Cuirpthe

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Cuirpthean Republic
Cuirptheach Repoblicht
Flag
Flag Coat of Arms
Motto: "Conáigh."
"Onward."
Anthem: Cuirpthe Above All
MediaPlayer.png
Location of Cuirpthe (dark green)
– in Asura (green & dark grey)

– in the CDN (green)
CapitalBallinluska
Largest city Portlaoise
Official languages Cuirpthean
Recognised regional languages Newreyan
Ethnic groups 43% Cuirpthean, 24% Lhaeraidd, 19% Newreyan/Midrasian, 11% Alemannic, 3% Other
Demonym Cuirpthean
Government Unitary Parliamentary Republic
 -  Prime Minister Micheal Wilson
 -  Chancellor Aidan Henderson
Legislature Párlaman
 -  Upper house Cóirle na Naiscine
 -  Lower house Lámhór na Naiscine
Area
 -  Total 186,873 km2
72,152 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 3.8
Population
 -  2017 census 34,245,102
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $1,482,000,000,000
 -  Per capita $40,963
Gini (2017)positive decrease 34.3
medium
HDI (2017)Increase 0.913
very high
Currency Cuirpthean Gaolda (GDA)
Time zone West Asuran Standard Time (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) West Asuran Summer Time (UTC+0)
Date format YYYY/MM/DD
Drives on the right
Calling code +91
Internet TLD .cu

Cuirpthe (Cuirpthean: Cuirpeath ), officially the Cuirpthean Republic (Cuirpthean: Cuirptheach Repoblicht ) is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan Cuirpthe in western Asura and the archipelago of Saint Aratóir off the northern coast of Rennekka. Metropolitan Cuirpthe is located along the southern coast of the Lhedwinic Channel, extending in to the northern portion of the Vaellenian Mountains. The capital of Cuirpthe is Ballinluska, and the largest city by population is Portlaoise, both of which are located on the banks of the Ballisodare River, which runs from the foothills of the Vaellenian mountains to the northern coast, emptying into the Morgune Bay. Cuirpthe borders tir Lhaeraidd to the west and south, Newrey to the east and Midrasia to the southeast.

The sovereign state of Cuirpthe is a unitary parliamentary republic. The nation is divided into 11 administrative regions, which are further subdivided into a total of 26 provinces. The legislative power of provinces are derived from the central government, while regions lack the ability to pass and enforce laws.

During the Iron Age, Cuirpthe was inhabited by hundreds of small, warring tribes, known as the Már or Marri. These tribes originated in the Paithwaidh people of tir Lhaeraidd, traveling west. They lived across what was then called Marra, warring and competing over the resources there. These people were referred to as 'barbarians' by the Fiorentines, a way of calling them inferior and brutish, as well as grouping them with their neighbors. Raids against the Fiorentine Empire would occur until their eventual absorption into the southern power, when Fiorentine culture intermingled with that of the barbaric northerners. This Fiorentine influence would last long after the fall of the empire, and lead to a period of warring states, as approximately 60 small nations were formed, building small fiefdoms in the wake of Midrasian rule. Three kingdoms would form from this, and later one unified Cuirpthe, larger than the one we know today. Eventually, a royal marriage would result with the unification of Cuirpthe and its neighbor Newrey, creating a Commonwealth that would become a powerful force in northern Asura, but causing oppression of Cuirpthean culture by Newreyans.

Following the breakup of the Commonwealth in the Mydro-Commonwealth wars, Cuirpthe would build its Asuran and overseas influence, both by gaining power back on its home continent and building colonies in the far off reaches of Aeia. Its influence could only last so long, however, as the outcome of the Great War left it crippled, a weak republic that could barely support itself, and was eventually consumed by rebels in the People's Uprising. Eventually, Cuirpthe was able to retaliate and defeat the communist rebels, forming a much stronger republic in its wake; That republic is what today is known as Cuirpthe.

Cuirpthe is a pioneer of information technology, home to a multitude of technical colleges, and is the leading force in the journey beyond Aeia into space. The Cuirpthean educational system is above average, on par with their neighbors in western Asura. Also located in Cuirpthe are a multitude heritage sites, ranging from several ancient monuments to Fiorentine structures to Great War era battlefields. Despite the horrible instability caused by the post war Republic, Cuirpthe has reclaimed its former glory as a new pillar of democracy, surviving the collapse of monarchism and the rise of communism within its own borders. Cuirpthe is a developed country with an exceptionally large economy. The Cuirpthean economy has been drifting toward post-industrial society, however due to the growing popularity of Cuirpthean electronics, vehicles and other goods, manufacturing remains an important part of economic growth.

Etymology

The Cuirpthean name for the country, Cuirpeath (irregularly pronounced [ˈkɔɐ̯pjəx]), as well as the Newreyan name Cuirpthe, ultimately originate from the word corp meaning "person"; a form of this word in Old Maíraidh was cuirp and this form was used in deriving the adjective cuirpeath originally meaning "of the people" or "popular". Eventually the word corp and its derivatives came to refer to the Cuirpthean people in contrast to outsiders, and so the adjective took on the meaning "Cuirpthean". This was applied to the territory inhabited by Cuirptheans, eventually becoming the regular word for referring to Cuirpthe. A new derivative form Cuirptheach was developed to refer to the Cuirpthean people, leaving corp and Cuirptheach as entirely distinct words. From a very literal perspective, therefore, Cuirpeath means "(place) of the people" and Cuirptheach means "of the (place) of the people".

During the time of the Newreyan-Cuirpthean Commonwealth, the word Cuirptheach was Newrickised as Cuirpthe, with the adjective misunderstood as referring to the country. Spelling pronunciation led to the <th>, by this time silent in Cuirpthean, being reintroduced as /θ/ by the Newreyans. Due to the supremacy that the Newreyan language had in this period, it was this adaptation that typically spread to other languages.

History

Prehistory

A typical proto-Asuran simple chopping-tool. This example is from the Vaellenian Mountains.

The first recorded Cuirptheans are estimated to have migrated north from Midrasia about 1.6 million years ago. This is based on evidence such as tools and fossils found scattered through the Vaellenian mountains, as well as across southern Cuirpthean valleys, where evidence of temporary settlements has been shown across major rivers. Structures presumably built by primitive societies are located in parts of southern and eastern Cuirpthe, under study from scholars from multiple nations in Asura. Caves in these regions contain images of large animals, and hunters with primitive weapons. Tools found have ranged from simple cutting tools to spears and other weapons.

Similarly to the southern migrating Mydras people, ancient Cuirptheans traveled toward the coasts of the Lhedwinic Channel and Sea of Vrnallia, and established small farming and fishing settlements. Many of these settlements would be abandon, but some would go on to form major Fiorentine cities. These cities would become trade centers in the north, both for the Fiorentines and the kingdoms that succeeded them.

