Cuirpthe

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Cuirpthean Republic
Cuirptheach Repoblicht
Flag
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: " Conáigh."
"Onward."
Anthem: Our Gilded Nation
CapitalBallinluska
Largest city Portlaoise
Official languages Cuirpthean
Recognised regional languages Newreyan
Ethnic groups 43% Cuirpthean, 24% Lhaeraidd, 19% Newreyan/Midrasian, 11% Almannic, 3% Other
Demonym Cuirpthean
Government Unitary Republic
 -  Prime Minister Micheal Wilson
 -  Chancellor Aidan Henderson
Legislature Rialhairle
 -  Upper house Senate
 -  Lower house House of Delegates
Area
 -  Total 186,873 km2
72,152 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 3.8
Population
 -  2017 census 34,245,102
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $1,482,000,000,000
 -  Per capita $40,963
Gini (2017)positive decrease 34.3
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.913
very high
Currency Cuirpthean Gaolda (GDA)
Time zone West Asuran Standard Time (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) West Asuran Summer Time (UTC+0)
Date format YYYY/MM/DD
Drives on the right
Calling code +91
Internet TLD .cu

Cuirpthe, officially the Cuirpthean Republic (Cuirpthean: Cuirptheach Repoblicht ) is a Representative Democracy in western Asura, located within Aeia. Metropolitan Cuirpthe is situated on the northern coast of the nation, with the capital Ballinluska located on the banks of the Ballisodare River. The nation is split into 27 administrative divisions, including the autonomous cities of Ballinluska and Portlaoise, and the overseas territory of Saint Aratóir. Cuirpthe shares land borders with three nations; tir Lhaeraidd, Midrasia and Newrey.

Cuirpthe's roots are in hundreds of barbarian tribes that once existed within its borders, warring over resources and raiding other cultures. These 'barbarians' were named by the Fiorentines, a way of calling them inferior and brutish, as well as grouping them with their neighbors. Raids against the Fiorentine Empire would occur until eventual absorption, when Fiorentine culture intermingled with that of the barbaric northerners. This Fiorentine influence would last after the fall of the empire, and lead to a period of warring states, as approximately 60 small nations were formed, building small fiefdoms in the wake of Midrasian rule. Three kingdoms would form from this, and later one unified Cuirpthe, larger than the one we know today. Eventually, a royal marriage would result with the unification of Cuirpthe and its neighbor Newrey, creating a Commonwealth that would become a powerful force in northern Asura, but causing oppression of Cuirpthean culture by Newreyans.

Following the breakup of the Commonwealth in the Mydro-Commonwealth wars, Cuirpthe would build its Asuran and overseas influence, both by gaining power back on its home continent and building colonies in the far off reaches of Aeia. Its influence could only last so long, however, as the outcome of the Great War left it crippled, a weak republic that could barely support itself, and was eventually consumed by rebels in the People's Uprising. Eventually, Cuirpthe was able to retaliate and defeat the communist rebels, forming a much stronger republic in its wake; That republic is what today is known as Cuirpthe.

Cuirpthe is a pioneer of information technology, home to a multitude of technical colleges, and is the leading force in the journey beyond Aeia into space. The Cuirpthean educational system is above average, on par with other Asuran nations. Also located in Cuirpthe are a multitude heritage sites, ranging from several ancient monuments to Fiorentine structures to Great War era battlefields. Despite the horrible instability caused by the post war Republic, Cuirpthe has reclaimed its former glory as a new pillar of democracy, surviving the collapse of monarchism and the rise of communism within its own borders. Cuirpthe is a developed country with an exceptionally large economy. The Cuirpthean economy has been drifting toward post-industrial society, however due to the growing popularity of Cuirpthean electronics, vehicles and other goods, manufacturing remains an important part of economic growth.

