast and east to the Eallsabh River. Dromeligh was primarily centered on the city of Portlaoise at the mouth of the Ballisodare River, less well off than the others due to the lack of major resources on the rocky northern coast and marshlands of the northwest.

Narraghmore, the largest of the three, would soon find itself on the brink of collapse in the late 1410s. The leader of the Duchy, Liam II, had no legitimate heirs, and no brothers or male cousins to succeed him. Narraghmore was against the idea of a female ruler, and in order to preserve the royal blood, the Duke's sister, Caitlín, married Prince Isaiah of Newrey in 1419. Prince Isaiah was not the current King of Newrey, making full unification impossible. Instead, Newrey became the dominant partner of a personal union between the two nations. In 1423, the first in a series of Wars of Cuirpthean Unification would take place, with Narraghmore swiftly defeating and annexing the Lordship of Dromleigh. Between 1429 and 1475, three wars would occur between Narraghmore and the Duchy of Corragh, with the latter losing more and more territory over time before eventual annexation in 1476, marking the formation of the First Kingdom of Cuirpthe. In this same year, the King of Newrey passed away, and Cuirpthe and Newrey would be briefly unified by the ascension of Isaiah I, the king of both nations. The Greater Newreyan Kingdom would last two years before being split once more.

Isaiah would finally pass in 1478, marking the end of his reign over two thrones. His two sons, Stanley and William, would each inherit one of his two thrones, splitting the nation once again, with Stanley the leader of Cuirpthe and William the leader of Newrey. When Stanley died of sickness in 1484, William would take advantage. He met with his nephew and poisoned him, later blaming the death on a caterer to their dinner. By doing so, he left Stanley with no successor, and an open throne.

Act of Union of 1484

15th century tapestry depicting a ball held at the Newreyan capital following unification.

Due to the lack of heirs to the Cuirpthean throne, the Kingdom was once again desperate for anybody to keep power within the family. With Stanley's son dead, William I was left as next in the line of succession. Cuirpthe was again forced into a personal union under Newrey for two months before William I and the Newreyan Parliament would pass the Act of Union, uniting the two as the Newreyan-Cuirpthe Commonwealth. The flat and fertile lands of Cuirpthe proved a boon to Newrey as it no longer required continuous warfare to maintain their control over, as had been the case of Padania. However, before full control could be exercised, a number of rebellious barons and vassals had to be subdued, resulting in the 3 decade long Calming of the Commonwealth, where armies of Newrey would consistently defeat the vassals in battle and strip them of their power to bring them under the control of the Newreyan king.

For a brief period after the Calming, the Commonwealth enjoyed a period of relative peace as trade with the Midrasian kingdoms, the Lhedwinic kings, and beyond proved profitable to the nation as it exploited the fertile lands of Cuirpthe. However, following a devastating fire in the Cuirpthean city of Portlaoise due to a mistranslation over cargo limits, King Michael gave into the public pressure of Newrey and decreed that Newreyan would be the language used in all official business across the Commonwealth and its territories. While the decree initially only required it to be used in official capacity and political dealings, many dukes and barons understood it as the order to suppress any usage of Cuirpthean throughout the Commonwealth, making laws against its public usage, as well as the teaching of it in schools. This perceived attempt of eliminating Cuirpthean culture as a whole resulted in a number of rebellious nobles to beg the King of Midrasia to intervene. While the intervention was defeated, it kickstarted the beginning of the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars that would eventually lead to the decline and collapse of the Commonwealth.

Early Modern Period and Nineteenth Century

Over the next four centuries, the Commonwealth would be deeply involved in Asuran politics, primarily at odds with its neighbors, competing for territory on their borders. As the years went on, it became more and more expensive to hold on to regions such as Elsouf, whose populations were heavily pro-Midrasian. Nevertheless, the stubborn nature of the Newreyan leadership led them to deny any possibility of relinquishing the territory. Similarly, they fiercely defended their hold over southern regions of Aleia, stretching the military thin between the two contested locations.

The Commonwealth began to finance a number of colonisation projects in the newly discovered continents of Vestrim and Rennekka, most notably in the founding of Williamstown, named after the then prince, in 1542. It was from these colonies that the Commonwealth began to expand in size and power. This rise in prominence, however, led to significant problems arising from the ethnic differences between the two main ethnicities that inhabited the region, notably over the actions undertaken by the Newreyans during the Calming. Despite this, it was during the 16th and 17th centuries, however, that the Commonwealth would reach its Golden Age, reaching economic strength that rivalled their immediate north Asuran competitors, such as [Liiduria|Sadamic League]], while also forcing its less tangible competitors into lesser positions of prestige. It also highlighted its military might by consistently defeating the armies of Midrasia and Aleia during the Mydrro-Commonwealth Wars, while its Navy was large enough to ensure the security of the Commonwealth's overseas empire.