Antiquity

Map of the Fiorentine Empire at its greatest extent in 80 CE

In ancient times, the land today known as Cuirpthe was dominated by hundreds of small barbarian tribes. These tribes were disorganized and in a state of near constant war, competing for resources with tribes across northern Asura. Their cultures, while ultimately similar, had vast differences in their customs and way of life. Generally, the ancient Maíraidh people of Cuirpthe referred to themselves as the Túath Már, or the "Big People". Már would be isolated and reinterpreted, becoming the general name of the early people. Despite the vast amount of tribes, they grouped themselves into three cultures based on location and culture. The Márléibe (Fiorentine:Maralibi), or "people of the mountains", were a large culture of nomads that traveled the foothills of the Vaellenian mountains, living off what they hunt. The Mármaige (Fiorentine:Marbacci) or "people of the fields", lived off the land, with agriculture and domesticated animals being the main source of food. Horseback riding, as well as workhorses, became a major part of Mármag culture. To the far north was a large group that lived along the coasts, with fishing and early boats being central to their culture. Their name for themselves is today unknown, as they were driven out of Cuirpthe by the Mármaige and their own records burned. Based on evidence of their settlement in the Mardin Isles, historians refer to them as the Máirte. This status quo would last for thousands of years, with little change in Cuirpthean way of life. The eventual cause for change would come from the rapidly approaching rise of the Fiorentine Empire, providing a reason for the tribes to unite against a common enemy.

The Fiorentine Empire, long since in control of the Padanian Basin, had been slowly taking land from their tribal neighbors. The land to their west, called Aquinum, or "water place"(later Aquineccum and finally Aquidneck) had been integrated into the empire, and the regions of Carcoja, Bevenia and Vvarden were under partial control. Excursions through the Intermodum Pass, a natural area of low elevation in the southern Vaellenian mountains, were becoming more frequent, later resulting in the major trade city Intermodium (today known as Invern) being founded on the northern side of the mountain. The Márléibe were wary of the southerners, who forced them further and further away from their normal hunting grounds. peace stretched ever thinner until the Fiorentines declared what would later be known as the first of the Marric Wars, a series of conquests by Fiorentines of the Cuirpthean and Lhaeraidh regions lasting from 8 BCE to 6 CE, when the north fell to Fiorentine rule. The modern city of Tuagore, of which the Fiorentine name is unknown, was a major trade city through which proto-Crylantian and Fiorentine cultures intermingled and grew from one another.

Imperial rule lasted until the year 453 CE. Over the centuries, the Empire's control waned and barbarian attacks of Fiorentine settlements increased in frequency. Cuirpthean clans rose up in defiance of the soldiers that controlled their land, and drove them out over several wars. In 453, a final attack against Fiorentine armies would push them back across the Vaellenian Mountains and out of northern Asura. The Betrayal at Mydroll officially marked the death of the Empire with Emperor Salonius's death, betrayed by the King of the Mydroll, Marciús Braga. By 504, Cuirpthe was entirely controlled by newly founded kingdoms, duchies and lordships, many of which were now vying for control in the newly created power vacuum. An era of war had begun in Cuirpthe, set to last for the the better part of the next millennium.

Middle Ages

Rímór Castle in eastern Cuirpthe

The early Middle Ages were a time of turmoil for Cuirpthe and the neighboring regions of northern Asura. In the wake of the Fiorentine collapse, the people of Cuirpthe began proclaiming their tribes the rightful ruler of the land. The Mármaige, by far the largest and most widespread of the Cuirpthean clans, founded the short lived Kingdom of Mármaga, spanning much of the south and west of Cuirpthe. The Márléibe would be easily defeated, their nomadic hunting ways no match for the Fiorentine fighting tactics adopted by the Mármaige. Mármaga dominated most of Cuirpthe from 504 to 576 CE, when repeated raids from the smaller states of the north and the sacking of the capital city of Ballinluska brought the kingdom to ruin. In the wake of the Kingdom's collapse, a multitude of smaller nations would form across the Cuirpthean region. Most, if not all of these nations, claimed to be the successor and rightful claimant of Mármaga, many waging war in attempts to gain control over the entirety of Cuirpthe. This was the status quo for centuries, leading to the rise of several prominent nations that would later dominate Cuirpthean politics and territories. In the southwest, the Grand Duchy of Corragh would come to control a great number of former Mármaga by the early 11th century. Much of the south of Cuirpthe would fall under their control or influence. Similarly, the Kingdom of Narraghmore in the east would hold power over much of the former Boreamári states, becoming the largest of the three states by the 11th century and holding its position as the most powerful until the 15th century. In the north, the Duchy of Dromleigh, centered on the major trade city of Portlaoise, would become a prominent early Cuirpthean power, eventually controlling the entire region by 1400.

Besides these three, other influential states included the Free City of Drogheda(579-1345, later the County of Drogheda), the Duchy of Ebdani(591-1317) and the Grand Duchy of Bannedon(614-1448). The Holy Order of the House of Astraeus in Balandrae, or Astraean Order, was a major group of monks, scholars and warriors that would contribute greatly in the Arabekhi Crusades in the early 12th Century. Their efforts to restore Alydian control in Northern Arabekh, later ending with the founding of the Kingdom of Aramas, would inspire many in Asura to serve the church alongside them. The Western Crusades were a a series of holy wars occurring in the late 12th Century against the Derwyeddic people of tir Lhaeraidd and its neighbors. In Cuirpthe, the crusade was led by the Astraean Order to remove Derwyedd followers from northeastern Cuirpthe. The war was largely successful, nearly destroying the Cuirpthean Derwyedd population(though the religion would become more popular with Lhaeraidh-Cuirptheans following the Great War.) The Treaty of Leixlip, signed in 1288 by the Astraeans and the Kingdom of Dromleigh, established the existence of the Astraean State in northern Cuirpthe as a Dromleighan fief, which would expand to control much of the northwestern coast until its dissolution and absorption by Newrey in 1482. The Alemannic Crusades took place from 1316 to 1328, brought vast numbers of crusaders, Cuirpthean as well as others, east in an attempt to Alydianize the pagans of the region. The Sadamic League would be a major contributor to the crusade. Alydianism was historically very popular in Liiduria, dating back to Fiorentine times. Because of this, the League agreed to assist in travel to Alemannia through their port of Anlaufhafen. The crusaders would sweep through former states of the Alemannic Empire, though due to geographic obstacles, were unable to reach the majority of Mascylla. Notable Cuirpthean populations remain in Liiduria(primarily Anlaufhafen), Tudonia and southern Tyronova.

Seeing the potential for a united Cuirpthean force, the Duke of Corragh, Donnchadh I, formed the Cuirpthean Confederation(906-1457). The Cuirpthean Confederation was a loose union designed to ensure the sovereignty of smaller Cuirpthean states. This union would expand to incorporate the vast majority of Cuirpthean states by the 11th century. A complex system of vassalage to the three major states would lead to tribute being made in return for the ensured protection of smaller dukes and counts. This created a form of collective defense in which states of the three major Cuirpthean spheres would act as one in any war or conflict. Corragh and Narraghmore, the two major largest and most influential, both held aspirations to unify Cuirpthe, and became intense rivals within the Confederation. This rivalry would lead to conflict and infighting between nations of the two spheres and constant competition for control over the union. But Narraghmore would eventually find itself on the brink of collapse in 1417. The leader of the Duchy, Liam II, had no legitimate heirs, and no brothers or male cousins to succeed him. Narraghmore was against the idea of a female ruler, and in order to preserve the royal blood, the Duke's sister, Caitlín, married Prince Isaiah of Newrey in 1419. Prince Isaiah was not the current King of Newrey, making full unification impossible. Instead, Newrey became the dominant partner of a personal union between the two nations. In 1423, the first in a series of Wars of Cuirpthean Unification would take place, with Narraghmore swiftly defeating and annexing the Kingdom of Dromleigh. Frequent wars between Narraghmore and Corragh between 1429 and 1476 would lead to the collapse of the Cuirpthean Confederation. Corragh would finally be annexed and the Kingdom of Cuirpthe would be formed in 1477. In this same year, the King of Newrey passed away, and Cuirpthe and Newrey would be briefly unified by the ascension of Isaiah I, the king of both nations. Under Isaiah, the Kingdom of Cuirpthe would be incorporated into the Greater Kingdom of Newrey.

