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|Motto: "Veritas lux mea" (Latin) (official)
"The truth is my light"
"Ni roi, ni mestre!" (French) (traditional)
"Neither king nor master!"
|Anthem: La République s'avance
(The Republic Marches On)
|Recognised regional languages||Arabic, Luziycan, Nevan|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic (de jure)
Federal republic (de facto)
|-||Prime Minister||Marianne de Lotbinière|
|-||Deputy Prime Minister||Maxime Bélanger|
|-||President of the House of Censure||Jean de Finistère|
|-||Speaker of the House of Deputies||Renia Leokadia|
|-||Chief Justice||Alain Pouillard|
|-||Upper house||House of Censure|
|-||Lower house||House of Deputies|
|-||Latin Republic conquest||58 BCE|
|-||Unification||11 August 1145|
|-||Charter of Tourres||20 November 1252|
|-||Independence||2 May 1801|
|-||Second Republic||2 July 1901|
|-||Accession to the Esquarian Community||3 May 1990|
206,028 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|Currency||Aininian louré (Ł) (ANL)|
|Time zone||ST+1, ST+2|
|Drives on the||right|
Ainin (eɪˈnɪn; French: [ɛ.nɛ̃]), officially the Aininian Republic (French: République aininienne [ʁepyblik ɛnɛ̃njɛn]), is a Nordanian island nation in Esquarium located at the junction of the Mercorian and Central Oceans. Governed by its 1901 Constitution, Ainin is a de facto federal constitutional republic, composed of 13 provinces, the overseas territories of Iberville and the Charline Islands, and the sovereign associated state of Pisdara. Metropolitan Ainin[note 1] is composed of dozens of islands, of which Mercier, Risagne and Vaudale are the most prominent. The country, most of which is humid subtropical, spans 1.1 million square kilometres and is home to around 128 million people concentrated along the coastlines. Consequently, it boasts several seaside megacities, including Beaurepaire, the capital region of Huimont-Tourres and the cultural hub of Talon. The Aininian interior features a lush rainforest, home to an exceptional diversity in flora and fauna, and a mountain range, composed of the Saltèrne and Cordierre Mountains, that trisects Vaudale.
Ainin was initially settled by Iron Age Lazarenite peoples from present-day Karazawa around 1000 BCE. The Latin Republic colonised Ainin in 58 BCE, displacing the Lazarenites, before its decline led to the fragmentation of the Aininian province into several petty kingdoms in the 5th century. In 1145, Marc VII of Douray reunited Ainin in the Aininian Wars of Unification, inaugurating the Kingdom of Ainin. The 1245 Charter of Tourres centralised power in the king, while the 1344 Proclamation of Union led to the annexation of Risagne. A growing global trade brought Ainin into the War of Twilight, whose cost, combined with famines, led to the Aininian Revolution in 1795—1899, starting the Aininian Revolution. In 1801, the Peace of Huimont confirmed the fall of the monarchy and the creation of a First Aininian Republic, soon after which radicals seized power and initiated the Republican Terror until they were deposed in a coup d'état. The return of democracy in 1810 was followed by a period of openness, economic growth, industrialisation and development of a Nautasian colonial empire. A new constitution at the turn of the century marked the start of the Second Republic era and a period of greater involvement in world affairs that saw the confirmation of Ainin as a major world power through the War of the Confederation. The second half of the 20th century was marked by a turbulent decolonisation process and a liberal shift in Aininian politics that cumulated in accession to the Esquarian Community.
Today, Ainin is considered a great power and wields global diplomatic, military, cultural and economic influence due to a large financial sector, high military spending and the global status of the French language. It maintains membership in many organisations, including the EC, Cenba and the International League, where it is a permanent member of the Security Council. It possesses a highly developed, post-industrial economy which is highly integrated into the Esquarian Common Market and ranks as the third-largest in Esquarium by GDP.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Prehistory and ancient history
- 2.2 Latin conquest and rule (1st century BCE—5th century CE)
- 2.3 Long Anarchy and Aininian Wars of Unification (5th century CE—1344)
- 2.4 Royal period (1344—1750)
- 2.5 Decline and revolution (1750—1807)
- 2.6 Early republican period (1807—1897)
- 2.7 Modern era (1897—present)
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
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Prehistory and ancient history
Latin conquest and rule (1st century BCE—5th century CE)
Long Anarchy and Aininian Wars of Unification (5th century CE—1344)
Royal period (1344—1750)
Decline and revolution (1750—1807)
La Chapelle died in 1807, leaving his son Pierre La Chapelle as successor.
