|This article is incomplete because it is pending further input from participants, or it is a work-in-progress by one author.|
Please comment on this article's talk page to share your input, comments and questions.
Note: To contribute to this article, you may need to seek help from the author(s) of this page.
안니카탸국어 / 안니카탸국말|
Error creating thumbnail: File missing
Error creating thumbnail: File missingUnited Republic (Anikatian Emmerian)
Error creating thumbnail: File missingBelhavia (Anikatian Belhavians)
Error creating thumbnail: File missingPrestonia (Anikatians in Prestonia),
Error creating thumbnail: File missingKongnŭngjang (Anikatians in Kongnŭngjang),
Error creating thumbnail: File missingKolenomai (Anikatians in Kolenomai)
|Native speakers||172+ million (2008–2012)|
Ak'ijianun Characters (mixed script)
Cyrillic script (Annikatya-mar)
|Official language in||Anikatia|
|Regulated by||The National Institute of the Anikatian Language|
Countries with native Anikatian-speaking populations.
Anikatian (안니카탸국어 / 안니카탸국말, see below) is spoken by about 132 million speakers, primarily in Anikatia, where it is the national language. Historical linguists classify Anikatia as a language isolate. Although it is a member of the Anikatic language family, whose relation to other language groups, particularly to Prestonian is debated. For over a millennium, Anikatians had used the Ak'ijianun language which had a considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology. In the 15th century, a new national writing system was commissioned called Gungmun. Following the colonialism from Sieuxerr, the Ulthrannic Empire, Arthurista and particularly the Kingdom of Belfras, led to the flow of loanwords from other languages to increased significantly. English loanwords in particular have become frequent, and Anikatian words from English roots have proliferated.
- 1 Names
- 2 Classification
- 3 History
- 4 Geographic distribution
- 5 Dialects
- 6 Grammar
- 7 Vocabulary
- 8 Writing system
- 9 Study by non-native learners
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
The Anikatian names for the language are based on the names for Anikatia. The language is most often called Annikatyagugmal (안니카탸국말), consisting of Annikatya (안니카탸), the Anikatian name for Anikatia, and mal (말, meaning "speech"). More formally, it may also be called Annikatyagugeo (안니카탸국어) or Gugeo (국어; literally "national language").
The majority of historical linguists classify Anikatian as a language isolate. The hypothesis that Anikatian might be related to Prestonian has had some supporters due to some overlap in vocabulary and similar grammatical features that have been elaborated upon by some researchers. However some linguists concerned with the issue and have argued that the indicated similarities between Prestonian and Anikatian are not due to any genetic relationship, but rather to a sprachbund effect and heavy borrowing, especially from ancient Anikatia into Old Prestonia.
Anikatian is spoken by the Anikatian people in Anikatia and by the Anikatian diaspora in many countries including Belhavia, the United Republic, and Prestonia. Anikatian-speaking minorities exist in these states, but because of cultural assimilation into host countries, not all ethnic Anikatians may speak it with native fluency.
Anikatian is the official language of Anikatia. The regulatory body for Anikatian is the Antiytia-based National Institute of the Anikatian Language (안니카탸 언어의 국립 연구소), which was created by presidential decree on June 12, 1954.
Anikatian has numerous small local dialects (called mal (말) literally "speech", saturi (사투리), or bang'eon (방언) in Anikatian). The standard language (pyojuneo or pyojunmal) is based on the dialect of the area around Antiytia. All dialects of are similar to each other and at least partially mutually intelligible, though the dialect of the Seulbyeni Islands, the Yuntai Islands, Jinju Jedo and Anjutya Island our divergent enough to be sometimes classified as a separate language. This is particularly the case with the Yuntai dialect and to a lesser extent the Seulbyeni dialect spoken on these islands are distinct enough to be considered a separate branch of the Anikatic family; not only is each of these dialects nearly unintelligible to the ordinary Anikatian speakers. One of the more salient differences between dialects is the use of tone: speakers of Antiytia dialect make use of vowel length, whereas speakers of the Seulbyeni dialect maintain the pitch accent of Middle Anikatian. Some dialects are conservative, maintaining Middle Anikatian sounds (such as z, β, ə) which have been lost from the standard language, whereas others are highly innovative.