Partitions of Cuirpthe-Newrey

The Mydro-Commonwealth Wars were several bloody conflicts between the Commonwealth and Midrasia over several years. What began as an intervention into the rebellion escalated into a full scale war not only to liberate Cuirpthean culture, but to reclaim Midrasian territory and split the northern power. Midrasia held the advantage, aided in the war by several allies such as Aleia and tir Lhaeraidd. The Commonwealth initially held its ground, fairing well against the invaders, but its strength was quickly ebbed away by increasing rebel uprisings in the west. The combination of rebels and invading forces pushed through the defenses of the Commonwealth, and served to quickly turn the tide in Midrasia's favor, ending the era of the Commonwealth.

Following the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars, the Commonwealth was carved up by the invaders, some taking land and others insisting that the nation be split. The first major change was Midrasia's reclaiming of Elsouf, a region taken by the Commonwealth many years prior. Aleia would be given parts of northwestern Newrey that make up parts of the Grensfel and Sten regions today, and small borderlands of western Cuirpthe would be annexed by tir Lhaeraidd. But the most notable change was the complete split of the Commonwealth into Cuirpthe and Newrey in 1722, at that time satellite republics to the Midrasian Republic. Little growth would be experienced by either nation until 1784 and the onset of the Midrasian Revolution. After the conclusion of the conflict, Cuirpthe and Newrey would be released. The descendants of the old royal family of Corragh came forward and asserted their power again. Cillian I, the closest male descendant to the Duchy, would claim the throne, naming himself the ruler of the newly formed Kingdom of Cuirpthe.

The Kingdom of Cuirpthe

Model of the city of Drogheda in southeast Cuirpthe, located in the Ballinluska National History Museum. The model shows the city as it was in 1826.

The Kingdom of Cuirpthe would be one of the nations to succeed the commonwealth, retaining many of its expansionist and anti-outsider beliefs. Its borders were fairly similar to those of modern Cuirpthe, holding a slight bit more land on its western and southern border. Following their release and subsequent return to monarchism, the Kingdom of Cuirpthe began building notoriety. The nation interfered in small conflicts, supporting rebellions in those they considered enemies and helping subjugate them in close allies. Cuirpthe held close ties with its northern neighbor, the United Kingdom of Lhedwin. The two nations dominated trade in the Lhedwinic Channel, and were major contenders in trade across the Sea of Vrnallia and Opal Ocean.

Small rebellions peppered the history of the kingdom, each subjugated by the extensive military. These uprisings became so frequent that in 1824, King Ronan II enforced larger garrisons in major cities, with soldiers acting as a police force across the nation. Ronan II was unpopular with most Cuirptheans because of this decision, and protesters blatantly disregarded and defied orders from the occupying soldiers. Beatings and other brutal acts occurred, and public backlash became enough for Ronan II's successor, Dillon I, to end the forced occupation, restoring the old garrisons.

General James O'Callaghan leading Cuirpthean troops against Midrasian forces in the Padania region.

The nation's largest burst of notoriety, as well as the decision that lead to their downfall, came from a decision made by King Richard III in the late 19th century, when the Kingdom chose to support Veleazean troops at war against Midrasia.They provided supplies and troops to the Veleazean military, and eventually joined the war on Veleaz's side, invading from the north. Eventually Veleaz would capitulate,but this war would solidify good relations between Cuirpthe and Veleaz, and serve as an early prelude to the Great War, notably Cuirpthe's joining of the Concordant.

Colonialism

Throughout the late 18th and early 19th century, Cuirpthe, like many other Asuran powers, participated in colonial ventures to expand its power beyond the continent. Several colonies have been founded across the word, on multiple different continents. In 1826, Cuirpthean ships landed on the island of Saint Aratóir off the coast of modern day Vidoria. Unknown to them, The Kingdom of Veleaz, another great power in Asura, had already landed on the southern tip of the island, and were currently waging a war against native settlers from the nearby continent of Rennekka. These colonies would eventually meet and coexist for several years before a formal alliance between Veleaz and Cuirpthe was signed. As a show of friendship, Veleaz gifted control of the island to Cuirpthe, under which it remains today.

In 1863, Cuirpthean colonists landed in northwest Arabekh, in modern day (tbd). This was following reports of some luxury resources like diamonds and gold being reported on the continent. The colony would extend as far as the mountains of north Arabekh, and no further east than the (tbd) river. Cuirpthean Arabekh would play a part in the Great War, due to the proximity of other Asuran colonies. The closest one of these colonies to Cuirpthean Arabekh was Lhedwinic Arabekh, and the two shared limited military access during the war against Aquidneck, both by invasions of Aquidneck's colony in eastern Arabekh and in attacks over the Strait of Troping.

The Great War

The Great War was an exceptionally large conflict centered mostly around the nations of Asura and their colonies worldwide, beginning on the 13th of September 1895 and ending with the signing of treaties on the turn of the century, December 31st 1899.