Early republican period (1807—1897)
Modern era (1897—present)
Olivier Lapointe became president in 1897 and embarked on a bold legislative programme known as the Great Realignment. He oversaw the passage of the Constitution of 1901, which disavowed the radicalism of the revolution, established a parliamentary system and enshrined local devolution. He also implemented progressive social reforms, notably limiting Saturnist presence in society through the Intercourse Law, securing the passage of the First Amendment that enfranchised women and overseeing the National Prestation, a comprehensive plan for the first welfare state. During this period, Ainin also began asserting its presence on the world stage with a military campaign against Cortoguay. The Crisis of 1919 caused economic hardship across much of Ainin, the impact felt especially hard in the industrial north. Amid the worsening recession, Samuel Verley became the first Socialist prime minister in 1922 and greatly expanded the burgeoning welfare state. In what would become known as "Lapointism without Lapointe", he abolished the public worship of Saturnalia and launched an ambitious housing scheme. With Social Providence demand-side workfare programs, he presided over a fast economic recovery and continued industrialisation.
The first major test of Ainin's newfound international role came with the War of the Confederation. Although Verley's government initially proclaimed its neutrality, this approach became increasingly untenable as Cortoguayan unlimited submarine warfare took its toll on Aininian shipping. The sinking of the cruiser Huimont in January 1942 caused Ainin to enter the war on the Allied side, where it liberated Montnoir, defeated the Cortoguayan Navy in the 1942 Battle of the Lazarene Sea and paved the way for the following year's Invasion of Cortoguay, in which Ainin played a supporting role. In the final Treaty of Sålthal, Verley pushed for punitive reparations, although they were never implemented owing to the collapse and dissolution of Cortoguay.
In 1946, drought caused unrest in Aininian Notasia that escalated into the Notasian Desert War. Although the rebellion was eventually put down, it was done so at great cost and established a tenuous peace marred by protracted low-level insurgency. The Aininian colonial empire gradually crumbled over the following decades during the Nautasian Revolutions, beginning with the overthrow of the protectorate of Rifat in 1954. It was followed in 1965 with the Nautaryan Revolution, where a crackdown on civil society led to a brief war that was deeply unpopular in Ainin and ended with the evacuation of Aininian forces from Nautarya. The following year, colonial North Hunawiyah also collapsed under a popular revolt and obtained independence. In 1971, after a bloody two-year war, Saheil also won its independence, reducing the Aininian presence in eastern Nautasia to Iberville and the West Concordian Islands. A second, peaceful wave of revolutions followed, with independence for St. Cecilia and Assora in 1971 and self-rule in Pisdara in 1980.
Concurrently, a Liberal Awakening occurred at home as generations that grew up with the less rigid social values of post-Realignment Ainin came of age. Criminal justice reforms, including the Verley Resolution that ended capital punishment, were implemented, while youth activism put political pressure on Aininian governments to hasten decolonisation. A sexual revolution in the 1960s also saw a greater exposure in the public sphere to issues of gender inequality, family structure, sexuality, LGBT issues and abortion. As a result, homosexuality was decriminalised in 1961, abortion became legal in 1969 and the Twenty-first Amendment enshrined gender equality in law. The 1966 general strike, which saw millions of students and workers rally against colonialism and academic censorship, became a watershed moment for the Liberal Awakening and symbolised its rise as a credible political force.