Isaiah would die himself only two years later in 1478, marking the end of his reign over two thrones. His two sons, Stanley and William, would each inherit one of his two thrones, splitting the nation once again, with Stanley as the Cuirpthean monarch and William the Newreyan. Stanley would die of illness in 1484, leaving the throne of Cuirpthe open and causing another succession crisis, with some wanting Stanley's son Charles to succeed but others arguing his illegitimacy made him ineligible for the throne. These arguments would end following Charles' untimely death at dinner with the king of Newrey. Some claim his death was poisoning by his uncle, but proof of this has never been found. Regardless, Stanley was left childless.

Act of Union of 1484

15th century tapestry depicting a ball held at the Newreyan capital following unification.

Due to the death of the last heir to the Cuirpthean throne, the Kingdom was once again desperate for anybody to keep power within the family. With the end of Stanley's line, William I was left as the closest relative to the previous King Isaiah. Cuirpthe was again forced into a personal union under Newrey for several months before William I and the Newreyan Parliament would pass the Act of Union, uniting the two as the Newreyan-Cuirpthe Commonwealth. The flat and fertile lands of Cuirpthe proved a boon to Newrey as it no longer required continuous warfare to maintain their control over, as had been the case of Padania. However, before full control could be exercised, a number of rebellious barons and vassals had to be subdued, resulting in the 3 decade long Calming of the Commonwealth, where armies of Newrey would consistently defeat the vassals in battle and strip them of their power to bring them under the control of the Newreyan king.

For a brief period after the Calming, the Commonwealth enjoyed a period of relative peace as trade with the Midrasian kingdoms, the Lhedwinic kings, and beyond proved profitable to the nation as it exploited the fertile lands of Cuirpthe. However, following a devastating fire in the Cuirpthean city of Portlaoise due to a mistranslation over cargo limits, King Michael gave into the public pressure of Newrey and decreed that Newreyan would be the language used in all official business across the Commonwealth and its territories. While the decree initially only required it to be used in official capacity and political dealings, many dukes and barons understood it as the order to suppress any usage of Cuirpthean throughout the Commonwealth, making laws against its public usage, as well as the teaching of it in schools. This perceived attempt of eliminating Cuirpthean culture as a whole resulted in a number of rebellious nobles to beg the King of Midrasia to intervene. While the intervention was defeated, it kickstarted the beginning of the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars that would eventually lead to the decline and collapse of the Commonwealth.

Early Modern Period and Nineteenth Century

During the period following the successful Calming and war against Midrasia, the Commonwealth began to finance a number of colonization projects in the newly discovered continents of Vestrim and Rennekka, most notably in the founding of Williamstown, named after the then prince, in 1542. It was from these colonies that the Commonwealth began to expand in size and power. This rise in prominence, however, led to significant problems arising from the ethnic differences between the two main ethnicities that inhabited the region, notably over the actions undertaken by the Newreyans during the Calming. Despite this, it was during the 16th and 17th centuries, however, that the Commonwealth would reach its Golden Age, reaching economic strength that rivaled their immediate north Asuran competitors, such as Sadamic League, while also forcing its less tangible competitors into lesser positions of prestige. It also highlighted its military might by consistently defeating the armies of Midrasia and Aleia during the Mydrro-Commonwealth Wars, while its Navy was large enough to ensure the security of the Commonwealth's overseas empire.

The Commonwealth's power, however, began to wane during the latter years of the 17th centruy, seeing its economic might taken from them following the unification of Lhedwin to from the United Kingdom of Lhedwin, while their constant wars with Midrasia began to put a strain on the number of able-bodied men that could be spared. This all culminated in the Fifth Mydro-Commonwealth War, which proved disastrous for the Commonwealth and lead to its partition, and installation of friendly regimes. What began as an intervention into the rebellion escalated into a full scale war not only to liberate Cuirpthean culture, but to reclaim Midrasian territory and split the northern power to prevent its domination over the Asuran continent. The Kingdom of Midrasia held the advantage, aided in the war by several allies across the continent, notably Aleia and tir Lhaeraidd. The Commonwealth initially held its ground, fairing well against the invaders, but its strength was quickly ebbed away by increasing rebel uprisings in the west. The combination of rebels and invading forces pushed through the defenses of the Commonwealth, and served to quickly turn the tide in Midrasia's favor, ending the era of the Commonwealth.

Following the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars, the Commonwealth was carved up by the invaders, some taking land and others insisting that the nation be split. The first major change was Midrasia's reclaiming of Padania, a region of northern Midrasia held by the Commonwealth for centuries and the main cause of the five wars between the two powers. Aleia would be given parts of northwestern Newrey that make up parts of the Grensfel and Sten regions today, and small borderlands of western Cuirpthe would be annexed by tir Lhaeraidd. But the most notable change was the complete split of the Commonwealth into Cuirpthe and Newrey in 1722, at that time satellite republics to the Midrasian Republic. Little growth would be experienced by either nation until 1784 and the onset of the Midrasian Revolution. After the conclusion of the conflict, Cuirpthe and Newrey would be released by the new Midrasian regime. The descendants of the old royal family of Corragh came forward and asserted their power once again. Cillian I, the closest male descendant to the Duchy, would claim the throne, naming himself the ruler of the newly formed Kingdom of Cuirpthe.

The Kingdom of Cuirpthe

Model of the city of Drogheda in southeast Cuirpthe, located in the Ballinluska National History Museum. The model shows the city as it was in 1826.

With the release of Cuirpthe from Midrasian occupation, the nation would quickly rise to become a major contender in northern Asura. The new King and his Parliament wished to prevent the destruction and annexation of Cuirpthe that had occurred with previous regimes. They came to the conclusion that for Cuirpthe to prove its strength and survive in the 19th century, it needed to rapidly strengthen itself, economically and militarily. Following in the footsteps of Midrasia, Cuirpthe began projects to rapidly modernize their infrastructure, military technology and war tactics. The invention of the steam engine brought on new innovations in milling and production, and would inspire a thirty year project to construct a national railway system, which finally reached completion in late 1884. The promise of wages and housing attracted many workers to large cities, and the nation, much like its neighbors, began to urbanize. But with the growth of the Industrial Revolution came negative side effects. The rate of poverty skyrocketed due to inadequate wages, and workplace safety was unregulated, causing frequent injury and even death in factories. Child labor became common, with children able to fit into places where adults could not. Many children were forced to work just to help provide for their family when their parents could not. Workers strikes and rights movements occurred almost monthly, forcing the government to implement new laws to regulate what companies could force their workers to do. Besides domestic and economic innovation, military innovation was a major focus of the new government. The founding of Military High Command, the leadership of the Royal Army during the 19th century, allowed newly appointed generals and commanders to implement and train soldiers in new doctrines, tactics and strategies. Recent innovation worldwide in engine technologies and heavier than air aircraft would lead to the implementation of rigid airships in the later stages of the Great War. Alemannic-born inventor Ferdinand von Ceppelin would pioneer this technology with the Ceppelin airship, a staple of the Cuirpthean war effort in the late 1890s and the vehicle that inspired the Royal Cuirpthean Air Force.