Etymology

The Cuirpthean name for the country, Cuirpeath (irregularly pronounced [ˈkɔɐ̯pjəx]), as well as the Newreyan name Cuirpthe, ultimately originate from the word corp meaning "person"; a form of this word in Old Mawrish was cuirp and this form was used in deriving the adjective cuirpeath originally meaning "of the people" or "popular". Eventually the word corp and its derivatives came to refer to the Cuirpthean people in contrast to outsiders, and so the adjective took on the meaning "Cuirpthean". This was applied to the territory inhabited by Cuirptheans, eventually becoming the regular word for referring to Cuirpthe. A new derivative form Cuirptheach was developed to refer to the Cuirpthean people, leaving corp and Cuirptheach as entirely distinct words. From a very literal perspective, therefore, Cuirpeath means "(place) of the people" and Cuirptheach means "of the (place) of the people".

During the time of the Newreyan-Cuirpthean Commonwealth, the word Cuirptheach was Newrickised as Cuirpthe, with the adjective misunderstood as referring to the country. Spelling pronunciation led to the <th>, by this time silent in Cuirpthean, being reintroduced as /θ/ by the Newreyans. Due to the supremacy that the Newreyan language had in this period, it was this adaptation that typically spread to other languages.

History

Prehistory

A typical proto-Asuran simple chopping-tool. This example is from the Vaellenian Mountains.

The first recorded Cuirptheans are estimated to have migrated north from Midrasia about 1.6 million years ago. This is based on evidence such as tools and fossils found scattered through the Vaellenian mountains, as well as across southern Cuirpthean valleys, where evidence of temporary settlements has been shown across major rivers. Structures presumably built by primitive societies are located in parts of southern and eastern Cuirpthe, under study from scholars from multiple nations in Asura. Caves in these regions contain images of large animals, and hunters with primitive weapons. Tools found have ranged from simple cutting tools to spears and other weapons.

Similarly to the southern migrating Mydras people, ancient Cuirptheans traveled toward the coasts of the Lhedwinic Channel and Sea of Vrnallia, and established small farming and fishing settlements. Many of these settlements would be abandon, but some would go on to form major Fiorentine cities. These cities would become trade centers in the north, both for the Fiorentines and the kingdoms that succeeded them.

Antiquity

Map of the Fiorentine Empire at its greatest extent in 80 CE

In ancient times, the land today known as Cuirpthe was dominated by hundreds of small barbarian tribes. These tribes were disorganized and in a state of near constant war, competing for resources with tribes across northern Asura. Their cultures, while ultimately similar, had vast differences in their customs and way of life. Generally, the ancient Mawrish people of Cuirpthe referred to themselves as the Már, similar to the Mawr Lhaerraidh Mór, or people. Despite the vast amount of tribes, they grouped themselves into three cultures based on location and culture. The Márléibe (Fiorentine:Maralibi), or "people of the mountains", were a large culture of nomads that traveled the foothills of the Vaellenian mountains, living off what they hunt. The Mármaige (Fiorentine:Marbacci) or "people of the fields", lived off the land, with agriculture and domesticated animals being the main source of food. Horseback riding, as well as workhorses, became a major part of Mármag culture. To the far north was a large group that lived along the coasts, with fishing and early boats being central to their culture. Their name for themselves is today unknown, and the Fiorentines adopted Boreamari (northern Már) as a general term for them. This status quo would last for thousands of years, with little change in Cuirpthean way of life. The eventual cause for change would come from the rapidly approaching rise of the Fiorentine Empire, providing a reason for the tribes to unite against a common enemy.

The Fiorentine Empire, long since in control of the Padanian Basin, had been slowly taking land from their tribal neighbors. The land to their west, called Aquinum, or "water place"(later Aquineccum and finally Aquidneck) had been integrated into the empire, and the regions of Carcoja, Bevenia and Vvarden were under partial control. Excursions through the Intermodum Pass, a natural area of low elevation in the southern Vaellenian mountains, were becoming more frequent, later resulting in a major trade city (Intermodium, modern name Invern) being founded on the northern side of the mountain. The Márléibe were wary of the southerners, who forced them further and further away from their normal hunting grounds. peace stretched ever thinner until the Fiorentines declared what would later be known as the first of the Marric Wars, a series of conquests by Fiorentines of the Cuirpthean and Lhaeraidh regions lasting from 8 BCE to 6 CE, when the north fell to Fiorentine rule. The modern city of Tuagore, of which the Fiorentine name is unknown, was a major trade city through which proto-Crylantian and Fiorentine cultures intermingled and grew from one another.