The Recession of 1980 plunged Ainin into a deep recession and debt crisis, leading to protracted economic decline in the industrial north and the privatisation of many state assets, including Aininian Telecom and the National Agricultural Bank. Elected in 1982, Mohammed el-Faswa rolled back some of the unpopular economic reforms while pursuing a progressive agenda and an internationalist foreign policy. At home, he undertook the creation of positive discrimination programs known as the Preferential Laws and presided over the passage of the Twenty-third Amendment, which reformed Ainin into a pseudo-federal state. Abroad, he pursued the Faswa Doctrine which emphasised on the necessity of free trade and cooperation between liberal democracies, paving the way for the eventual drafting of the Treaty of the Esquarian Community. Faswa was assassinated in 1988, causing ethnic violence in Iberville and bringing the Liberal Awakening to an abrupt end.
Under successor Jérome d'Ardouin, Ainin became a founding member of the Esquarian Community in 1990 and host to the Council of Esquarium, the organisation's executive body. As an EC member, Ainin has been transformed by the supranational body's initiatives. Membership in the Esquarian Common Market resulted in greater economic integration and a net increase in trade volume but has proven controversial for allegedly hastening deindustrialisation and immigration, while ECHR jurisdiction Dobrev affair. Ainin continues to maintain an internationalist foreign policy, founding Cenba in 2013 and the International Fisheries Commission in 2016.
In recent years, Ainin has faced multiple challenges. Illegal immigration from Nautasia has burdened social services, resulting in inadequate integration and radicalisation and in turn contributing to acts of terror such as the 2015 Talon bombings and 2017 Coste-Dorée attacks. Ainin also faces separatist sentiments in Risagne and West Ainin, the latter of which was the site of major unrest after a botched attempt to organise a referendum.
The climate of Ainin is primarily subtropical.
Government and politics
Ainin is a constitutional republic and parliamentary democracy. The basis of government is the Constitution of Ainin, the supreme law of the country that establishes the framework for government. The Constitution includes the Aininian Charter of Rights, guaranteering a set of fundamental liberties to all citizens, and a series of amendments.
The executive branch is led by the President of Ainin, who is appointed by a joint sitting of the National Assembly of Ainin at the start of its session. He in turn appoints a Prime Minister who must maintain the confidence of the House of Deputies (the confidence of the House of Censure is unnecessary as they cannot remove the government). The President wields the authority to appoint and dismiss ministers, sign treaties, set foreign policy, along with several other powers, but they exercise them by custom at their Prime Minister's recommendations. The office of President is generally held by a ceremonial "first citizen" and does not exercise executive power, although there have been exceptions to the rule (Steven Mann and Rémi de Wampley notably broke with precedent and served as powerful executive presidents). The Cabinet of Ainin is led by the Prime Minister and responsible for the day-to-day operations of the government.
The legislative branch of the Aininian government is the bicameral National Assembly of Ainin, consisting of the lower House of Deputies, whose 452 members are known as deputies, and the upper House of Censure, whose 196 independent members are known as censors. Only the lower house possesses legislative initiative.
Deputies are elected by a constituency-based first past the post system in which 452 districts each elect one member by plurality voting for four-year terms, although the legislature can be dissolved early by the President at the request of the Cabinet or in the event of a motion of no confidence against the government. Censors represent thirteen at-large, variable-member constituencies overlapping with each of Ainin's provinces. They are appointed by their provincial government for the life of the legislative session and are expected to represent the interests of the province. The upper house's purpose is to amend and block legislation passed by the lower house that have the potential of harming the interests of the provinces, although it has rarely exercised that power in modern times and has sparked controversy whenever it has.
Historically, the Aininian political system has consited of two main factions, the left-wing led by the Social Democratic Party (SD) and the right-wing led by the Rally of the Democrats (D). However, after the West Aininian crisis splintered the latter, a centrist third faction represented by the Citizens' Alliance (AC) has emerged as a major political force. The current government of Ainin is a coalition between the SD and the AC.
Ainin uses a civil law system whose fundamentals were established during the Aininian Revolution. Unusually for a civil law system however, national courts have wide-ranging powers of statutory interpretation and judicial review. Trials follow the inquisitorial sytem, in which judges actively participate in fact-gathering, and do not feature juries.