These new technologies would be put into practice throughout the 1800s. Cuirpthe supported and funded rebellions in nations it considered as growing threats, and provided military supplies to its allies. Extremely close ties were held with the nation's northern neighbor, the United Kingdom of Lhedwin, the two states becoming close allies in the years following the liberation of Cuirpthe. The pair created an economic and military pact that dominated trade in the Lhedwinic Channel with their control of the Strait of Glostrup. Cuirpthe became a major trade power in the Sea of Vrnallia, as well as the Opal Ocean as a whole. but, seeing the new trading outposts founded by its neighbors and spheres of trade influence being formed, the government turned its focus to colonialism. In 1766, Cuirpthean ships would land on the island of Saint Aratóir, off the coast of northern Rennekka. Several small towns would form on the eastern half of the island, acting as the only outpost of Cuirpthe in the 18th century. Unbeknownst to the Cuirpthean colonists, the Kingdom of Veleaz, another Asuran great power and a close trade partner, had already made a colony on the western side of the island, and both would coexist without the other's knowledge until the 1790s. Also in Rennekka was the colony of Nathair, founded in 1784 and named for the snakes encountered by the explorers. Colonists made swift work driving natives from the coast and establishing new cities, destroying native monuments and creating a distinct Cuirpthean identity. The colony would become a source for exported goods, primarily tobacco, cotton and fish, which would be shipped worldwide. While Cuirpthe claimed the entire colony, fierce natives prevented them from traveling into the interior.

In 1811, Cuirpthean colonists landed in northwest Arabekh, in modern day (tbd). This was part of the Asuran "Scramble for Arabekh" brought on by many Asuran powers hoping to gain influence and control over the entire continent. The colony would extend as far as the mountains of north Arabekh, and no further east than the (tbd) river. Cuirpthean Arabekh would play a part in the Great War, due to the proximity of other Asuran colonies. The closest one of these colonies to Cuirpthean Arabekh was Lhedwinic Arabekh, and the two shared limited military access during the war against Aquidneck, both by invasions of Aquidneck's colony in eastern Arabekh and in attacks over the Strait of Troping. Later, these colonies would be granted to Aquidneck in the wake of the Great War. In Vestrim, Cuirpthean colonists would found the city of Úr mBaille(Today the Nordic city of Kīkkaj) in the mid 1640s. This town would be a small Cuirpthean holding in the new world for some time, growing in size throughout the next few decades. Cuirpthe would eventually sell it to their ally Lhedwin, part of the many transfers of Nordhic colonies that lead to the United kingdom's complete control over the region's coasts, and dominance in eastern Vestrim until 1900.

Several small rebellions would occur during the history of the kingdom, for several reasons. Some sought to cause a reform like that in Midrasia, others wanted to replace the royal family, due to it's reputation as corrupt and tyrannical. Each of these revolutions would be dispelled and subjugated by the extensive and formidable Cuirpthean military. These uprisings became so frequent that in 1824, King Ronan II sent larger garrisons to occupy major cities, with soldiers acting as a militant police force across the nation. This decision, among others, made the king immensely unpopular with the people of Cuirpthe, and protesters blatantly disregarded and defied orders from the occupying soldiers. Beatings and other brutal acts of violence occurred, and public backlash became enough for Ronan II's successor, Dillon I, to end the forced occupation, restoring the old garrisons and ending what many called a period of martial rule in the kingdom.

General James O'Callaghan leading Cuirpthean troops against Midrasian forces in the Padania region.

However, the Kingdom wouldn't last forever. The largest burst of notoriety experienced by Cuirpthe, and also the event that led to its destruction, came from a decision made by King Richard III in the late 19th century, when he chose to support allied Veleazean troops at war against Midrasia. They provided supplies and troops to the Veleazean military, and eventually joined the war on Veleaz's side, invading from the north. This began a long and costly campaign in Padania, one that would slowly stagnate with any advance halted on both sides. Veleaz would capitulate to Midrasia, and it wouldn't be long before Cuirpthe followed, but this war would solidify good military relations between Cuirpthe and Veleaz, and serve as an early prelude to the Great War, most notably Cuirpthe's decision to once again support Veleaz and join the Concordat.

The First Great War

The Great War was an exceptionally large conflict centered mostly around the nations of Asura and their colonies worldwide, beginning on the 13th of September 1895 and ending with the signing of treaties on the turn of the century, December 31st 1899. The two sides, led by Midrasia on one and Veleaz on the other, erupted into conflict following an alleged terrorist attack in Veleaz, claimed to have been orchestrated by Midrasia. The resulting diplomatic crisis would erupt into war in mid September, with many nations picking sides to defend whichever nation they had previously aligned with. On August 20th, 1895, Abel Dubos, a Midrasian national and radical member of the Midrasian Sons of Liberty, detonated a bomb in Perpignan Central Station. This was one of many attacks attempting to cause the return of the province of Tolosa to Midrasia. Cuirpthe took Veleaz's side in the ensuing diplomatic crisis, claiming that the Midrasian government organized the attack as an excuse to go to war against Veleaz. Midrasia mobilized its army in September, forcing Veleaz to declare war.

Cuirpthe's inclusion in the war began only 4 days following the Veleazean declaration of war. Cuirpthe's neighbor to the west, tir Lhaeraidd, had already been in support of the Midrasian war effort, providing troops to the front lines on the Veleazean border. Additionally, Midrasia, fearing a Cuirpthean flanking, had fortified the Invern pass, the only quick path through the Vaellenian mountains. The Cuirpthean High Command decided that if they were to invade Midrasia, they would first need to both prevent tir Lhaeraidd from reinforcing them and take control of the Mydro-Lhaeraidh, providing easy passage into Midrasia. With the Cuirpthean declaration of war, forces would begin an invasion of the western neighbor. unfortunately, the border was found to be fortified, preventing Cuirpthe from achieving any major gains in the west. Likewise, enemy troops never delved too deep into Cuirpthe, with only periodic skirmishes in Dromleigh and Corragh. Cuirpthe, seeing the failure of the Lhaeraidh Campaign, attempted to send expeditions through the Vaellenian highlands. With the Invern Pass fortified on both sides, crossing over the mountains was seen as the best way to get into Midrasia. Unfortunately, the cold weather atop the mountains and difficult terrain, coupled with the few results of the campaign, proved the Vaellenian Expeditions to be a failure. They were cancelled in July, 1897. Soldiers and vehicles originating in the United Kingdom of Lhedwin, who had allied with Veleaz shortly after Cuirpthe, would occasionally pass through and continue along this front, though the vast majority of their soldiers were shipped overseas to the Veleazean front. Northern Arabekh, with colonies belonging to Cuirpthe, Lhedwin and Aquidneck, became a major theater of the war that would quickly fall under Concordat control. Unfortunately for them, strikes from Midrasia and Aquidneck from the south would drive Concordat forces out, leaving their colonies to be captured by the Grand Alliance. Similarly, naval forces in the Columbian Sea were able to capture Koningsland from Leiden, splitting it into three occupation zones. This would later be reversed with repeated civilian uprisings, and the peace treaties returning Koningsland to Leiden. Natives were able to drive Cuirpthe out of its colonies on the northern Rennekkan coast, taking with them a major source of revenue and damaging the kingdom's economy.