Cuirpthe's inclusion in the war began only 4 days following the Veleazean declaration of war on Midrasia. Cuirpthe's neighbor to the west, tir Lhaeraidd, had already been in support of the Midrasian war effort, providing troops to the front lines on the Veleazean border. Cuirpthe's first action as a member of the Concordat was a swift invasion of Lhaeraidh land, forcing the nation to divert its forces and fortify the border with Cuirpthe. These fortifications would hold for much of the war, preventing Cuirpthe from any major gains in the west. Likewise, enemy troops never delved too deep into Cuirpthe, with only periodic skirmishes. During this time, Cuirpthe would send invasion parties across the Vaellian mountains in an attempt to force Midrasia into a two-front war. These attempts unfortunately did little to stretch the Midrasian defences, in part due to the natural defense of the large mountain range, spurring the government to end all Vaellian Expeditions. Forces originating in the Lhedwinic would occasionally pass through Cuirpthe and continue along this front, though the vast majority of their soldiers were shipped overseas to the Veleazean front.

Cuirpthean trenches along the Newreyan Border, 1897.

Upon Newrey's entry into the war, Cuirpthe was forced to divert most of its western troops to the east in an attempt to stave off Newreyan invasion. This front, nicknamed 'the Meatgrinder' by Newreyans due to their heavy sustained losses, would consume nearly a third of Cuirpthe's total manpower during the war, and cost Cuirpthe hundreds of thousands. Eventually, the sustained losses in the east forced Cuirpthe to capitulate, having lost a significant amount of land and a comparable number of soldiers. Parliament deemed that to continue fighting would be too costly and officially surrendered on November 14th, 1899. Treaties against Cuirpthe focused mostly on carving up it's land, ceding approximately 100 kilometers of land along the western border to tir Lhaeraidd. Similarly in the west, the large amounts of Cuirpthean land in the east would be ceded to Newrey and the new border would be along the Eallsabh river. Over the past century, however, the changing shape of the Eallsabh has led to similar border irregularities that continue to cause disputes between the two countries. A Republic would be propped up in the remains of the Kingdom, relatively stable considering the reparations imposed following their surrender. Unrest would only peak in the late 30s and 40s, during the rise of communism and the red scare.

Post-War Period

Immigrants arriving at Portlaoise, circa 1912

In Cuirpthe, a great economic boom would follow the conclusion of the Great War. The reparations imposed on the Republic were small in comparison to their allies, and the influence of the Grand Alliance nations led to significant growth in the national economy. In contrast, the nations of Alemannia as well as Veleaz were faced with hardship, poverty universally present as it was during the industrial revolution. Many looked for a new start in other nations. Cuirpthe, one of these nations, received an influx of these eager workers, mostly centered around bustling port cities like Portlaoise and Tuagore. Trade between Cuirpthe and its allies increased, and new infrastructure projects sprung up across the nation. But, what seemed like a golden age for the nation quickly proved itself to be quite the opposite. A depression had begun to set in during the 30s, and the effects were plain to see. The wages of many workers, primarily those in factories and mills, reached an all time historic low. Migrant camps and the homeless became a staple of big cities, slums present in some way in every urban environment. The government, already unstable due to its corrupt ways, now faced endless strikes, protests and the occasional violent riot. Some major figures in the industrial community, such as the revolutionary Dermot McMillan, would see their rise due to these protests. many would latch on to his speeches of oppression and hardship. His large following and insurgent views would lead to his founding of the Cuirpthean People's State, a group seeking the downfall of the Republic and rise of communism.

The People's Uprising

The Cuirpthean Civil War, commonly known as the People's Uprising, was a major conflict in Cuirpthe that took place from 1933 to 1937. The Republic, unstable and falling apart during the midst of a major depression, was tested in its first war against the Cuirpthean People's State, the communist revolutionary government that sought to depose the Prime Minister and replace the Parliament with a Soviet council, instituting a communist government similar to that of Veleaz.

The buildup to the war took place throughout late June and early July of 1933. Dermot McMillan, a known communist revolutionary, had been rising in notoriety due to his numerous speeches in the Tuagore area. Many of these speeches called for the end of the ineffective Prime Minister and Chancellor positions, as well as the destruction of the corrupt Parliament. He believed in the creation of a fair council that would listen to the people rather than act for itself. He also believed that the injustice of the government would lead to the inevitable collapse of democracy and rise of communism, and only then, he said, would the world be equal. The actual war began on the 16th of July, 1943, during an event known as the Mohill Uprising. A group of approximately 150 civilians, led by McMillan, attempted to drive out the government police and troops from the town of Mohill, and were able to use it as a stronghold for some time. Eventually, military pressure forced them to retreat, and McMillan used this as an excuse to preach the violence and injustice of the military. His followers began multiplying quickly, flocking to his words of equality and freedom.