Imperial rule lasted until the year 492 CE. Over the centuries, the Empire's control waned and barbarian attacks of Fiorentine settlements increased in frequency. The Betrayal at Mydroll officially marked the death of the Empire with Emperor Salonius's death, betrayed by the King of the Mydroll, Marciús Braga. As his armies marched through Midrasia, Cuirpthean clans rose up in defiance of the soldiers that controlled their land. Without a government to issue them orders, the Fiorentine army collapsed into chaos, soldiers attempting to escape the inevitable revolt of the northern territories. By 504, Cuirpthe was entirely controlled by newly founded kingdoms, duchies and lordships, hundreds of which were now vying for control in the newly created power vacuum. An era of war had begun in Cuirpthe, set to last for the the better part of the next millennium.

Middle Ages

Rímór Castle in eastern Cuirpthe

Eventually the wars in Cuirpthe would die down, leading to three major nations in today's borders. These were the Duchy of Narraghmore along the east, the Lordship of Dromleigh and the Duchy of Corragh(Formerly the Duchy of Ballinluska). These three had absorbed much of the many smaller kingdoms and duchies, leaving the three to compete over land, resources and power. Narraghmore, the largest and most powerful of the three, was on the brink of collapse. Duke Liam II was dying, and the nation was struggling to find an heir. In order to preserve order, the Duke's sister, Caitlín, married Prince Isaiah of Newrey in 1419. Prince Isaiah's father was in power at the time, so Newrey and Narraghmore, rather than unifying, were placed into a personal union. Over the next 60 years, Narraghmore would declare war on and subsequently absorb both other kingdoms of Cuirpthe, unifying the region as the Kingdom of Cuirpthe in 1476. In this same year, Cuirpthe and Newrey would be briefly unified by the ascension of Isaiah I, the king of both nations.

Isaiah would hold power for just a short two years before he died in 1478. His two sons, Stanley and William, would each inherit one of his two thrones, splitting the nation into Cuirpthe and Newrey once again. When Stanley died of sickness in 1484, leading to the Act of Union.

Act of Union of 1484

15th century tapestry depicting a ball held at the Newreyan capital following unification.

Due to the lack of heirs to the Cuirpthean throne, the Kingdom was once again desperate for anybody to keep power within the family. The chosen solution was for William I to take control of Cuirpthe as well, uniting the two as the Newreyan-Cuirpthe Commonwealth. The flat and fertile lands of Cuirpthe proved a boon to Newrey as it didn't require to continuous fighting as had been the case of Padania. However, before full control could be exercised, a number of rebellious barons and vassals had to be subdued, resulting in the 3 decade long Calming of the Commonwealth, where armies of Newrey would consistently defeat the vassals in battle to bring them under the control of the Newreyan king.

For a brief period after the Calming, the Commonwealth enjoyed a period of relative peace as trade with the Midrasian kingdoms, the Lhedwinic kings, and beyond proved profitable to the nation as it exploited the fertile lands of Cuirpthe. However, following a devastating fire in the Cuirpthean city of Portlaoise due to a mistranslation over cargo limits, King Michael gave into the public pressure of Newrey and decreed that Newreyan would be the language used in all official business across the Commonwealth and its territories. While the decree initially only required it to be used in official capacity and political dealings, many dukes and barons understood it as the order to suppress any usage of Cuirpthean throughout the Commonwealth, with it being banned in schools and from being taught. This perceived attempt of eliminating Cuirpthean culture as a whole resulted in a number of rebellious nobles to beg the King of Midrasia to intervene. While the intervention was defeated, it kickstarted the beginning of the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars that would eventually lead to the decline and collapse of the Commonwealth.

