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|Motto: "Veritas lux mea" (Latin) (official)
"The truth is my light"
"Ni roi, ni maître!" (French) (traditional)
"Neither king nor master!"
|Anthem: De l'Aube à l'Éternité
(From Dawn to Eternity)
|Recognised regional languages||Arabic, Luziycan, Namorese, Nevan|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic (de jure)
Federal republic (de facto)
|-||Prime Minister||Marianne de Lotbinière|
|-||Deputy Prime Minister||Maxime Bélanger|
|-||President of the House of Censure||Jean de Finistère|
|-||Speaker of the House of Deputies||Renia Leokadia|
|-||Chief Justice||Alain Pouillard|
|-||Upper house||House of Censure|
|-||Lower house||House of Deputies|
|-||Unification||11 August 1145|
|-||Charter of Tourres||20 November 1252|
|-||Antelopian conquest||15 July 1677|
|-||Independence||2 May 1801|
|-||Social Revolution||19 November 1903|
|-||Accession to the Esquarian Community||2 May 1990|
423,156 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|Currency||Aininian louré (Ł) (ANL)|
|Time zone||ST+6, ST+7|
|Drives on the||right|
|Patron saint||St. Honorius
St. John the Baptist
Ainin (eɪˈnɪn; French: [ɛ.nɛ̃]), officially the Aininian Republic (French: République aininienne [ʁepyblik ɛnɛ̃njɛn]), is an island nation in Esquarium. Located at the junction of the Great Ocean and the Central Ocean, it demarks the limit between the East Namor Sea and the Sea of Nautarya. It is a de facto federal constitutional republic, composed of 13 provinces, an overseas territory and two sovereign associated states, Pisdara and Concordia. It also controls the exclave of Iberville, Jaspère within East Nautarya.
Metropolitan Ainin[note 1] is largely humid subtropical, while the Charline Islands are tropical and Iberville is desertic. The country spans 1.1 million square kilometres and has a population of around 256.7 million, making Ainin one of the most densily populated states in the world with 230 people per square kilometre. Consequently, it boasts several megacities, including the economic centre of Beaurepaire-Lièsverval (37.1 million), Esquarium's largest metropolitan area, the capital of Huimont-Tourres (24.3 million) and the cultural hub of Talon (19.1 million). Ainin is highly urbanised along the coasts, but mountainous and forested in the interior. The Aininian rainforest is home to an exceptional diversity in flora and fauna.
Ainin was initially settled by Slavic peoples from South Velkia in the 24th century BCE, who eventually formed local kingdoms and city-states. Several abortive attempts at conquest occurred, but Ainin remained fragmented and disunified until the 6th century CE, when rival imperial states emerged across the archipelago. In 1145, Marc VII of Douray completed the unification of Ainin (save for Risagne) by conquering the Kingdom of Pandres and established the Kingdom of Ainin. The Charter of Tourres in 1245 centralised power in the king, leading to unprecedented political unity. The country was wracked by uprisings, instability and civil war in the 15th century, allowing the Namorese Antelopian Dynasty to invade in 1677, quickly conquering the weak pretender states and establishing a vassal kingdom. Namorese rule initially saw a period of prosperity but was later plagued by maladministration and corruption.
In 1795, a wave of demonstrations, caused by a poor harvest and fuelled by lingering nationalism, swept the cities of Ainin and was met with force, causing open insurrection. After republican rebels proclaimed a provisional republic, their monarchist allies defected to the Namorese, leading to civil war. On 2 May 1801, the final stronghold of the imperial authorities fell and Ainin regained its independence as a republic. Radical groups seized power and initiated the Republican Terror, persecuting Namorese, monarchists and aristocrats, until they were deposed by a coup d'état in 1803, which established a military junta. The return of democracy in 1810 was followed by the end of isolationist policies, significant economic growth, industrialisation and the development of a Nautaryan colonial empire.
At the turn of the century, the government of Prime Minister Olivier Lapointe introduced major social and economic reforms now known as the Social Revolution, ushering in the Second Republic era. The country was a key victor in the Second Great War, and has played a large role in world affairs since. The 20th century saw a violent decolonisation process marked by the Nautaryan Revolution and Concordian War and a liberal shift in Aininian politics, beginning with the 1968 events and cumulating with accession to the Treaty of the Esquarian Community.