There are few clear boundaries between Anikatian dialects, and they are typically partially grouped according to the adminstrative divisions of Anikatia. Standard Anikatian which is based on Antiytia dialect the has become prevalent nationwide (including the Yuntai and Seulbyeni islands) due to education, mass media, and an increase of mobility within Anikatia, as well as economic integration.
|Nasal||ㅁ /m/||ㄴ /n/||ㅇ /ŋ/|
|plain||ㅂ /p/ or /b/||ㄷ /t/ or /d/||ㅈ /t͡ɕ/||ㄱ /k/ or /g/|
|tense||ㅃ /p͈/||ㄸ /t͈/||ㅉ /t͡ɕ͈/||ㄲ /k͈/|
|aspirated||ㅍ /pʰ/||ㅌ /tʰ/||ㅊ /t͡ɕʰ/||ㅋ /kʰ/|
|Fricative||plain||ㅅ /sʰ/||ㅎ /h/|
1 The liquids /w/ and /j/ are represented in Anikatian writing by modifications to vowel symbols (see below).
The IPA symbol ◌͈ (a subscript double straight quotation mark, shown here with a placeholder circle) is used to denote the tensed consonants /p͈/, /t͈/, /k͈/, /t͡ɕ͈/, /s͈/. Its official use in the Extensions to the IPA is for 'strong' articulation, but is used in the literature for faucalized voice. The Anikatian consonants also have elements of stiff voice, but it is not yet known how typical this is of faucalized consonants. They are produced with a partially constricted glottis and additional subglottal pressure in addition to tense vocal tract walls, laryngeal lowering, or other expansion of the larynx.
|Monophthongs||/i/ ㅣ, /e/ ㅔ, /ɛ/ ㅐ, /a/ ㅏ*, /o/ ㅗ, /u/ ㅜ, /ə/ ㅓ, /ɯ/ ㅡ, /ø/ ㅚ|
|Vowels preceded by intermediaries,
|/je/ ㅖ, /jɛ/ ㅒ, /ja/ ㅑ, /wi/ ㅟ, /we/ ㅞ, /wɛ/ ㅙ, /wa/ ㅘ, /ɰi/ ㅢ, /jo/ ㅛ, /ju/ ㅠ, /jə/ ㅕ, /wə/ ㅝ|
/s/ is aspirated [sʰ] and becomes an alveolo-palatal [ɕʰ] before [j] or [i] for most speakers. This occurs with the tense fricative and all the affricates as well. At the end of a syllable, /s/ changes to /t/ (Example: beoseot (버섯) 'mushroom').
/p, t, t͡ɕ, k/ become voiced [b, d, d͡ʑ, ɡ] between voiced sounds.
/m, n/ frequently denasalize to [b, d] at the beginnings of words.
/l/ becomes alveolar flap [ɾ] between vowels, and [l] or [ɭ] at the end of a syllable or next to another /l/. Note that a written syllable-final 'ㄹ', when followed by a vowel or a glide (i.e., when the next character starts with 'ㅇ'), migrates to the next syllable and thus becomes [ɾ].
Traditionally, /l/ was disallowed at the beginning of a word. It disappeared before [j], and otherwise became /n/. However, the inflow of western loanwords changed the trend, and now word-initial /l/ (mostly from English loanwords) are pronounced as a free variation of either [ɾ] or [l]. The traditional prohibition of word-initial /l/ became a morphological rule called "initial law" (두음법칙) in Anikatian, which pertains to the Anikatian vocabulary.
Plosive stops /p, t, k/ become nasal stops [m, n, ŋ] before nasal stops.
Gungmun spelling does not reflect these assimilatory pronunciation rules, but rather maintains the underlying, partly historical morphology. Given this, it is sometimes hard to tell which actual phonemes are present in a certain word.