The CPS named Tuagore its capital in 1935, and began a full scale rebellion with most of the northeast under their control. The war would rage on for the next two years, with no real gain from either side. It would reach its end following the Republic's Operation Gananáil, a massive blockade of all CPS ports, ending any form of supply from its eastern supporters. The military would make major gains in the south, wrapping east around the rebel nation. Generals compared this movement to that of a snake, suffocating its prey. The false government would collapse finally on February 21st, 1937, with an official surrender the next day. McMillan would be tried for treason and crimes against the state, sent to prison for the rest of his life. The Republic of Cuirpthe would be unified by this victory, and fuel the general hatred of the communist threat during the coming Red Scare.

Modernity

With the conclusion of the People's Uprising, the republic became vastly more stable. Democratic legislation was introduced at an accelerated rate as the government worked to reinvent itself and purge corruption, introducing new freedoms across the 50s and 60s. Cuirpthe would join the Aeian Community(At that time the Asuran Community) during this period, and would later join the
Freedom Bridge in Aizean, spanning the Annalee River.
Commonwealth of Democratic Nations when it formed later. The economy thrived following new reforms by Prime Minister Rory Lynch in 1976 and 77, under pressure from worker's strikes against low wages and bad working conditions. Cities like Portlaoise and Aizean saw massive growth with the increase in trade, shipping and manufacturing, the cities extending to include vast metro areas.

Multiple controversies occurred during this time as well, the most famous being the Gallagher Affair. Prime Minister John Gallagher was found to be in the possession of embezzled funds from his company, the Gallagher hotel chain that provided hotel services in Cuirpthean cities, and included locations in some neighboring nations. After having been elected, he entrusted the company to his brother. In 1994, both were caught i possession of stolen funds meant to pay worker's wages, as well as taxes. Gallagher was taken to high court, where he was found guilty and removed from office. The incident caused many citizens to lose confidence in their government, and was altogether a mark of shame to the nation.

The Gallagher Hotel in Ballinluska, seen from above.

Since this controversy, the nation has rebuilt itself once more, and stands as a pillar of freedom in the world. The old brick buildings of the past blend together with the sleek glass skyscrapers of Cuirpthe's future, marking an era of change. Cuirpthe has passed many reforms in the past several decades, including the legalization of marijuana in 2002, legalization of abortion in 2006, and multiple reforms in favor of LGBT rights in 2011.

Geography

The mainland of Cuirpthe is located entirely within western Asura, bordering the nations of Newrey, Midrasia and tir Lhaeraidd. The border with Midrasia lies along the Vaellenian mountain range, acting as a natural southern barrier that has both protected Cuirpthe from invasion and isolated its culture from those of southern Asura. Cuirpthe is bisected by the Ballisodare river, through which imports from overseas countries reach deep into the nation's interior, such as Ballinluska and Invern. The river Annalee in the east acts as another major trade center, along which lies the city of Tuagore and a multitude of smaller towns that drive the Cuirpthean agricultural industry. Cuirpthe is relatively flat when compared to neighbors such as tir Lhaeraidd or Newrey. Cuirpthe's highest point is located in the Vaellenian mountains, at 2,962 m (9,718 ft) above sea level. The nation, at 180,462 square kilometers(72,152 square miles) in area, is fairly average in size when compared to other nations in Asura, though is smaller than the majority of its neighbors.

Most of the population lives along the northern coast surrounding the Lhedwinic Channel, with the first and third largest cities being Portlaoise and Tuagore respectively. The second largest city is the capital, Ballinluska, located near the center of the nation. Smaller population centers lay along the upper Annalee and other rivers, and smaller towns and cities dot the rest of the nation. Much of the plains in Cuirpthe are known for crop growing, notably potato and barley, but also wheat, oats and beets. Cuirpthe's one overseas territory, the Saint Aratóir archipelago, consists of one large landmass (sharing its name with the archipelago as a whole) and 13 smaller islands along its northeastern coast. It is relatively flat, with its maximum elevation at the peak of Mount Dubhghall, at a height of 707 meters (2,313 ft) above sea level.

Climate

Cuirpthe is dominated by a temperate seasonal climate, characterized by the humid westerly winds. The nation is located directly between the oceanic climate of western Asura and the continental climate of central Asura. The climate of the region is moderated by the powerful North Opal Current, the northern extension of the Columbian Stream. This warmer water has a constant effect on the areas bordering the Sea of Vrnallia; because of this, areas in the northwest experience an oceanic climate. Cuirpthe receives an average of 765 mm (30 in) of precipitation per year; autumn tends to be the wettest season while spring is the driest. Winters in Cuirpthe are cool, with mean temperatures in January of 1.5 °C (34.7 °F), while summers are warm, with a mean temperature in August of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). Temperatures very rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F).