Early Modern Period and Nineteenth Century

Partitions of Cuirpthe-Newrey

The Mydro-Commonwealth Wars were several bloody conflicts between the Commonwealth and Midrasia over several years. What began as an intervention into the rebellion escalated into a full scale war not only to liberate Cuirpthean culture, but to reclaim Midrasian territory and split the northern power. Midrasia held the advantage, aided in the war by several allies such as Aleia and tir Lhaeraidd. The Commonwealth initially held its ground, fairing well against the invaders, but its strength was quickly ebbed away by increasing rebel uprisings in the west. The combination of rebels and invading forces pushed through the defenses of the Commonwealth, and served to quickly turn the tide in Midrasia's favor, ending the era of the Commonwealth.

Following the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars, the Commonwealth was carved up by the invaders, some taking land and others insisting that the nation be split. The first major change was Midrasia's reclaiming of Elsouf, a region taken by the Commonwealth many years prior. Aleia would be given parts of northwestern Newrey that make up parts of the Grensfel and Sten regions today, and small borderlands of western Cuirpthe would be annexed by tir Lhaeraidd. But the most notable change was the complete split of the Commonwealth into Cuirpthe and Newrey in 1722, at that time satellite republics to the Midrasian Republic. Little growth would be experienced by either nation until 1784 and the onset of the Midrasian Revolution. After the conclusion of the conflict, Cuirpthe and Newrey would be released. The descendants of the old royal family of Corragh came forward and asserted their power again. Cillian I, the closest male descendant to the Duchy, would claim the throne, naming himself the ruler of the newly formed Kingdom of Cuirpthe.

The Kingdom of Cuirpthe

Model of the city of Drogheda in southeast Cuirpthe, located in the Ballinluska National History Museum. The model shows the city as it was in 1826.

The Kingdom of Cuirpthe would be one of the nations to succeed the commonwealth, retaining many of its expansionist and anti-outsider beliefs. Its borders were fairly similar to those of modern Cuirpthe, holding a slight bit more land on its western and southern border. Following their release and subsequent return to monarchism, the Kingdom of Cuirpthe began building notoriety. The nation interfered in small conflicts, supporting rebellions in those they considered enemies and helping subjugate them in close allies. Cuirpthe held close ties with its northern neighbor, the United Kingdom of Lhedwin. The two nations dominated trade in the Lhedwinic Channel, and were major contenders in trade across the Sea of Vrnallia and Opal Ocean.

Small rebellions peppered the history of the kingdom, each subjugated by the extensive military. These uprisings became so frequent that in 1824, King Ronan II enforced larger garrisons in major cities, with soldiers acting as a police force across the nation. Ronan II was unpopular with most Cuirptheans because of this decision, and protesters blatantly disregarded and defied orders from the occupying soldiers. Beatings and other brutal acts occurred, and public backlash became enough for Ronan II's successor, Dillon I, to end the forced occupation, restoring the old garrisons.

General James O'Callaghan leading Cuirpthean troops against Midrasian forces in the Padania region.

The nation's largest burst of notoriety, as well as the decision that lead to their downfall, came from a decision made by King Richard III in the late 19th century, when the Kingdom chose to support Veleazean troops at war against Midrasia.They provided supplies and troops to the Veleazean military, and eventually joined the war on Veleaz's side, invading from the north. Eventually Veleaz would capitulate,but this war would solidify good relations between Cuirpthe and Veleaz, and serve as an early prelude to the Great War, notably Cuirpthe's joining of the Concordant.

Colonialism

Throughout the late 18th and early 19th century, Cuirpthe, like many other Asuran powers, participated in colonial ventures to expand its power beyond the continent. Several colonies have been founded across the word, on multiple different continents. In 1826, Cuirpthean ships landed on the island of Saint Aratóir off the coast of modern day Vidoria. Unknown to them, The Kingdom of Veleaz, another great power in Asura, had already landed on the southern tip of the island, and were currently waging a war against native settlers from the nearby continent of Rennekka. These colonies would eventually meet and coexist for several years before a formal alliance between Veleaz and Cuirpthe was signed. As a show of friendship, Veleaz gifted control of the island to Cuirpthe, under which it remains today.