Today, Ainin is considered to be a great power and boasts global diplomatic, military, cultural and economic influence. It maintains an interventionist foreign policy and is a member-state of many organisations, including the EC, WETO and the OEN, the latter of which has its headquarters in Huimont. It possesses a developed, diversified economy and is consequently described as a post-industrial society.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
While it is not definitely known where the name "Ainin" originates, historical evidence for the use of the terms Ainyy and A'пing far predate the arrival of the Francesian explorers that brought French to Ainin in the 3rd century. The currently most recognised theory is that the word originates from arniy, a proto-Ainian name for the God of the Sea (now known as Amydon) from the pagan religion of the original settlers of the Aininian Isles, in turn coming from the proto-Luziycan name for the god of death, ayni. This theory has been criticised by some linguists because the Marlane Parchment, the first manuscript referring to Amydon as arniy, cannot be reliably be dated back to the Delan Kingdom and appears to possibly be a forgery from the 4th or 5th century CE due to anachronistic elements in it. Radiocarbon testing has proven inconclusive.
Prehistory and ancient history
The first traces of human settlement in Ainin dates to 1700 BCE
Antiquity (10th century BCE—780 CE)
Antelopian rule (1645—1795)
Early modern era (1795—1899)
Modern era (1899—present)
The climate of Ainin is primarily subtropical.
Government and politics
Ainin is a constitutional republic and parliamentary democracy. The basis of government is the Constitution of Ainin, the supreme law of the country that establishes the framework for government. The Constitution includes the Aininian Charter of Civil Rights, guaranteering a set of fundamental liberties to all citizens, and a series of amendments that have altered the core text.
The executive branch is led by the President of Ainin, who is appointed by a joint sitting of the National Assembly of Ainin at the start of its session. He in turn appoints a Prime Minister who must maintain the confidence of the House of Deputies (the confidence of the House of Censure is unnecessary as they cannot remove the government). The President wields the authority to appoint and dismiss ministers, sign treaties, set foreign policy, along with several other powers, but they exercise them by custom at their Prime Minister's recommendations. The office of President is generally held by a ceremonial "first citizen" and does not exercise executive power, although there have been exceptions to the rule (Steven Mann and Rémi de Wampley notably broke with precedent and served as powerful executive presidents). The Cabinet of Ainin is led by the Prime Minister and responsible for the day-to-day operations of the government.
The legislative branch of the Aininian government is the bicameral National Assembly of Ainin, consisting of the lower House of Deputies, whose 452 members are known as deputies (French: députés), and the upper House of Censure, whose 196 independent members are known as censors (French: censeurs). Only the lower house possesses legislative initiative.
Deputies are elected by a constituency-based first past the post system in which 452 districts (French: circonscriptions) each elect one member by plurality voting for four-year terms, although the legislature can be dissolved early by the President at the request of the Cabinet or in the event of a motion of no confidence against the government. Censors represent thirteen at-large, variable-member constituencies overlapping with each of Ainin's provinces. They are appointed by their provincial government for the life of the legislative session and are expected to represent the interests of the province. The upper house's purpose is to amend and block legislation passed by the lower house that have the potential of harming the interests of the provinces, although it has rarely exercised that power in modern times and has sparked controversy whenever it has.
Historically, the Aininian political system has consited of two main factions, the left-wing led by the Social Democratic Party (SD) and the right-wing led by the Progressive Conservative Party (PC). However, after the West Aininian crisis splintered the latter, a centrist third faction represented by the Citizens' Alliance (AC) has emerged as a major political force. The current government of Ainin is a coalition between the SD and the AC.
Ainin uses a civil law system whose fundamentals were established during the Aininian Revolution. Statutes are the primary source of law in Ainin but. unusually for a civil law system, precedent plays a significant role as well. Stare decisis binds lower courts to respect established case law and national courts have wide-ranging powers of statutory interpretation and judicial review. Courts follow the inquisitorial sytem, in which judges actively participate in fact-gathering, and do not feature juries.