Cuirpthean trenches along the Newreyan Border, 1897.

Upon Newrey's entry into the war, Cuirpthe was forced to divert most of its western troops to the east in an attempt to stave off Newreyan invasion. This front became the main focus of the military for the course of the war, nicknamed 'the Meatgrinder' by Newreyans due to their heavy sustained losses. Early tanks would reach service both on the Newreyan and Cuirpthean sides, and Ceppelin airships, introduced into the newly formed Air Force in 1898, began short bombing runs in Padania, as well as striking major cities like Cyningburgh. While they did little to turn the tide of the war, the Ceppelins became a symbol of wartime Cuirpthe and caused heavy damage to cities in Newrey and Midrasia. Alongside Ceppelin attacks, new innovations in combat would reach the trenches in late 1898, primarily the new Cuirpthean strategy of "Lightning Warfare." A force of soldiers and vehicles, known as the "Vanguard', would lead a quick attack to break through enemy lines and attack strategic positions behind the front line. Enemy forces would be encircled and either killed or captured. While these strategies would push the front line east fairly rapidly, it was too late to save the war. Veleaz had capitulated, and Lhedwin was close to defeat themselves. Now fighting alone on the continent and seeing heavy losses, Cuirpthe was forced to surrender to the Alliance. Parliament deemed that to continue fighting would be too costly, and officially surrendered on November 14th, 1899. Treaties against Cuirpthe focused mostly on carving up it's land between its neighboring enemies, ceding approximately 100 kilometers of land along the western border to tir Lhaeraidd. Similarly, the large amounts of Cuirpthean land in the east would be ceded to Newrey, and the newly drawn border would be along the Eallsabh river. Over the past century, however, the changing shape of the Eallsabh has led to similar border irregularities that continue to cause disputes between the two countries. A new, democratic republic would be propped up in the remains of the kingdom, at first just a puppet to Midrasia before 1907, when it received full independence and freedom from occupation.

Interwar Period

Immigrants arriving at Portlaoise, circa 1912

The period following the Great War was varied. Early on was a period of political instability and military occupation, which would be followed by economic growth. However, the period would reach its end in the midst of a worldwide depression that sent many companies into ruin. For the first seven years following the end of the war, Cuirpthe was under military occupation by Midrasia and Newrey, with Midrasia administering much of the south and west(commonly called "West Cuirpthe") and Newrey administering the northeast(commonly known as "East Cuirpthe"). The occupying forces acted as a peacekeeping force during the rebuilding of the nation, ending with a full reunification in 1907. They oversaw the reconstruction of infrastructure across Cuirpthe, including railways and cities, with the rebuilding of the Párlaman being chief among these efforts. The institution of the new Republic of Cuirpthe would be yet another major focus of the Alliance nations, selecting the new leaders that would set the precedent for a new, democratic Cuirpthe. New parties would form in the rebuilt parliament, primarily the long standing Alydian Democratic Union, the Freedom Party, and several others. Trials were held in the Supreme Court of Cuirpthe at Ballinluska, and several of the major leaders, both politicians and military commanders, were executed by hanging. In 1907, occupation ended and military forces of both nations were pulled out of Cuirpthe. Left to govern itself, Cuirpthe would grow economically with the support of its new democratic allies. However, this growth was coupled with difficulty and hardship for the fledgling nation. An entirely new government and constitution had been formed, focused around democracy. While some in Cuirpthe wanted this change, others were content with the old government, seeing hereditary view as rightful and noble. The new government was seen as fairly corrupt, with many politicians being descended from the very nobles that ruled the fallen kingdom. In addition, the new constitution gave a good amount of autonomy to the regions of Cuirpthe, which, while making these regional governments content, made it difficult to govern them or collect taxes. Confidence in the new government was low, many believing it would collapse within a decade. Parliament held little power, unable to enforce its laws on the smaller, more autonomous governments of the regions for the first decade of its existence. This was until the Government Reorganization Act of 1911, which allowed the central government to greatly control the individual power each region had. With its authority and power secured, Cuirpthe began rapid growth with new government programs to help modernize the nation.

In contrast to this upward growth in the west, the nations of Alemannia as well as Veleaz were faced with hardship, poverty just as common as it was during the industrial revolution. Many looked for a new start in other nations, beginning a long string of emigrations from the east to western Asura, Vestrim and Rennekka. Cuirpthe, one of these nations, received an influx of these eager workers, mostly centered around bustling port cities like Portlaoise and Tuagore. With available workers, the industry of Cuirpthe grew. Trade between Cuirpthe and its allies increased, and new infrastructure projects sprung up across the nation, including the reconstruction of the war-torn rail network and new roadways. But, what seemed appeared to be an endless golden age for the nation quickly proved itself to be quite the opposite. A worldwide depression had begun to set in during the mid 1920s, and the effects were becoming more and more apparent in developed industrial nations. The wages of many workers, primarily those in factories and mills, reached an all time historic low, leading to numerous waves of unemployment across urban areas. Migrant camps, impoverished workers and the homeless became a common sight in big cities, slums present in some way in every urban environment. The government once again received a reputation of weakness and corruption due to its seeming inability to salvage its own economy, and it now faced endless strikes, protests and the occasional violent riot. Some major figures in the industrial community, such as the revolutionary Dermot McMillan, a former factory worker and political activist, would see their rise due to these protests. Many unemployed workers, having nowhere else left to turn, would latch on to his speeches of oppression of the common man by the government, and hardship experienced by the impoverished. His large following and insurgent views would lead to his founding of the Cuirpthean People's State, a group seeking the downfall of the Republic and rise of communism.

As mentioned above, multiple areas of Cuirpthean industry had suffered in the Great Depression. Taxes hardly fell during the depression, making it difficult for citizens and companies alike to stay out of debt. Textiles, once the most important industry of post war Cuirpthe, was almost completely killed off by financial ruin, leading many mills to be abandon and later re-purposed for a variety of uses, including hospitals and clinics, as well as various kinds of convenience stores and commercial venues. The mining industry all but collapsed in this period due to dwindling supplies of coal in the Vaellenian mountains. Without access to precious metals in north Arabekh, the Cuirpthean mining industry was incapable of paying for itself, the declining coal prices sealing its fate. The last remains of the industry were in the extraction of crude oil in Saint Aratóir, though this reserve would be nearly depleted in the mid 1950s, leading to extraction being banned for the purpose of protecting the environment. The decline of industry and rise of socialist advocates, primarily the growing number of socialists in parliament, caused fear and paranoia in the largely conservative population. Conservative politicians, continuing to hold the majority in parliament, saw that if they were to stay in power, they would have to appeal to this large pool of voters. Campaigns turned into borderline propaganda against socialism and communism, promising to maintain the status quo and destroy potential revolutions. This only widened the gap between conservatives and socialists, with supporters of a socialist revolution perceiving the campaign as an attack against workers and their rights to equal and fair rights. It was this growing dissent with the government that would explode into war in 1927.