In 1863, Cuirpthean colonists landed in northwest Arabekh, in modern day (tbd). This was following reports of some luxury resources like diamonds and gold being reported on the continent. The colony would extend as far as the mountains of north Arabekh, and no further east than the (tbd) river. Cuirpthean Arabekh would play a part in the Great War, due to the proximity of other Asuran colonies. The closest one of these colonies to Cuirpthean Arabekh was Lhedwinic Arabekh, and the two shared limited military access during the war against Aquidneck, both by invasions of Aquidneck's colony in eastern Arabekh and in attacks over the Strait of Troping.

The Great War

The Great War was a massive conflict centered mostly around Asura and Asuran colonies, beginning on the 13th of September 1895 and ending with the signing of treaties on the turn of the century, December 31st 1899.

Within a week of Veleaz declaring war on Midrasia, Cuirpthe had organized its troops for war. The western neighbor to Cuirpthe, tir Lhaeraidd, had already joined Midrasia, and were prevented from supplying them troops by an assault from Cuirpthe. Much of the war for Cuirpthe was spent holding its position against Lhaeraidd, little could be done to pass by the heavy fortifications. Likewise, enemy troops never delved too deep into Cuirpthe, with only periodic skirmishes. During this time, Cuirpthe would send invasion parties across the Vaellenian mountains in an attempt to weaken Midrasia and force it into a two front war, but these attempts did little and eventually ended. Lhedwinic troops occasionally continued this front through parties sent overland across Cuirpthe, though most of their forces were shipped overseas to Veleaz.

Cuirpthean trenches along the Newreyan Border, 1897.

Upon Newrey's entry into the war, Cuirpthe was forced to divert most of its western troops to the east in an attempt to stave off Newreyan invasion. This front, nicknamed 'the Meatgrinder' by newreyans due to their heavy sustained losses, would eat up nearly a third of Cuirpthe's total manpower during the war, and cost Cuirpthe many men.

Eventually, these sustained losses forced Cuirpthe to capitulate, having lost a significant amount of land in the east and a comparable amount of soldiers. The government decided it would be too costly to continue fighting, leading to the Cuirpthean surrender on May 17th, 1899. In the aftermath of the war and signing of treaties, a new Republic would be set up in Cuirpthe. Designed to bring democracy and freedom to the oppressive kingdom, it was easily seen as corrupt and unstable. Despite this, it lasted several decades before unrest would reach any dangerous level.

Post-War Period

Arriving at Portlaoise, circa 1912

Cuirpthe experienced an industrial boom in activity following the Great War. Alemannia in the east had not recovered well from the conclusion of the war, and many Alemannic people migrated west to find jobs in western Asura. Cuirpthe received an influx of these eager workers, mostly centered around bustling port cities like Portlaoise and Aizean. Trade increased, and infrastructure projects sprung up across the nation. But, what seemed like a golden age for the nation quickly proved itself to be quite the opposite. Worker's wages were at an all-time low, and unemployment due to the lack of jobs lead to many people becoming homeless. The already unstable government now had to deal with protests and some riots over better wages and more jobs. Already deep into a depression, economic issues worsened, leading to some, such as young communist revolutionary Dermot McMillan,who called for the corrupt government to be gotten rid of. Even after the end of the depression and economic stability returning, these cries for evolution never faltered, and culminated in a civil war spanning over much of eastern Cuirpthe.

The People's Uprising

The People's Uprising was a major conflict in Cuirpthe that happened from 1943 to 1947. The war took place between the young Republic and the Cuirpthean Peoples' State, whose goal was to overturn the government and form a communist nation. It began in northern Cuirpthe along the coast, centered mostly around Tuagore, where the CPS's leader, Dermot McMillan, denounced the government, its leadership and its policies. These early protests were ignored, but eventually it became impossible to look the other way when McMillan began arming his followers.