The Aininian judicial system features a rigid hierarchy that passes through three levels of government: national, provincial and prefectural (regional governments do not have courts). Civil disputes and minor criminal charges are first heard before the courts of first instance (French: tribunaux de première instance), while local and provincial administrative issues are handled by the administrative tribunals (French: tribunaux administratifs), both of which are prefectural. Appeals of prefectural courts' decisions are handled by the provincial Superior Courts (French: cours supérieures), while severe criminal offences are handled by the provincial courts of assize (French: cours d'assises). Administrative disputes relating to national law are handled by the national administrative courts (French: cours administratives), while appeals of provincial superior court decisions are heard by the eleven Courts of the Republic (French: cours de la République), which also serve as the trial court for great crimes (treason, espionage and war crimes). All appeals from lower national courts go to the seven Superior Courts of Appeal (French: Cours supérieures d'appel). From then they head to the court of highest instance, which is the Supreme Court of Ainin for civil, constitutional and administrative cases, and the Republican Court of Cassation for criminal cases.
According to the Constitution, Ainin is a unitary state where the national government's authority is supreme. However, with the passage of the Twenty-third Amendment in 1986 that granted extensive powers to provincial governments, the country has become a de facto federation.
The first-level divisions in the administrative framework of Ainin consists of thirteen provinces, each with its own devolved legislature and government who are granted extensive powers. Laws passed by provincial governments can be cancelled by the National Assembly of Ainin, although in practice this is a rare occurrence. Provinces do not collect taxes, and are instead funded through the Equalisation Transfer Scheme. The Charline Islands possess a unique status as a territorial agglomeration of Ainin, equal in most respects to provinces but possessing more autonomy. The second-level division are the regions, of which there are 119. They are led by an elected executive president and Regional Council and responsible for local infrastructure and some social services. At the third level are prefectures, led by a prefect (or a mayor in urban prefectures) and Prefectural Council, which have the responsibility of implementing government policies at the municipal level. A fourth level, the canton (or arrondissement in urban prefectures), exists, but do not play a major role in government administration.
Ainin has a large professional military with 1,803,530 active personnel organised into four branches, the Army, Navy, Air Force, and National Gendarmerie, and 2,402,000 reserve personnel organised into three branches, the Republican Guard, Air Force Reserve and Navy Reserve. The President of Ainin, in his role as General of the Armies, is commander-in-chief of the Aininian Armed Forces and appoints the armed forces' professional leaders, the Chiefs of Staff. The military is overseen by the Ministry of Defence, a civilian body headed by the Minister of Defence.carrier battle groups and the Air Force's large strategic airlift capabilities. As Aininian military doctrine emphasises on rapid movement, Aininian troops tend to be less heavily armoured than their ETO counterparts, but make up for the lack of armour with a highly mobile expeditionary force and large quantities of air and naval support assets.
Ainin is a nuclear power and possesses a nuclear triad consisting of submarine-launched ballistic missiles, intercontinental ballistic missiles and strategic bombers, but has a no first strike policy towards the use of strategic nuclear weapons. The Aininian Republic also has a substantial tactical nuclear arsenal consisting of smaller explosives, mostly in the form of artillery shells, in the kiloton range. It is estimated to possess 1,500 to 2,300 warheads of all types, but refuses to disclose the exact number.
As a member-state of the Esquarian Treaty Organisation, Ainin cooperates with its allies, most notably the Namorese Liberation Army, on operations and on regional defence issues. The Aininian government spent $362 billion for the financial year of 2015 on defence, approximately 3.5% of GDP. Large Aininian defence contractors include Aininian Aerospace and General Defence.
Ainin is a multicultural society with a long history of foreign immigration, which has become a significant factor of population growth, almost surpassing natural growth as of the 2012 census. The population grew by approximately 17.2% from 1992 to 2012, one of the highest growth rates in the Esquarian Community.
The largest ethnic group in Ainin are ethnic Aininians, the native settlers of the Aininian archipelago whose arrival was documented to be in approximately 2500 BCE. As a whole, the percentage of the population that self-identifies as ethnically Aininian has steadily declined, going from 87% in 1905 to 59% in 2015. However, it is thought that the number in the early 20th century was significantly over-reported due to political conditions at the time. The second largest ethnic group are Arabs, mostly contemporary immigrants from Nautarya but also descendents of colonial populations that settled in Metropolitan Ainin. Another notable group is the Kannei Namorese, consisting of around 14% of the national population according to the most recent census, most decedents of settlers and soldiers of the Antelopian occupation of the Aininian Isles, but increasingly in modern times also immigrants.