Grammatical morphemes may change shape depending on the preceding sounds. Examples include -eun/-neun (-은/-는) and -i/-ga (-이/-가). Sometimes sounds may be inserted instead. Examples include -eul/-reul (-을/-를), -euro/-ro (-으로/-로), -eseo/-seo (-에서/-서), -ideunji/-deunji (-이든지/-든지) and -iya/-ya (-이야/-야). However, -euro/-ro is somewhat irregular, since it will behave differently after a rieul consonant.
|After a consonant||After a rieul||After a vowel|
|-eun (-은)||-neun (-는)|
|-i (-이)||-ga (-가)|
|-eul (-을)||-reul (-를)|
|-gwa (-과)||-wa (-와)|
|-euro (-으로)||-ro (-로)|
Some verbs may also change shape morphophonemically.
Anikatian is an agglutinative language. The Anikatian language is traditionally considered to have nine parts of speech. For details, see Anikatian parts of speech. Modifiers generally precede the modified words, and in the case of verb modifiers, can be serially appended. The basic form of a Anikatian sentence is subject–object–verb, but the verb is the only required and immovable element.
|store + [location marker (에)]||[go (verb root) (가)]+[conjugated (contraction rule)(아)]+[past (ㅆ)]+[conjunctive (어)]+ [polite marker (요)]|
- "Did [you] go to the store?" ("you" implied in conversation)
|B:||예. (or 네.)|
|ye (or ne)|
Speech levels and honorifics
The relationship between a speaker or writer and his or her subject and audience is paramount in Anikatian, and the grammar reflects this. The relationship between speaker/writer and subject referent is reflected in honourifics, whereas that between speaker/writer and audience is reflected in speech level.
When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker or writer usually uses special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority. Generally, someone is superior in status if he/she is an older relative, a stranger of roughly equal or greater age, or an employer, teacher, customer, or the like. Someone is equal or inferior in status if he/she is a younger stranger, student, employee or the like. Nowadays, there are special endings which can be used on declarative, interrogative, and imperative sentences; and both honourific or normal sentences. They are made for easier and faster use of Anikatian.
Honourifics in traditional Anikatian were strictly hierarchical. The caste and estate systems possessed patterns and usages much more complex and stratified than those used today. The intricate structure of the Anikatian honourific system flourished in traditional culture and society. Honourifics in contemporary Anikatia are now used for people who are psychologically distant. Honourifics are also used for people who are superior in status. For example, older relatives, people who are older, teachers, and employers.
There are seven verb paradigms or speech levels in Anikatian, and each level has its own unique set of verb endings which are used to indicate the level of formality of a situation. Unlike honourifics—which are used to show respect towards the referent (the person spoken of) —speech levels are used to show respect towards a speaker's or writer's audience (the person spoken to). The names of the seven levels are derived from the non-honorific imperative form of the verb 하다 (hada, "do") in each level, plus the suffix 체, which means "style".
The highest six levels are generally grouped together as jondaenmal (존댓말), whereas the lowest level (haeche, 해체) is called banmal (반말) in Anikatian.
Nowadays, younger-generation speakers no longer feel obligated to lower their usual regard toward the referent. It is common to see younger people talk to their older relatives with banmal (반말). This is not out of disrespect, but instead it shows the intimacy and the closeness of the relationship between the two speakers. Transformations in social structures and attitudes in today's rapidly changing society have brought about change in the way people speak.
Gender and the Anikatian language
Traditionally Anikatian women are often viewed as subservient to men, and this in turn is observed in their everyday speech patterns. Some examples of this can be seen in: (1) a woman’s use of softer tone in order to minimize conflict or aggression; (2) a married woman introducing herself as someone’s mother or wife, not with her own name; (3) the presence of gender differences in titles and occupational terms (for example, a sajang is a company president and yŏsajang is a female company president.); (4) and females sometimes using more tag questions and rising tones in statements, much like the way that young children talk.
In Western societies, individuals will not avoid expressions of power asymmetry, mutually addressing each other by their first names for the sake of solidarity. Between two people of asymmetrical status in a Anikatian society, people tend to emphasize differences in status for the sake of solidarity. Anikatians prefer to use kinship terms rather than any other terms of reference. In traditional Anikatian society, women have long been in disadvantaged positions. Anikatian social structure traditionally consisted of a royal monarch, a patriarchically dominated family system that emphasises the maintenance of family lines. This structure has tended to separate roles of women from those of men.