Eastern Cuirpthe, as well as the south, lie in the continental climate zone. The Vaellenian mountains act as a shield, excluding southern Cuirpthe from the oceanic zone experienced by Midrasia and Aquidneck to the south. Winters in this region can be very cold and summers quite warm, while longer dry periods are experienced. Much of the Vaellenian mountains experience a mountain climate, with extremely low temperatures and higher precipitation. The climate is rarely extreme, with occasional spikes in temperature, both cold and hot. Winter temperatures can drop to two-digit negatives for multiple days in a row, while summers can see long periods of high temperatures for weeks at a time. The most extreme temperatures recorded in Cuirpthe, since 1874 when recordings began, was 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in 1975 and −31.2 °C (−24.2 °F) in 1982. Snowfall is quite common in central and southern Cuirpthe, though tends to occur less along the coast of the Sea of Vrnallia.

The region of Saint Aratóir lies in a tropical climate, making variations in weather rare. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The average temperature is 21 °C (69.8 °F) in January and 27 °C (80.6 °F) in July. St Aratóir is known to be hit with frequent storms during hurricane season due to their proximity to the Columbian Sea: however, it is rare for the archipelago to be hit directly by a hurricane, as most usually travel northward toward southern Vestrim. One particularly disastrous exception to rhis was Hurricane Ian, a storm that hit the region in mid 1995. Saint Aratóir was hit by its southern edge, which caused widespread power outages and displaced close to 700 local residents of the island. No major hurricane has hit the island since then.

Ecology

Cuirpthe belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and can be subdivided into two {[wpl|ecoregions}}: the Opal mixed forests and Lhedwinic mixed forests. Almost all of Cuirpthe's primeval temperate forests have been destroyed or fragmented, chiefly for agricultural purposes during the last millennia. The deforestation has created areas of heathland and sand drifts. In spite of this, there are several larger second growth woodlands in the country and, in total, 12.9% of the land is now forested. Navack spruce is the most widespread tree (2017).

Roe deer occupy the countryside in growing numbers, and large-antlered {[wpl|red deer}} can be found in the sparse woodlands of the east. Cuirpthe is also home to smaller mammals, such as {[wpl|polecats}}, hares and hedgehogs. Approximately 400 bird species inhabit Cuirpthe and about 160 of those breed in the country. Large marine mammals include healthy populations of Harbour porpoise, growing numbers of pinnipeds and occasional visits of large whales, mostly consisting of orcas. Cod, herring and plaice are abundant fish in Cuirpthean waters and form the basis for a large fishing industry.

Environment

Land and water pollution are two of Cuirpthe's most significant environmental issues, although much of the country's household and industrial waste is now increasingly filtered and sometimes recycled. The country has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1968 Cuirpthe established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to enforce regulations on environment and climate defense. However, the national ecological footprint is 8.26 global hectares per person, which is extremely high compared to a world average of 1.7 in 2010. Contributing factors to this value are an exceptional high value for cropland but also a relatively high value for grazing land, which may be explained by the substantially high meat production in Cuirpthe (115.8 kilograms (255 lb) meat annually per capita) and the somewhat large economic role of the meat and dairy industries.

Cuirpthe has an outstanding performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 12 out of 180 countries in 2016. This recent and significant increase in ranking and performance is mostly due to remarkable achievements in energy efficiency and reductions in CO2 emission levels. A future implementation of air quality improvements are expected. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how well individual countries perform in environmental quality. The environmental areas where Cuirpthe performs best (i.e. lowest ranking) are sanitation (12), water resource management (13) and health impacts of environmental issues (14), followed closely by the area of biodiversity and habitat. The latter are due to the many protection laws and protected areas of significance within the country even though the EPI is not considering how well these laws and regulations are affecting the current biodiversity and habitats in reality; one of many weaknesses in the EPI. Cuirpthe performs worst (i.e. highest ranking) in the areas of environmental effects of fisheries (128) and forest management (96). The very poor ranking in the fisheries area are due to alarmingly low and continually rapidly declining fish stocks, placing Cuirpthe among the worst performing countries of the world.

Politics

Cuirpthe is a unitary state operating under the system of a parliamentary republic. The [[Prime Minister of Cuirpthe|prime minister] and the executive branch derives its power and legitimacy from the legislature. The structure of the government was lain out by the Dlíbenúsacha(Fundamental Law), the constitution put into place following the conclusion of the People's Uprising in 1947. Amendments usually require a two-thirds majority in both houses; fundamental laws in the Dlíbenúsacha denoting human dignity, separation of powers, state structure and the {[wpl|rule of law}} are valid in perpetuity.

The prime minister, Micheal Wilson(23 August, 2018 - Present), is the head of state and is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers, including diplomatic proceedings. He was elected by a combined basic majority in both houses of the Rialhairle(Government Council). The second highest official in the order of precedence is the Head Councilor of the Rialhairle, who presides over both houses.He oversees the operations of each house, including the daily sessions of both bodies, as well as the performance of certain officials, most notably the Speaker of the House of Delegates. the third highest member of the government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Head Councilor after election by the Rialhairle.