The People's Uprising

The Cuirpthean Civil War, commonly known as the People's Uprising, was a major conflict in Cuirpthe that took place from 1927 to 1935. The young republic, unstable and falling apart during the midst of a major depression, was tested in its first war against the Cuirpthean People's State, the communist revolutionary government that sought to depose the Prime Minister and replace the Parliament with a Soviet council, instituting a communist government similar to that of Veleaz. In 1933, the CPS declared itself an ally of the Aeian Socialist Union, officially pulling Cuirpthe into the Second Great War.

The buildup to the war took place throughout late June and early July of 1927. Before the depression, communism was seen as something horrible and intolerable in Cuirpthe. Many believed it would damage the economy of the nation, and revolutions in the east were thought to be destined for failure. However, the movement had been gaining traction following widespread poverty and unemployment. Cuirpthe declared its neutrality at the beginning of the Second Great War, more focused on maintaining its own stability. But the failure of the economy and the rapidly worsening condition for workers across the nation had led to dissatisfaction with the current system. many called for a revolution to dispose of the failed capitalist system and start over. Dermot McMillan, a known communist revolutionary and political activist, had been rising in notoriety due to his numerous speeches in the Tuagore area. Many of these speeches called for the end of the ineffective Prime Minister and Chancellor positions, as well as the destruction of the corrupt Parliament. He believed in the creation of a fair council that would listen to the people rather than act for itself, claiming that unlike Parliament, it would be composed only of the people and act only for the people. He also believed that the injustice of the government would lead to the inevitable collapse of democracy and rise of communism, and only then, he said, would the world be equal. Many of his followers believed in the destined worker's worldwide revolution, a promise made by many communist governments where all workers would see the failure of capitalist regimes and inevitably overthrow corruption. The actual beginning war occurred on the 16th of July, 1927, during an event known as the Mohill Uprising. A group of approximately 150 civilians, led by McMillan, attempted to drive out the government police and troops from the town of Mohill, and were successful, finding themselves able to use it as a stronghold for some time. Eventually, military pressure forced them to retreat, and McMillan used this as an excuse to preach the violence and injustice of the military. His followers began multiplying quickly, flocking to his words of equality and freedom.

The CPS named Tuagore its capital in 1929, and began a full scale rebellion with most of the northeast under their control. The war would rage on for the next two years, with no real gain from either side. Cuirpthean morale was low due to their inexperience and fear, and even further affected by the fear of being forced to join the ongoing Second Great War. The People's State found itself the victim of attrition and supply shortages, making any advancement into the rest of the nation nearly impossible. Because of this, McMillan made the decision to ally with the Aeian Socialist Union, hoping for the larger nation to supply them as a last hope in the war. With this decision, Cuirpthe found itself dragged into the ASU Civil War and the Second Great War. Hundreds of Cuirpthean troops were sent to the front lines in Veleaz, leading to a severe drop in Cuirpthean support of the war. Protest took place in Ballinluska, advocating for a peace treaty to be signed. But the government refused to release the rebel nation, forcing the war to continue. Midrasian troops would soon join the battle, increasing morale and allowing for a push into rebel territory. The Civil War would reach its end following the Republic's Operation Gananáil, a massive blockade of all CPS ports, ending any form of supply from its supporters in the far east. The military would make major gains in the south, wrapping east around the rebel nation. Generals compared this movement to that of a snake, constricting around and suffocating its prey. The false government would collapse finally on February 21st, 1935, with an official surrender the next day. Following the People's State's collapse, Midrasia and the ASU would sign an armistice, bringing the Second Great War to an end. McMillan would be tried for treason and crimes against the state. He and his generals would be executed for their crimes, one of the last instances of the death penalty exercised in Cuirpthe. The republic gained a general sense of unity following this victory, and the end of the war, coupled with the great losses inflicted by socialist forces, would fuel the general hatred of the communist threat during the coming Red Scare and Cold War.

Modernity

Freedom Bridge in Aizean, spanning the Annalee River.

With the conclusion of the People's Uprising and the Second Great War, the republic was able to restore its stability. The newfound sense of Cuirpthean unity and nationalism inspired new faith in the nation and, for the most part, an end to the hatred of the government in past decades. New democratic legislation was introduced at an accelerated rate, inspired by the nations around them, as the government worked to reinvent itself and purge corruption. This meant introducing new freedoms across the 50s and 60s, notably the official enshrining civil rights for all citizens within the constitution. Cuirpthe would join the Aeian Community(At that time the Asuran Community) in 1963, and would later join the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations following its founding by the nations of the AC. The economy thrived following new reforms by Prime Minister Rory Lynch in 1976 and 77, under pressure from worker's strikes against low wages and poor working conditions. Cities like Portlaoise and Tuagore saw massive growth with the increase in trade, shipping and manufacturing, the cities extending to include vast metro areas. The Cuirpthean Motorway system received a full renovation between 1978 and 83, transitioning from the early highways of post-war Cuirpthe and the new, high speed roads that remain in use today.

Multiple controversies occurred during this time as well, the most famous and notable being the Gallagher Affair. Prime Minister John Gallagher was found to be in the possession of embezzled funds from his company, the Gallagher hotel chain that provided services in various Cuirpthean cities, and included locations in some neighboring nations. After having been elected, he entrusted the company to his brother, relinquishing his rights to its profits and finances for the duration of his term. In 1994, both were caught in possession of stolen funds meant to pay worker's wages, as well as unpaid and stolen taxes. Gallagher was taken to high court, where he was found guilty and removed from office. The incident caused many citizens to lose confidence in their government, and was altogether a mark of shame to the nation.

The Gallagher Hotel in Ballinluska, seen from above.

In recent years, Cuirpthe has been involved in several military conflicts due to its involvement with the CDN. On April 13th, 2018, the Triskaideka War broke out between Midrasia and Veleaz, one of the few major conflicts between Asuran powers in the last decade. The war broke out following the detonation of explosives at the Appian Wall by the Veleazean military, severely damaging the Anti-Communist Barrier. Closely following the detonation was an official declaration of war by Veleaz, and conflict on the border. Cuirpthe was quick to pledge its support to Midrasia in the conflict, declaring war on the 20th. The nation's main focus was on providing supplies to the soldiers already fighting, and Cuirpthean soldiers would later be sent to help in the fight against Veleaz. Veleaz would capitulate on June 23rd, marking the end of the conflict and the demand to end the communist regime in Veleaz, which until December 29th, 2018 was refused by the government of the nation. Cuirpthe and Aquidneck, major contributors to the war, found the lack of military support for Midrasia to be an issue within the Drago Entente, though this refusal to send aid would continue into the next major war on the continent.