The core of the Anikatian vocabulary is made up of native Anikatian words. A significant proportion of the vocabulary, especially words that denote abstract ideas, are Ak'ijianun words, either
- directly borrowed from written Ak'ijianun, or
- coined in Anikatia,
The exact proportion of Anikatian vocabulary is a matter of debate.
The vast majority of loanwords come from modern times, approximately 90% of which are from English. Many words have also been borrowed from Western languages due to colonisation. Some Western words were borrowed indirectly via Prestonia during the Prestonian occupation of Anikatia, taking a Prestonian sound pattern. Most indirect Western borrowings are now written according to current "Gungmunization" rules for the respective Western language, as if borrowed directly. Because of such a prevalence of English in modern Anikatian culture and society, lexical borrowing is inevitable. English-derived Anikatian, or 'Anglish', is increasingly used.
Anikatian uses words adapted from English in ways that may seem strange to native English speakers. For example, in soccer heading (헤딩) is used as a noun meaning a 'header', whereas fighting (화이팅) is a term of encouragement like 'come on'/'go (on)' in English. Something that is 'service' (서비스) is free or 'on the house'. A building referred to as an 'apart-uh' (아파트) is an 'apartment' (but in fact refers to a residence more akin to a condominium) and a type of pencil that is called a 'sharp' (샤프) is a mechanical pencil.
During the DSRA there was a tendency to prefer native Anikatian over foreign borrowings, especially due to its political objectives aimed at eliminating foreign influences on the Anikatian language. In the early years, the DSRA government tried to completely eliminate any loanwords.
Slang and Anikatian Words
The use of slang has become very popular in Anikatia since the emergence of the Internet, and is particularly prevalent in social media. In 2012, research was conducted about the frequency of slang use among students which found that 97% of university students, including 100% of middle and high school students, used slang. One of the main reasons why slang is used so much is its extensive use in media both social and more traditional (such as television and films).
The influence of slang can be seen as both positive and negative. Many Anikatians use a particular style of slang in which longer words are shortened to save time, which is especially common when using chat services. Examples of this slang include '버정' instead of '버스 정류장' (bus stop), and '멘붕' instead of '멘탈 붕괴' (mental breakdown). However, there are also negative aspects to the use of slang, the greatest concern being that teenagers will sometimes use slang in their academic writing.
Formerly, the languages of Anikatia were written using Ak'ijianun script the use of Ak'ijianun characters either as rebuses to stand for Anikatian words, or as synonyms for those words. Writing was confined to the ruling elite, who most often wrote only in Classical Ak'ijianun script.
The Anikatian alphabet was promulgated in 1446. Anikatian is now written almost exclusively in Gungmun.
Below is a chart of the Anikatian alphabet's symbols and their canonical IPA values:
Modern Anikatian is written with spaces between words, a feature not found in Prestonian. Anikatian punctuation marks are almost identical to Western ones. Traditionally, Anikatian was written in columns, from top to bottom, right to left, but is now usually written in rows, from left to right, top to bottom.
Study by non-native learners
For native English speakers, Anikatian is generally considered to be one of the most difficult languages to master despite the relative ease of learning Gungmun. For instance, the United Republic' Defense Language Institute places Anikatian in Category IV, which also includes Arabic, and Prestonian. This means that 63 weeks of instruction (as compared to just 25 weeks for French, and Asturish) are required to bring an English-speaking student to a limited working level of proficiency in which he or she has "sufficient capability to meet routine social demands and limited job requirements" and "can deal with concrete topics in past, present, and future tense." Similarly, the Foreign Service Institute places Anikatian in Category V, the highest level of difficulty.
The study of the Anikatian language in the United Republic is dominated by Anikatian Emmerian heritage language students; they are estimated to form over 80% of all students of the language at non-military universities. Anikatian is considerably easier for speakers of certain other languages, such as Kongnŭngjangi, Prestonian, and Kolenomese
- Anikatian Course - Free Anikatian language course online, in English
- URE Foreign Service Institute Anikatian basic course
- EASY ANIKATIAN - Free Anikatian lessons including grammar, listening, and vocabulary.