The Aininian judicial system features a rigid hierarchy that passes through three levels of government: national, provincial and prefectoral. Civil disputes and minor criminal charges are first heard before prefectoral tribunals, while administrative issues are handled by national administrative tribunals. Appeals of prefectural courts' decisions are handled by the provincial Superior Courts, while severe criminal offences are handled by the provincial courts of assize. Appeals from the Superior Courts are then heard before the national Courts of the Republic, and then by the courts of highest instance, which are the Supreme Court of Ainin for civil cases, the Superior Court of Appeal for administrative cases, and the Republican Court of Cassation for criminal cases.
According to its Constitution, Ainin is a unitary state where all power ultimately rests at the national level. However, with the passage of entrenched laws that have devolved extensive powers to provincial governments, the country has become a de facto federation.
The first-level divisions in the administrative framework of Ainin consist of thirteen provinces, each with its own autonomous legislature and government. Provinces do not collect taxes, and are instead funded through state-owned enterprises and the Equalisation Transfer Scheme. The Charline Islands possess a unique status as a territorial agglomeration of Ainin, equal in most respects to provinces but featuring a greater degree of national control. The second-level division are the regions, of which there are 119. They are led by an elected executive president and Regional Council and responsible for education, local infrastructure and some social services. At the third level are prefectures, led by a prefect (or a mayor in urban prefectures) and Prefectural Council, which have powers similar to those of other nations' city councils. A fourth level, the canton (or arrondissement in urban areas), exists, but these do not play a major role in administration.
|Pays-de-l'Ouest||Le Rocher||4,662,115||36,746 km²|
Ainin has a large professional military with 1,803,530 active personnel organised into four branches, the Army, Navy, Air Force, and National Gendarmerie, and 2,402,000 reserve personnel organised into three branches, the Republican Guard, Air Force Reserve and Navy Reserve. The President of Ainin, in his role as General of the Armies, is commander-in-chief of the Aininian Armed Forces and appoints the armed forces' professional leaders, the Chiefs of Staff. The military is overseen by the Ministry of Defence, a civilian body headed by the Minister of Defence.
The Aininian Armed Forces are a technologically advanced military force with a worldwide expeditionary capability mostly revolving around the Navy's six active carrier battle groups and the Air Force's strategic airlift capabilities. As Aininian military doctrine emphasises on rapid movement, Aininian troops tend to be less heavily armed than their allied counterparts, but make up for the lack of hard power with a highly mobile expeditionary doctrine and large quantities of air and naval support assets.
Ainin is a nuclear power and possesses a nuclear triad consisting of submarine-launched ballistic missiles, intercontinental ballistic missiles and strategic bombers, but maintains a no first strike policy towards the use of strategic nuclear weapons. The Aininian Republic also has a substantial tactical nuclear arsenal consisting of smaller explosives, mostly in the form of artillery shells and unguided rockets. Its total number of warheads has been estimated at 7,900.
As a member-state of the Central Ocean Basin Alliance and Esquarian Community, Ainin's defence is intrinsically linked with that of its allies. It consequently extensively cooperates with its allies, most notably the Namorese Liberation Army, on regional defence and international security issues. The Aininian government spent $362 billion for the financial year of 2015 on defence, approximately 3.5% of GDP. Major Aininian defence contractors include Azimut and General Defence.
Ainin is a multicultural society with a long history of foreign immigration, which has become a significant factor of population growth, almost surpassing natural growth as of the 2012 census. The population grew by approximately 17.2% from 1992 to 2012, one of the highest growth rates in the Esquarian Community.
The largest ethnic group in Ainin are ethnic Aininians, the native settlers of the Aininian archipelago whose arrival was documented to be in approximately 2500 BCE. As a whole, the percentage of the population that self-identifies as ethnically Aininian has steadily declined, going from 87% in 1905 to 59% in 2015. However, it is thought that the number in the early 20th century was significantly over-reported due to political conditions at the time. The second largest ethnic group are Arabs, mostly contemporary immigrants from Nautarya but also descendents of colonial populations that settled in Metropolitan Ainin. Another notable group is the Kannei Namorese, consisting of around 14% of the national population according to the most recent census, most decedents of settlers and soldiers of the Antelopian occupation of the Aininian Isles, but increasingly in modern times also immigrants.