Following the Third Mydro-Veleazean War was the Folksland Crisis, beginning as a Newreyan Civil War on January 12th, and expanding to include Cuirpthe and the CDN on October 7th. Cuirpthe declared war following invasion into its lands on the east bank of the Eallsabh. Folksland cited the Newreyan claim(the subject of an ongoing border dispute between the two nations) on these lands as justification for their invasion and occupation. Cuirpthe declared war on the attacking nation, invoking Article I, Section II of the Cyningburgh Pact. This required all members of the CDN to respond(if able) in collective defense against the nation. Prior to Cuirpthean involvement, the CDN refused to assist due to the civil war existing as an internal conflict, but by invading Cuirpthe, they had gained a justification to attack the rebel nation. Immediate support was received from Aquidneck, Chalcia, Midrasia, Arzvan and Sarpory and Vemnia. Despite their obligation, several nations did not provide support at first. Vrnallia supported the effort with hospital ships(later declaring war after this ship was destroyed by Folksland). Ajerrin did not provide military support due to logistical inability, but still sent supplies and medical assistance. Notably, Leiden outright refused to join the war, and later announced its secession from the CDN. The supposed inability of the CDN to enforce its treaties on constituent members has led to movements in Cuirpthe and Aquidneck to exit the Commonwealth, though Cuirpthe voted to remain a full member until February 15th, 2019.

Geography

Geography of Cuirpthe
A lake under Mount Connor in the Vaellenian Mountains. 
Forests of Mayavane in winter. 
Carlingford Heath Nature Reserve in central Eallsabh. 
The coast of Carrigkerry along the Lhedwinic Channel. 
Several villages in the hills of Narraghmore. 

The mainland of Cuirpthe is located entirely within western Asura, bordering the nations of Newrey, Midrasia and tir Lhaeraidd. The border with Midrasia lies along the Vaellenian mountain range, acting as a natural southern barrier that has both protected Cuirpthe from invasion and isolated its culture from those of southern Asura. Cuirpthe is bisected by the Ballisodare river, through which imports from overseas countries reach deep into the nation's interior, such as Ballinluska and Invern. The river Annalee in the east acts as another major trade center, along which lies the city of Tuagore and a multitude of smaller towns that drive the Cuirpthean agricultural industry. Cuirpthe is relatively flat when compared to neighbors such as tir Lhaeraidd or Newrey. Cuirpthe's highest point is located in the Vaellenian mountains, at 2,962 m (9,718 ft) above sea level. The nation, at 180,462 square kilometers(72,152 square miles) in area, is fairly average in size when compared to other nations in Asura, though is smaller than the majority of its neighbors.

Most of the population lives along the northern coast surrounding the Lhedwinic Channel, with the first and third largest cities being Portlaoise and Tuagore respectively. The second largest city is the capital, Ballinluska, located near the center of the nation. Smaller population centers lay along the upper Annalee and other rivers, and smaller towns and cities dot the rest of the nation. Much of the plains in Cuirpthe are known for crop growing, notably potato and barley, but also wheat, oats and beets. Cuirpthe's one overseas territory, the Saint Aratóir archipelago, consists of one large landmass (sharing its name with the archipelago as a whole) and 13 smaller islands along its northeastern coast. It is relatively flat, with its maximum elevation at the peak of Mount Dubhghall, at a height of 707 meters (2,313 ft) above sea level.

Climate

Cuirpthe is dominated by a temperate seasonal climate, characterized by the humid westerly winds. The nation is located directly between the oceanic climate of western Asura and the continental climate of central Asura. The climate of the region is moderated by the powerful North Opal Current, the northern extension of the Columbian Stream. This warmer water has a constant effect on the areas bordering the Sea of Vrnallia; because of this, areas in the northwest experience an oceanic climate. Cuirpthe receives an average of 765 mm (30 in) of precipitation per year; autumn tends to be the wettest season while spring is the driest. Winters in Cuirpthe are cool, with mean temperatures in January of 1.5 °C (34.7 °F), while summers are warm, with a mean temperature in August of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). Temperatures very rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F).

Eastern Cuirpthe, as well as the south, lie in the continental climate zone. The Vaellenian mountains act as a shield, excluding southern Cuirpthe from the oceanic zone experienced by Midrasia and Aquidneck to the south. Winters in this region can be very cold and summers quite warm, while longer dry periods are experienced. Much of the Vaellenian mountains experience a mountain climate, with extremely low temperatures and higher precipitation. The climate is rarely extreme, with occasional spikes in temperature, both cold and hot. Winter temperatures can drop to two-digit negatives for multiple days in a row, while summers can see long periods of high temperatures for weeks at a time. The most extreme temperatures recorded in Cuirpthe, since 1874 when recordings began, was 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in 1975 and −31.2 °C (−24.2 °F) in 1982. Snowfall is quite common in central and southern Cuirpthe, though tends to occur less along the coast of the Sea of Vrnallia.

The region of Saint Aratóir lies in a tropical climate, making variations in weather rare. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The average temperature is 21 °C (69.8 °F) in January and 27 °C (80.6 °F) in July. St Aratóir is known to be hit with frequent storms during hurricane season due to their proximity to the Columbian Sea: however, it is rare for the archipelago to be hit directly by a hurricane, as most usually travel northward toward southern Vestrim. One particularly disastrous exception to rhis was Hurricane Ian, a storm that hit the region in mid 1995. Saint Aratóir was hit by its southern edge, which caused widespread power outages and displaced close to 700 local residents of the island. No major hurricane has hit the island since then.

Biodiversity

Cuirpthe belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and can be subdivided into two ecoregions: the Opal mixed forests and Lhedwinic mixed forests. Almost all of Cuirpthe's primeval temperate forests have been destroyed or fragmented, chiefly for agricultural purposes during the last millennia. The deforestation has created areas of heathland and sand drifts across the nation. In spite of this, there are several larger second growth woodlands in the country and, in total, 12.9% of the land is now forested. Navack spruce is the most widespread tree (2017), widespread across the countryside.

The flora and fauna found across Cuirpthe generally match those common to northern and western Asura. Roe deer occupy the countryside in growing numbers, and large-antlered {[wpl|red deer}} can be found in the sparse woodlands of the east. Wild_boar and mouflon are commonly native to the south. Cuirpthe is also home to smaller mammals, such as polecats, hares and hedgehogs, among many others. Approximately 400 bird species inhabit mainland Cuirpthe and about 160 of those breed within the country. Large marine mammals include healthy populations of Harbour porpoise, growing numbers of pinnipeds and occasional visits of large whales, mostly consisting of orcas. Cod, herring and plaice are abundant fish in Cuirpthean waters and form the basis for a large fishing industry.

Environment

Land and water pollution are two of Cuirpthe's most significant environmental issues, although much of the country's household and industrial waste is now increasingly filtered and sometimes recycled. The country has historically taken a progressive stance on environmental preservation; in 1968 Cuirpthe established the Ministry of Environmental Protection to enforce regulations on environment and climate defense. However, the national ecological footprint is 8.26 global hectares per person, which is extremely high compared to a world average of 1.7 in 2010. Contributing factors to this value are an exceptional high value for cropland but also a relatively high value for grazing land, which may be explained by the substantially high meat production in Cuirpthe (115.8 kilograms (255 lb) meat annually per capita) and the somewhat large economic role of the meat and dairy industries.