Other significant ethnic minorities include Slavs, mostly Luziycans descending from merchants that immigrated in the 19th century. They form an ethnic majority in West Ainin and significant minorities in Mercier and Bounèsque, and Nevans, who immigrated to Ainin during 19th century Nevan famines and have largely established seperate communities and refused to integrate. In recent years, illegal immigration from Nautasia has significantly changed Aininian society, increasing social tensions and causing a demographic shift that saw Arabs pass Kannei Namorese as Ainin's largest ethnic minority in 2015.
While Aininian society tends to view religion as a personal affair, as of the 2012 Census, a majority (54%) of Aininians identify as Christian. However, only a fraction attends services more than twice a year and the number of adherents is on the decline. The next largest belief is irreligion, with 35% of Aininians identifying as such. Due to recent waves of immigration from Nautarya and other nations bordering Ainin to the south, Islam now also has a sizeable following, with 5.3% of Aininians identifying as Muslim. 3.7% identify as Txoist. The largest Christian denomination is the Lutheran Catholic Church, with the Orthodox Church a distant second.
The Aininian government practices a policy of laïcité that enjoys widespread public support. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Aininian Charter of Civil Rights but public life is very secular. Historically, the Lutheran Catholic Church has been a major political force, but their influence has steadily declined since the Aininian Revolution to the point of exercising little to no influence on government or society.
Religious extremism is a growing concern in the country as several recent terrorist attacks have been linked to fundamentalist groups, including the 2005 Boxing Day shooting and the 2014 Talonée attacks.
Education in Ainin is split into five stages, pre-primary, primary, secondary, post-secondary and tertiary. School attendance is compulsory for all children from the start of Grade 1 to the end of Grade 11, covering the entirety of primary and secondary school. While parents are encouraged to enroll their children in preschool, it is not legally mandated. Pupils in Ainin typically enter primary school at ages 4 to 5 and graduate from secondary school at age 16. While a secondary school degree is acceptable for many low- to mid-skill jobs, most students (around 78% as of 2012) continue to post-secondary education, two years of vocational education where students are specialised in a specific domain in order to prepare for university or finding employment, comparable to other nations' sixth form. Following that, they may attend university in Ainin or abroad, or seek more specialised jobs on the market.
General education is free and universal, from pre-primary to post-secondary, but private institutes of higher education levy tuition fees, which are heavily subsidised for all Aininian, Concordian, Pisdaran and Esquarian Community citizens. Like virtually all developed countries, Ainin has a very high literacy rate, estimated to be approximately 99.7%. While the government offers free education, primary and secondary private schools do however exist and are subsidised by the state. Ainin has one of the highest rates of private school enrollment in the developed world at 37% of primary school and 45% of secondary school pupils.
Healthcare in Ainin is for the most part delivered through a publicly funded system, basic examinations and operations being covered by the government through the Health and Welfare Directorate, an agency of the Ministry of Health. This system of public hospitals and clinics is complemented by a parallel privately-owned and operated network that requires payment, a form of two-tier health care. However, many services offered at the private institutions are reimbursable by the health agency. For more advanced surgeries and procedures, government health insurance may not cover it, but an individual request for compensation can be filed with the Directorate's Exceptional Cases Board. The government does not cover purely aesthetic procedures, such as plastic surgery and orthodontics. Some essential dentistry procedures are covered, but many hygienic measures are not.
The average life expectancy in Ainin is 82.2 years for women and 79.5 for men.
The vast majority of Aininians, over 86%, speak French as a mother tone, with Arabic as a distant second. In all provinces save West Ainin, French is the language of business and administration. In the latter, Luziycan is the lingua franca. Arabic is a significant minority language, with 9.1% of people speaking it as their mother tone, mostly immigrants from Nautarya. Over 99% of Aininians speak French fluently due to its preeminent status as the nation's language of culture, commerce and administration.
Dilution of the French language is seen in Ainin as major cause for concern, and the government has created the controversial Aininian Office of the French Language to regulate the language and prevent "corrupting foreign influences."