The chancellor, Aidan Henderson (23 August 2018–present), is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet, similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Senate and House of Delegates, which together form the legislative body. The Senate is elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (single transferable vote). The members of the House represent the governments of the thirteen states and two autonomies, and are members of the provincial cabinets.

Since 1954, the party system has been dominated by the Conservative People's Party and the Freedom Party of Cuirpthe. So far, every chancellor since 1948 has been a member of one of these parties. However, multiple smaller parties have played important roles and make up significant portions of the parliament. Since 2003, the left-wing populist party The Left, formed through the merger of three former parties, has been a staple in the Cuirpthean Senate.

Law and Justice

Cuirpthe has a civil law system based on Fiorentine law with some references to Alemannic law. The Bhunreachúirt (Constitutional Court) is the Cuirpthean Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. Cuirpthe's supreme court system, is specialized: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Supreme Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Supreme Labour Court, the Supreme Social Court, the Supreme Finance Court and the Supreme Administrative Court.

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Pioncód (Penal Code) and the Sibhalcód (Civil code) respectively. The Cuirpthean penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges sit side by side with professional judges. Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states.

Cuirpthe has a low murder rate with 0.9 murders per 100,000 in 2014.

Administrative Divisions

As of the ratification of the 1974 Partition Act, Cuirpthe is divided into 10 regions, which further subdivide into 26 provinces, as well as one overseas territory. The autonomous cities of Portlaoise and Ballinluska are considered provinces, while the Ballinluska metropolitan area(consisting both of parts of the province of Ballinluska and neighboring Incour) make up the region of Greater Ballinluska. Regions create laws through which to govern their citizens, and these laws are valid even if contradictory to national legislature. Furthermore, provinces create their own laws, usually exceptions or conditions not mentioned by the laws of the regions that contain them. This can lead to issues in the court of law, such as in the Ballinluska region. The laws of the provinces of Ballinluska and Incour are both valid, alongside the laws of the region as a whole, despite certain contradictions between these three sets of laws. This is the only part of the country where this occurs, as it is the only case of a province existing in two separate regions.

CuirptheRegions.png
Regions Capital Population (2015)
Chestalve TBD TBD
Corragh TBD TBD
Dromleigh TBD TBD
Eallsabh TBD TBD
Greater Ballinluska Ballinluska TBD
Greater Vaellenia TBD TBD
Kistenluska Portlaoise TBD
Manore TBD TBD
Mayavane TBD TBD
Narraghmore TBD TBD
Saint Aratóir Kilronan TBD

Saint Aratóir

Saint Aratóir is a group of islands off the coast of Vidoria in the Southern Opal Ocean. It is Cuirpthe's only overseas territory and is the westernmost region of the nation, enjoying much greater autonomy than other regions due to its great distance and cultural differences from Cuirpthe as a whole, making it harder to govern directly from Ballinluska. The territory, measuring 470 square miles(756 km) is comprised of one large island(referred to by the name St. Aratóir) and thirteen smaller islands along its north and eastern coasts. Saint Aratóir enjoys limited self-governance and autonomy, and Cuirpthe takes full responsibility over their defense and foreign affairs. St. Aratóir's capital is Kilronan(Cuirpthean: Cill Rónáin).

Controversy exists over the island's discovery and colonization by Asurans. At separate times it has been occupied by Cuirpthean, Midrasian, Veleazean and Diarian settlers. Cuirpthe was gifted the right to own the island by Veleaz in 1834, and following Vidorian claims, reasserted its ownership with a small military installation, later growing to be a CDN outpost in the Opal Ocean. In June 1946, Vidoria invaded and occupied the island, though Cuirpthean forces were able to reclaim it two months later. Most Aratóirans are in favor of remaining a Cuirpthean territory, and the Vidorian government has stopped actively claiming the island. However, movements both on St. Aratóir and Vidoria exist for its ownership by the Rennekkan nation, leading to various protests and even terrorist attacks over the last several decades.

Foreign Affairs

Military

Economy

The Cuirpthean economy is relatively strong, with a GDP of $1.482 trillion, placing it as the world's 12th largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, and with a per capita of $40,963. The Cuirpthean economy is the 8th largest on the Asuran continent, following Vvarden at $1.804 trillion. As a member of the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations, Cuirpthe enjoys the luxury of visa-free travel with its neighbors and the free movement of goods, as well as other benefits that come with a single open market. Cuirpthean companies are allowed to operate in Commonwealth states without the need for independent registration. the Cuirpthean government is strongly in favor of a unified currency for the Commonwealth, to aid less fortunate nations in developing their economies and to further unify the economies of the constituent states. Both the Cuirpthean public and other Commonwealth nations are strongly against this idea, due to individual strengths of their economies and inherent nationalism.