Other significant ethnic minorities include Slavs, mostly Luziycans descending from merchants that immigrated in the 19th century. They form an ethnic majority in West Ainin and significant minorities in Mercier and Bounèsque, and Nevans, who immigrated to Ainin during 19th century Nevan famines and have largely established seperate communities and refused to integrate. In recent years, illegal immigration from Nautasia has significantly changed Aininian society, increasing social tensions and causing a demographic shift that saw Arabs pass Kannei Namorese as Ainin's largest ethnic minority in 2015.
While Aininian society tends to view religion as a personal affair, as of the 2015 Census, a plurality of Aininians identify as Christian. The largest Christian denomination is the Lutheran Catholic Church. However, church attendance is low and on the decline. The second-most common belief is irreligion, with 28.5% of Aininians identifying as such. Due to recent waves of immigration from Nautarya and other nations bordering Ainin to the south, Islam now also has a sizeable following, with 10.1% of Aininians identifying as Muslim. 10.3%, almost all members of the established Kannei Namorese and Minjianese minorities, identify as Txoist.
The Aininian government practices a policy of laïcité that enjoys widespread public support. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Aininian Charter of Rights but public life is very secular. Historically, the Lutheran Catholic Church has been a major political force, but their influence has steadily declined since the Aininian Revolution to the point of exercising little to no influence on government or society.
Aininians are highly educated, with most of the population holding a tertiary degree. Education in Ainin is compulsory until age 18 and split into three stages: primary, secondary and tertiary. Pupils in Ainin typically enter primary school, known as seminary, at ages 4 or 5, for seven years, followed by three years of middle school, known as oratory, followed by four years of high school, known as academy. Those pursuing careers in the trades substitute a vocational education known as polytechnic for the last two years of academy. While a secondary school degree is acceptable for many low- to mid-skill jobs, most students continue on to pursue tertiary education in the nation's highly-ranked universities, including the Universities of Talon, Beaurepaire and Huimont. Like virtually all developed countries, Ainin has a very high literacy rate, estimated to be approximately 99.7%.
A free and universal public education system exists, but subsidised, predominantly religious private schools are also offered. While a national curriculum and school leaving examination are maintained by the Ministry of Education, education is largely administered at the regional level by commissions scolaires (school boards).
Healthcare in Ainin is for the most part delivered through a publicly funded single-payer system operated by the Health and Welfare Directorate in conjunction with provincial health ministries. Most medically-necessary procedures are covered, including physicals, surgeries, inoculations and dentistry. This system of public hospitals and clinics is complemented by a small, private parallel network of hospitals and practitioners, but services tend to be more limited and expensive than in the public option. The government does not cover aesthetic procedures, such as cosmetic surgery and orthodontics. Pharmaceutical prices are strictly controlled in Ainin through the Ministry of Health's large buying power.
The average life expectancy in Ainin is 82.2 years for women and 79.5 for men.
The vast majority of Aininians, over 86%, speak French as a mother tongue, with Arabic as a distant second. In all provinces save West Ainin, French is the language of business and administration. In the latter, it shares this status with Luziycan. Over 98% of Aininians speak French fluently due to its preeminent status as the nation's exclusive language of instruction, culture, commerce and administration.
The Society of Risagne serves as the unofficial authority on the French language in Ainin, owing to its publication of the influential Risagne Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Grammar.