Largest cities or towns in Ainin
As inhabitants of an archipelago, Aininians' diets have historically largely consisted of seafood and so Aininian cuisine uses seafood in many ways. The traditional staple food in Ainin is wheat, with other grains such as barley and rye also having this status in certain regions. Recently, potatoes and rice, introduced during the Antelopian occupation of Ainin, have also taken hold and have become part of Aininians' diets. The most common fat used in Aininian cooking has historically been canola oil, while western regions of Jaspère instead preferred butter, but in recent years a more diverse selection has been used, with other popular fats today including corn oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. Dairy products are not too commonly used in cooking except in Jaspère, where cheese is very heavily used for a lot of dishes, probably owing to the small quantity of milk-producing lifestock in the Aininian isles. Aininian cuisine has recently had a growing reputation internationally as being fine.
A normal meal is split in five parts, and starts with an appetiser (hors-d’œuvre), a small and easily-made dish served traditionally for the purpose of keeping diners satisfied while the main dish cooked in the oven. The next dish served is invariably a soup or stew (soupe). Popular soups in Ainin are usually chicken broth or seafood-based, of which the bouillabaisse is the most famous. Another component of Aininian meals is an accompanying staple food (accompagnateur), served at the same time as the soup and typically in the form of bread or frites. After these are served comes the main dish (plat principal), which is then followed by the dessert. Popular desserts in Ainin are pastries and cream-based confections. As a result of globalisation, a sixth part, the salad, has also become popular in Ainin.
Aininian cuisine has been influenced in recent years by immigrants from Luziyca, Nautarya, Namor and Nevanmaa, amongst others, who brought their own traditional recipes with them, which found their way into Ainin's culinary mainstream.
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Saltère sparkling wine, an iconic wine produced in Ainin
Steak au poivre, a popular dish
Frites, a famous side dish usually said to have been invented in Ainin
Boule paysanne, a bread that usually accompanies meals
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A raspberry pain franc, a pastry commonly served as a dessert in eastern Ainin
Ever since prehistory, music has been a part of Aininian culture. The tradition of Aininian folk music dates back thousands of years, and has played a major role in society throughout
The performing arts have had a long and storied history in Ainin, with an extensive written record of dance and theatre dating from at least the 6th century BC. In pre-Francesian Ainin, dance played a major role in religious rites and was associated with Arniy (Amydon), the God of the Sea. Theatre was a more secular affair, with plays representing a form of entertainment during the waning days of the Western Delan Kingdom. Starting from the Golden Age of the Ainian civilisation, dance began to be seen as more of a secular art, perhaps due to foreign influences, and dance developed rapidly during the period. Social dances have traditionally been the most popular in Ainin, and by the 15th century, courante was the most popular style in the Aininian Isles. The sarabande style also gained widespread success during the 16th century. Dance was one of the fields that were little affected by the Antelopian conquest, and no noticeable foreign influences were noted during the era of the occupation. In that time however, the style of waltz developed and remains very popular to this day as a ballroom dance.Nautaryas in the 19th century allowed for an unprecedented influx of immigrants to Metropolitan Ainin who had a very large influence on the state of Aininian culture, bringing several fast styles of dance to Ainin, most notably street dance. A second cause was the rapid liberalisation of Aininian society due to the Social Revolution and the 1968 Events, causing youth to be more outspoken and the traditional family structure's degrading. This led to many new dance phenomenons starting from the 1950s that would have been unthinkable half a century ago. Through this as well as globalisation came the foreign style of disco, as well as some partially home-grown styles such as funk and hip-hop. Since the turn of the millennium, improvised dance similar to the style pioneered by Nautaryan-Aininians in the 19th century, however adapted to fit the rock and pop musical genres, has made a dramatic resurgence, similar to the case in many other western countries.
Theatre has not evolved as dramatically as dance did, with 17th century theatre remaining more or less similar to the 3rd century form in terms of structure and themes, but has had many changes since the Republic's rise. With foreign influences came the rise of the opera, which proved a major hit with Aininian audiences after being introduced from Luziyca in the 1820s, and later the musical by the 20th century, which went on to surpass traditional theatre to become the new norm in Aininian performing arts.
- 1.^ Metropolitan Ainin refers to the Aininian archipelago, i.e. excluding Iberville and the Charline Islands.