Cuirpthe would be an early nation to take part in the industrial revolution, with most historians considering the nation to have fully industrialized in the mid 19th century. While agriculture remained an important Cuirpthean industry(as it still does today), but factories, primarily those producing textiles and later, the steel industry, were slowly becoming the dominant force in the economy. The resources gained from colonies such as Saint Aratóir and North Arabekh contributed to the expansion of the industrial sector, providing resources such as precious metals and ores as well as an ample oil supply in Saint Aratóir(a supply that is almost completely depleted today, and now protected from extraction by the government). Luxuries such as jewelry(mainly diamond, ruby and topaz), ornate ivory decorations and other exotic goods became widely available in northern Asura. This economy only grew over the years, until the conclusion of the Great War. While not as serious as those imposed on Veleaz and Lhedwin, Cuirpthe was faced with heavy war reparations that greatly hurt the economy. As economic growth stagnated, the Cuirpthean government's solution was to print more currency, which only lowered its value. This reckless action would be one of the contributing factors to the post war global depression that destroyed a multitude of worldwide economies. Cuirpthe would be hit especially hard by the Great Famine, which nearly killed the Cuirpthean agricultural sector. These factors led to growing unrest with the nation, and the attempted overthrowing of the Republic by communist rebels. The failure of this rebellion would unify the Cuirpthean people, and contributed to the widespread hatred of communism that would lead to Cuirpthe's involvement in the Second Great War. This greater unification also caused economic reform that led to the strengthened economy boasted by Cuirpthe today.

Today, the Cuirpthean economy is a mixed market economy, with the great majority of assets in the hands of private corporations. Energy, public transport(including railroad, air and naval travel), postal services and the defense industry are primarily supplied by private companies, though many of these services have government-run counterparts. Services, primarily those associated with labor, but also insurance, security and education, make up a sizable portion of the overall economy, being one of the fastest growing sectors in Cuirpthe after the Second Great War. However, science and technology have seen unprecedented growth in the late 80s and 90s, both in the publicly funded scientific endeavors of the government and privately owned efforts to expand Cuirpthe beyond Aeia and into space.

Agriculture

Historically, the Cuirpthean economy has been centered around agriculture. However, in recent years, it makes up much less of the economy overall. In the 1960s, Cuirpthean exports made up 25% of Asuran agricultural shipping. Today, it makes up less than 12%, with economic focus having shifted toward manufacturing and other industrial sectors. Cuirpthean agriculture is composed mostly of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and beets. While most of what is produced goes toward feeding Cuirpthe, the excess is sold overseas, mostly to other CDN nations, but also allies and friendly nations, including tir Lhaeraidd, Motsvara, and others. Most of the nation's agriculture takes place in the south east, mainly in the Manore and Mayavane regions, which are relatively flat and well irrigated. 61% of Cuirpthean agriculture is done privately on family farms, with the remainder made up by large, corporate owned farms.

Exotic agricultural goods such as rice, tobacco, coffee, sugar and various tropical fruits like pineapple, bananas, plantains and coconut, make up nearly the entire Aratóiran economy, approximately 85%. Most of these crops are shipped directly back to the Cuirpthean mainland, with around 20% going to nearby trade partners like Renneque and Vidoria. Agriculture currently makes up 11% of Cuirpthe's GDP, and employs 6.2% of the population.

Transport

Energy and infrastructure

Science and technology

Tourism

Demographics

Cuirpthe's population is estimated to be 34,245,102, according to the most recent census taken in July of 2017. Cuirpthe's small size in relation to its neighbors contributes to this relatively small population, making it 8th in western Asura and 10th in the entirety of the continent. Cuirpthe's population density is 192 people per square kilometer. The most populated areas of Cuirpthe are along the northern coastline, as well as on the banks of the Ballisodare and Annalee, historically populated areas due to their ability to sustain crops and large settlements. The five most populated provinces, in order of most to least populated, are Kistinlusca, Rinnockuey, Dromleigh, Eallsabh and Narraghmore, and the three most populated cities are Portlaoise, Ballinlusca and Tuagore; Upper and Lower Vaellenia are thw two least populated provinces, primarily due to the mountains that make up the majority of the regions. The population has been steadily rising over the last century, following the Great Famine of 1907, an event that lowered the population by almost 35%, both through death and emigration, and forced the nation to rely on meager imports from its neighbors. Following the end of the famine in 1912, the population recovered and has been increasing ever since. Cuirpthean life expectancy has generally stayed close to 80.35 years (79.46 for males and 81.23 for females), with an average fertility rate of 1.63 children per woman, quite low in terms of all of Aeia but relatively average in Asura.