The actual war began on the 16th of July, 1943, during the Mohill Uprising. A group of approximately 150 civilians, led by McMillan, attempted to drive out the government police and troops from the town of Mohill, and were able to use it as a stronghold for some time. Eventually, military pressure forced them to retreat, and McMillan used this as an excuse to preach the violence of the army. His followers began multiplying quickly.

The CPS named Tuagore its capital in 1945, and began a full scale rebellion with most of the northeast under their control. The war would rage on for the next two years, with no real gain from either side. It would reach its end following the Republic's Operation Gananáil, a massive blockade of all CPS ports, ending any form of supply from its eastern supporters. The army pushed in from the south and west, cutting off the Peoples' State from the Midrasian border(through which communists were able to smuggle weapons and supplies through). After that point, it would only be two months until the end of the rebellion and the conclusion of the civil war. McMillan would be imprisoned for life, on charges of high treason and conspiring against the government.

Modernity

With the conclusion of the People's Uprising, the republic became vastly more stable. Democratic legislation was introduced at an accelerated rate as the government worked to reinvent itself and purge corruption, introducing new freedoms across the 50s and 60s. Cuirpthe would join the Aeian Community(At that time the Asuran Community) during this period, and would later join the
Freedom Bridge in Aizean, spanning the Annalee River.
Commonwealth of Democratic Nations when it formed later. The economy thrived following new reforms by Prime Minister Rory Lynch in 1976 and 77, under pressure from worker's strikes against low wages and bad working conditions. Cities like Portlaoise and Aizean saw massive growth with the increase in trade, shipping and manufacturing, the cities extending to include vast metro areas.

Multiple controversies occurred during this time as well, the most famous being the Gallagher Affair. Prime Minister John Gallagher was found to be in the possession of embezzled funds from his company, the Gallagher hotel chain that provided hotel services in Cuirpthean cities, and included locations in some neighboring nations. After having been elected, he entrusted the company to his brother. In 1994, both were caught i possession of stolen funds meant to pay worker's wages, as well as taxes. Gallagher was taken to high court, where he was found guilty and removed from office. The incident caused many citizens to lose confidence in their government, and was altogether a mark of shame to the nation.

The Gallagher Hotel in Ballinluska, seen from above.

Since this controversy, the nation has rebuilt itself once more, and stands as a pillar of freedom in the world. The old brick buildings of the past blend together with the sleek glass skyscrapers of Cuirpthe's future, marking an era of change. Cuirpthe has passed many reforms in the past several decades, including the legalization of marijuana in 2002, legalization of abortion in 2006, and multiple reforms in favor of LGBT rights in 2011.

Geography

Cuirpthe is located entirely within western Asura, bordering the nations of Newrey, Midrasia and tir Lhaeraidd. The border with Midrasia lies along the Vaellian mountain range, acting as a natural southern barrier. The river is bisected by the Ballisodare river, through which imports from overseas countries reach some inland cities, like Ballinluska. The river Annalee runs in the east, and along both rivers are cities such as Portlaoise and Aizean, major trade centers in the nation. Cuirpthe is relatively flat when compared to neighbors such as tir Lhaeraidd or Newrey. The nation, at 186,873 square kilometers(72,152 square miles) in area, making it fairly average in size when compared to other nations in Asura.

Most of the population lives along the northern coast surrounding the Lhedwinic Channel, with the first and third largest cities being Portlaoise and Aizean respectively. The second largest city is the capital, Ballinluska, located near the center of the nation. Smaller population centers lay along the upper Annalee and other rivers, and smaller towns and cities dot the rest of the nation. Much of the plains in Cuirpthe are known for crop growing, notably potato and barley, but also wheat, oats and beets. Cuirpthe has no overseas territory, claiming only the mainland in Asura and several insignificant islands in the Lhedwinic Channel.