Largest cities or towns in Ainin
|Emblem||Coat of arms|
|Animal||Canis latrans (Common coyote)|
|Bird||Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)|
|Fish||Chelmon rostratus (Copperband butterflyfish)|
Pinus kesiya (Aininian pine)|
Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber tree)
As inhabitants of an archipelago, Aininians' diets have historically largely consisted of seafood and so Aininian cuisine uses seafood in many ways. The traditional staple food in Ainin is wheat, with other grains such as barley and rye also having this status in certain regions. Recently, potatoes and rice, introduced during the Antelopian occupation of Ainin, have also taken hold and have become part of Aininians' diets. The most common fat used in Aininian cooking has historically been canola oil, while western regions of Jaspère instead preferred butter, but in recent years a more diverse selection has been used, with other popular fats today including corn oil, olive oil and sunflower oil. Dairy products are not too commonly used in cooking except in Jaspère, where cheese is very heavily used for a lot of dishes, probably owing to the small quantity of milk-producing lifestock in the Aininian isles. Aininian cuisine has recently had a growing reputation internationally as being fine.
A normal meal is split in five parts, and starts with an appetiser (hors-d’œuvre), a small and easily-made dish served traditionally for the purpose of keeping diners satisfied while the main dish cooked in the oven. The next dish served is invariably a soup or stew (soupe). Popular soups in Ainin are usually chicken broth or seafood-based, of which the bouillabaisse is the most famous. Another component of Aininian meals is an accompanying staple food (accompagnateur), served at the same time as the soup and typically in the form of bread or frites. After these are served comes the main dish (plat principal), which is then followed by the dessert. Popular desserts in Ainin are pastries and cream-based confections. As a result of globalisation, a sixth part, the salad, has also become popular in Ainin.
Aininian cuisine has been influenced in recent years by immigrants from Luziyca, Nautarya, Namor and Nevanmaa, amongst others, who brought their own traditional recipes with them, which found their way into Ainin's culinary mainstream.
Saltère sparkling wine, an iconic wine produced in Ainin
Steak au poivre, a popular dish
Frites, a famous side dish usually said to have been invented in Ainin
Boule paysanne, a bread that usually accompanies meals
A raspberry pain franc, a pastry commonly served as a dessert in northern Ainin
Ever since prehistory, music has been a part of Aininian culture. The tradition of Aininian folk music dates back thousands of years, and has played a major role in society throughout
The performing arts have had a long and storied history in Ainin, with an extensive written record of dance and theatre dating from at least the 6th century BC. In pre-Francesian Ainin, dance played a major role in religious rites and was associated with Arniy (Amydon), the God of the Sea. Theatre was a more secular affair, with plays representing a form of entertainment during the waning days of the Western Delan Kingdom. Starting from the Golden Age of the Ainian civilisation, dance began to be seen as more of a secular art, perhaps due to foreign influences, and dance developed rapidly during the period. Social dances have traditionally been the most popular in Ainin, and by the 15th century, courante was the most popular style in the Aininian Isles. The sarabande style also gained widespread success during the 16th century. Dance was one of the fields that were little affected by the Antelopian conquest, and no noticeable foreign influences were noted during the era of the occupation. In that time however, the style of waltz developed and remains very popular to this day as a ballroom dance.Nautaryas in the 19th century allowed for an unprecedented influx of immigrants to Metropolitan Ainin who had a very large influence on the state of Aininian culture, bringing several fast styles of dance to Ainin, most notably street dance. A second cause was the rapid liberalisation of Aininian society due to the Social Revolution and the 1968 Events, causing youth to be more outspoken and the traditional family structure's degrading. This led to many new dance phenomenons starting from the 1950s that would have been unthinkable half a century ago. Through this as well as globalisation came the foreign style of disco, as well as some partially home-grown styles such as funk and hip-hop. Since the turn of the millennium, improvised dance similar to the style pioneered by Nautaryan-Aininians in the 19th century, however adapted to fit the rock and pop musical genres, has made a dramatic resurgence, similar to the case in many other western countries.
Theatre has not evolved as dramatically as dance did, with 17th century theatre remaining more or less similar to the 3rd century form in terms of structure and themes, but has had many changes since the Republic's rise. With foreign influences came the rise of the opera, which proved a major hit with Aininian audiences after being introduced from Luziyca in the 1820s, and later the musical by the 20th century, which went on to surpass traditional theatre to become the new norm in Aininian performing arts.
- 1.^ Metropolitan Ainin refers to the Aininian archipelago, i.e. excluding Iberville and the Charline Islands.