A small but significant portion of the population consists of national minorities due to close relations with neighbors as well as an influx of immigration in the early 20th century. The largest of these minorities, at around 24% of the population, identify as Lhaeraidh in origin, due to the blurred line between Cuirpthean and Lhaeraidh culture in the early days of both nations. 19% of the population is made up of ethnically Newreyans and Midrasians, the former caused by the large period in which the two states were a single Kingdom and the latter caused by occupation of some Cuirpthean regions following the Great War. The last major ethnic group is Alemannic at 11% of the population. Following the Great War, a great number of Alemannic immigrants flocked to Cuirpthe to take part in the rapidly developing industry, and becoming a major part of north Cuirpthean culture in the post-war period. other notable groups include the native Aratóiran peoples and Vidorians, which make up about 0.8% of the total population. Many Cuirpthean citizens also live overseas, primarily in other CDN nations, but also in parts of Asura, mostly tir Lhaeraidd, Newrey and Crylante, though this portion of the population makes up only about 12% of all citizens.

Major Cities

Ethnic Groups

The Cuirpthean ethnicity is considered to be of Thiaric origin, with an admixture of Fiorentine(Midrasians) and Lanamannic(Newreyans) groups. Some regions express this separate heritage more than others; Areas along the north and east have high Alemannic and Newreyan populations while similarly, Midrasian and Vaellian groups inhabit the far south, as well as some Lileldic and Rigjordic minorities in the north. Immigration from Alemannia following the Great War, as well as a second wave following the Second Great War, influenced the culture and demographics of northern Cuirpthe greatly, and the 400 year union of Cuirpthe and Newrey led to a hugely intertwined culture. In 2006, the census reported that approximately 91% of Cuirptheans are white, with the remaining 9% made up by Arabekhi, Majulan and Cataian minorities.

It is estimated that around 30% of the population is at least partially descended from the different waves of immigration received throughout the 20th century. The largest of these waves was a number of Alemannic travelers relocating to the northern coast in the wake of the Second Great War, a group of almost 1.1 million. Similarly, Lhedwinic and Veleazean immigrants were common following the First Great War, as well as Midrasians and Newreyans crossing the newly opened border. Also following the first Great War were inhabitants of the former Cuirpthean colonial possessions of Cuirpthean descent, returning to the nation following the independence of the overseas states.

Cuirpthe, while not as major as some of its neighbors, remains a destination for immigrants. The nation accepts on average 50,000 legal foreign born nationals a year. The CDN allows free movement between member states and as such, most Cuirpthean immigrants originate from other CDN states.

Approximately 76% of the population identifies as "White Cuirpthean", making up the largest portion of the national population. 7% identifies as Newreyan, 3% for both Midrasian and Alemannic, and 2% for other white Asuran ethnicities. 2% of the remaining population is considered North Arabekhi, originating in the former Cuirpthean North Arabekh colony. 1% claims to be eastern Majulan, with 3% East Cataian, 2% Native Rennekkan and 1% other ethnicities. Much of this is estimated to fill in gaps left by those who chose not to identify themselves as any ethnicity.

Similarly to Midrasia, academic and political scrutiny have been directed at the Cuirpthean census for conflating race and ethnicity. Between 1991 and 2016, bills to restrict, limit and even abolish the census have been presented to Parliament 6 times. None of these bills has ever passed, and the census continues to occur every 5 years.

Language

Cuirpthean is the official language of Cuirpthe, and is predominantly spoken by the majority of the population. Cuirpthean is a Peripheral Thiaric language, closely related to Mawr Lhaeraidh and Mardic. To a lesser extent, it is also related to Central Thiaric languages like Vaellenian and Mân Lhaeraidh. Cuirpthean vocabulary is derived almost entirely from the Thiaric branch of the Cataisuran language family, with significant minorities of words borrowed from Newreyan and Old Fiorentine. Cuirpthean is written using the Fiorentine alphabet.

Cuirpthe is mostly spoken within Cuirpthe's own borders, with 89% of the population being native speakers, and 7% claiming to speak it as a second language. Due to the greater extent of its borders prior to the Great War, Cuirpthean is also spoken in some portions of the neighboring countries. This includes a significant portion of tir Lhaeraidh, close to the border, regions of Newrey on the far side of the Eallsabh and some small portions of northern midrasia.

There are several dialects of Cuirpthean, noticeably different from the standard language but close enough to be considered the same. These include an Alemannic dialect spoken in some small parts of the northern coast, originating in Alemannic immigrants learning the language, and introducing their own words to fill in the blanks of Cuirpthean. Similarly, a Lhaeraidh dialect exists throughout the western provinces and some regions of tir Lhaeraidd, a mix of the two Peripheral Thiaric languages. All of these dialects are mutually intelligible, and spoken by less than 10% of the total population. Notable native minorities are Newreyan, Vaellian, Lilledic, {[wpl|Insular Danish|Rigjordic}} and Mawr Lhaeraidh. Around 76% of Cuirptheans claim to be multilingual, with only 23% claiming to speak three or more languages; the most commonly spoken second language is Newreyan, at 63% of all multilingual speakers, followed by Midrasian at 37% and Mawr Lhaeraidh at 12%.

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