Climate

Cuirpthe has a temperate climate, characterized by mild winters, with mean temperatures in January of 1.5 °C (34.7 °F), and cool summers, with a mean temperature in August of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). The most extreme temperatures recorded in Cuirpthe, since 1874 when recordings began, was 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in 1975 and −31.2 °C (−24.2 °F) in 1982. Cuirpthe has an average of 179 days per year with precipitation, on average receiving a total of 765 millimeters (30 in) per year; autumn is the wettest season and spring the driest. Weather changes often due to its position at the opening of the Lhedwinic Channel, between continental Asura and the ocean.

Ecology

Cuirpthe belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and can be subdivided into two {[wpl|ecoregions}}: the Opal mixed forests and Lhedwinic mixed forests. Almost all of Cuirpthe's primeval temperate forests have been destroyed or fragmented, chiefly for agricultural purposes during the last millennia. The deforestation has created areas of heathland and sand drifts. In spite of this, there are several larger second growth woodlands in the country and, in total, 12.9% of the land is now forested. Navack spruce is the most widespread tree (2017).

Roe deer occupy the countryside in growing numbers, and large-antlered {[wpl|red deer}} can be found in the sparse woodlands of the east. Cuirpthe is also home to smaller mammals, such as {[wpl|polecats}}, hares and hedgehogs. Approximately 400 bird species inhabit Cuirpthe and about 160 of those breed in the country. Large marine mammals include healthy populations of Harbour porpoise, growing numbers of pinnipeds and occasional visits of large whales, mostly consisting of orcas. Cod, herring and plaice are abundant fish in Cuirpthean waters and form the basis for a large fishing industry.

Environment

Land and water pollution are two of Cuirpthe's most significant environmental issues, although much of the country's household and industrial waste is now increasingly filtered and sometimes recycled. The country has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1968 Cuirpthe established a Ministry of Environment to enforce environmental and climate protection. However, the national ecological footprint is 8.26 global hectares per person, which is very high compared to a world average of 1.7 in 2010. Contributing factors to this value are an exceptional high value for cropland but also a relatively high value for grazing land, which may be explained by the substantially high meat production in Cuirpthe (115.8 kilograms (255 lb) meat annually per capita) and the large economic role of the meat and dairy industries.

Cuirpthe has an outstanding performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 12 out of 180 countries in 2016. This recent and significant increase in ranking and performance is mostly due to remarkable achievements in energy efficiency and reductions in CO2 emission levels. A future implementation of air quality improvements are expected. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how well individual countries perform in environmental quality. The environmental areas where Cuirpthe performs best (i.e. lowest ranking) are sanitation (12), water resource management (13) and health impacts of environmental issues (14), followed closely by the area of biodiversity and habitat. The latter are due to the many protection laws and protected areas of significance within the country even though the EPI is not considering how well these laws and regulations are affecting the current biodiversity and habitats in reality; one of many weaknesses in the EPI. Cuirpthe performs worst (i.e. highest ranking) in the areas of environmental effects of fisheries (128) and forest management (96). The very poor ranking in the fisheries area are due to alarmingly low and continually rapidly declining fish stocks, placing Cuirpthe among the worst performing countries of the world.

Politics

Cuirpthe is a unitary state operating under the system of a parliamentary republic. The [[Prime Minister of Cuirpthe|prime minister] and the executive branch derives its power and legitimacy from the legislature. The structure of the government was lain out by the Dlíbenúsacha(Fundamental Law), the constitution put into place following the conclusion of the People's Uprising in 1947. Amendments usually require a two-thirds majority in both houses; fundamental laws in the Dlíbenúsacha denoting human dignity, separation of powers, state structure and the {[wpl|rule of law}} are valid in perpetuity.

The prime minister, Micheal Wilson(23 August, 2018 - Present), is the head of state and is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers, including diplomatic proceedings. He was elected by a combined basic majority in both houses of the Rialhairle(Government Council). The second highest official in the order of precedence is the Head Councilor of the Rialhairle, who presides over both houses.He oversees the operations of each house, including the daily sessions of both bodies, as well as the performance of certain officials, most notably the Speaker of the House of Delegates. the third highest member of the government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Head Councilor after election by the Rialhairle.

The chancellor, Aidan Henderson (23 August 2018–present), is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet, similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Senate and House of Delegates, which together form the legislative body. The Senate is elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (single transferable vote). The members of the House represent the governments of the thirteen states and two autonomies, and are members of the provincial cabinets.

Since 1954, the party system has been dominated by the Conservative People's Party and the Freedom Party of Cuirpthe. So far, every chancellor since 1948 has been a member of one of these parties. However, multiple smaller parties have played important roles and make up significant portions of the parliament. Since 2003, the left-wing populist party The Left, formed through the merger of three former parties, has been a staple in the Cuirpthean Senate.

Law and Justice

Cuirpthe has a civil law system based on Fiorentine law with some references to Almannic law. The Bhunreachúirt (Constitutional Court) is the Cuirpthean Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. Cuirpthe's supreme court system, is specialized: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Supreme Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Supreme Labour Court, the Supreme Social Court, the Supreme Finance Court and the Supreme Administrative Court.

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Pioncód (Penal Code) and the Sibhalcód (Civil code) respectively. The Cuirpthean penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges sit side by side with professional judges. Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states.

Cuirpthe has a low murder rate with 0.9 murders per 100,000 in 2014.

Administrative Divisions

As of the ratification of the 1974 Partition Act, Cuirpthe is divided into 10 regions, which further subdivide into 26 provinces, as well as one overseas territory. The autonomous cities of Portlaoise and Ballinluska are considered provinces, while the Ballinluska metropolitan area(consisting both of parts of the province of Ballinluska and neighboring Incour) make up the region of Greater Ballinluska. Regions create laws through which to govern their citizens, and these laws are valid even if contradictory to national legislature. Furthermore, provinces create their own laws, usually exceptions or conditions not mentioned by the laws of the regions that contain them. This can lead to issues in the court of law, such as in the Ballinluska region. The laws of the provinces of Ballinluska and Incour are both valid, alongside the laws of the region as a whole, despite certain contradictions between these three sets of laws. This is the only part of the country where this occurs, as it is the only case of a province existing in two separate regions.

CuirptheRegions.png
Regions Capital Population (2015)
Chestalve TBD TBD
Corragh TBD TBD
Dromleigh TBD TBD
Eallsabh TBD TBD
Greater Ballinluska Ballinluska TBD
Greater Vaellenia TBD TBD
Kistenluska Portlaoise TBD
Manore TBD TBD
Mayavane TBD TBD
Narraghmore TBD TBD
Saint Aratóir Kilronan TBD

Saint Aratóir

Saint Aratóir is a group of islands off the coast of Vidoria in the Southern Opal Ocean. It is Cuirpthe's only overseas territory and is the westernmost region of the nation, enjoying much greater autonomy than other regions due to its great distance and cultural differences from Cuirpthe as a whole, making it harder to govern directly from Ballinluska. The territory, measuring 470 square miles(756 km) is comprised of one large island(referred to by the name St. Aratóir) and thirteen smaller islands along its north and eastern coasts. Saint Aratóir enjoys limited self-governance and autonomy, and Cuirpthe takes full responsibility over their defense and foreign affairs. St. Aratóir's capital is Kilronan(Cuirpthean: Cill Rónáin).

Controversy exists over the island's discovery and colonization by Asurans. At separate times it has been occupied by Cuirpthean, Midrasian, Veleazean and Diarian settlers. Cuirpthe was gifted the right to own the island by Veleaz in 1834, and following Vidorian claims, reasserted its ownership with a small military installation, later growing to be a CDN outpost in the Opal Ocean. In June 1946, Vidoria invaded and occupied the island, though Cuirpthean forces were able to reclaim it two months later. Most Aratóirans are in favor of remaining a Cuirpthean territory, and the Vidorian government has stopped actively claiming the island. However, movements both on St. Aratóir and Vidoria exist for its ownership by the Rennekkan nation, leading to various protests and even terrorist attacks over the last several decades.

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