Cuirpthe has an outstanding performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 12 out of 180 countries in 2016. This recent and significant increase in ranking and performance is mostly due to remarkable achievements in energy efficiency and reductions in CO2 emission levels. A future implementation of air quality improvements are expected. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how well individual countries perform in environmental quality. The environmental areas where Cuirpthe performs best (i.e. lowest ranking) are sanitation (12), water resource management (13) and health impacts of environmental issues (14), followed closely by the area of biodiversity and habitat. The latter are due to the many protection laws and protected areas of significance within the country even though the EPI is not considering how well these laws and regulations are affecting the current biodiversity and habitats in reality; one of many weaknesses in the EPI. Cuirpthe performs worst (i.e. highest ranking) in the areas of environmental effects of fisheries (128) and forest management (96). The very poor ranking in the fisheries area are due to alarmingly low and continually rapidly declining fish stocks, placing Cuirpthe among the worst performing countries of the world.

Politics

Cuirpthe is a unitary state operating under the system of a parliamentary republic. The prime minister and the executive branch derives its power and legitimacy from the legislature. The structure of the government was lain out by the Dlíbenúsacha(Fundamental Law), the constitution put into place following the conclusion of the People's Uprising in 1947. Amendments usually require a two-thirds majority in both houses; fundamental laws in the Dlíbenúsacha denoting human dignity, separation of powers, state structure and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

The prime minister, Micheal Wilson(23 August, 2018 - Present), is the head of state and is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers, including diplomatic proceedings. He was elected by a combined basic majority in both houses of the Párlaman. The second highest official in the order of precedence is the Head Councilor of the Párlaman, who presides over both houses.He oversees the operations of each house, including the daily sessions of both bodies, as well as the performance of certain officials, most notably the Speaker of the National Assembly. the third highest member of the government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Head Councilor after election by the Párlaman.

The chancellor, Aidan Henderson (23 August 2018–present), is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet, similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies. Legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Cóirle na Naiscine(National Council) and Lámhór na Naiscine(National Assembly, or, more historically, National Diet), which together form the legislative body. The Assembly is elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (single transferable vote). The members of the Council represent the governments of the thirteen states and two autonomies, and are members of the provincial cabinets.

Since 1954, the party system has been dominated by the Conservative People's Party and the Freedom Party of Cuirpthe. So far, every chancellor since 1948 has been a member of one of these parties. However, multiple smaller parties have played important roles and make up significant portions of the parliament. Since 2003, the left-wing populist party The Left, formed through the merger of three former parties, has been a staple in the Cuirpthean Council.

Law and Justice

Cuirpthe has a civil law system based on Fiorentine law with some references to Alemannic law. The Bhunreachúirt (Constitutional Court) is the Cuirpthean Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review. Cuirpthe's supreme court system, is specialized: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Supreme Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Supreme Labour Court, the Supreme Social Court, the Supreme Finance Court and the Supreme Administrative Court.

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Pioncód (Penal Code) and the Sibhalcód (Civil code) respectively. The Cuirpthean penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges sit side by side with professional judges. Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states.

Cuirpthe has a low murder rate with 0.9 murders per 100,000 in 2014.

Administrative Divisions

As of the ratification of the 1974 Partition Act, Cuirpthe is divided into 10 regions, which further subdivide into 26 provinces, as well as one overseas territory. The autonomous cities of Portlaoise and Ballinluska are considered provinces, while the Ballinluska metropolitan area(consisting both of parts of the province of Ballinluska and neighboring Incour) make up the region of Greater Ballinluska. Regions create laws through which to govern their citizens, and these laws are valid even if contradictory to national legislature. Furthermore, provinces create their own laws, usually exceptions or conditions not mentioned by the laws of the regions that contain them. This can lead to issues in the court of law, such as in the Ballinluska region. The laws of the provinces of Ballinluska and Incour are both valid, alongside the laws of the region as a whole, despite certain contradictions between these three sets of laws. This is the only part of the country where this occurs, as it is the only case of a province existing in two separate regions.

CuirptheRegions.png
Regions Capital Population (2015)
Chestalve Invern TBD
Corragh Drogheda TBD
Dromleigh Mullingar TBD
Eallsabh Carlingford TBD
Greater Ballinluska Ballinluska TBD
Greater Vaellenia Kanturk TBD
Kistenluska Portlaoise TBD
Manore Mohill TBD
Mayavane Bandon TBD
Narraghmore Narraghmore TBD
Saint Aratóir Kilronan TBD

Saint Aratóir

Saint Aratóir is a group of islands off the coast of Vidoria in the Southern Opal Ocean. It is Cuirpthe's only overseas territory and is the westernmost region of the nation, enjoying much greater autonomy than other regions due to its great distance and cultural differences from Cuirpthe as a whole, making it harder to govern directly from Ballinluska. The territory, measuring 470 square miles(756 km) is comprised of one large island(referred to by the name St. Aratóir) and thirteen smaller islands along its north and eastern coasts. Saint Aratóir enjoys limited self-governance and autonomy, and Cuirpthe takes full responsibility over their defense and foreign affairs. St. Aratóir's capital is Kilronan(Cuirpthean: Cill Rónáin).

Controversy exists over the island's discovery and colonization by Asurans. At separate times it has been occupied by Cuirpthean, Midrasian, Veleazean and Diarian settlers. Cuirpthe was gifted the right to own the island by Veleaz in 1834, and following Vidorian claims, reasserted its ownership with a small military installation, later growing to be a CDN outpost in the Opal Ocean. In June 1946, Vidoria invaded and occupied the island, though Cuirpthean forces were able to reclaim it two months later. Most Aratóirans are in favor of remaining a Cuirpthean territory, and the Vidorian government has stopped actively claiming the island. However, movements both on St. Aratóir and Vidoria exist for its ownership by the Rennekkan nation, leading to various protests and even terrorist attacks over the last several decades.

Foreign Affairs

Cuirpthe maintains diplomatic relations with the vast majority of independent states in modern Aeia. The only notable exception to this in recent history is Veleaz, which, until December 2018, was a communist state in active political conflict with the CDN. Cuirpthe is the sixth largest contributor to the budget of the CDN as of 2011, contributing 8% of the budget. Cuirpthe is one of the founding members of the Asura-Arabekh Aerospace Agency(Also known as A4) and its largest contributor at 24% of the organization's budget. Within A4, it plays an influential role. hosting one of the organizations two primary launch sites. Cuirpthe maintains strong alliances with its neighbors, primarily Midrasia(following the founding of the Aeian Community and A4) and tir Lhaeraidd, an important military and economic partner. Other Asuran nations(including Crylante, Newrey, Arzvan and Sarpory and Vemnia) have been important allies and partners since the mid 20th century.

Cuirpthe maintains a development policy as a separate area of foreign policy. The policy is formulated by the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by independent parties and organizations. Cuirpthe and its government views development of lesser states as a joint responsibility for the international community. Cuirpthe is one of the world's major donors of international aid, alongside fellow CDN nations. Cuirpthean soldiers have participated in CDN intervention and peacekeeping efforts, with the government advocating for an effort to maintain peace in Asura, Arabekh and Majula, primary areas of focus for peacekeeping operations.

Military

Cuirpthe's military, the Cuirpthean Armed Forces, is organised into Army(including land infantry, motorized vehicles and special forces), Navy, Air Force, Joint Medical Service and Joint Support Service branches. In absolute terms, Cuirpthean military expenditure is the 14th highest in the world.[ In 2015, military spending was at 17.7 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the Drago Entente target of 2%.

As of 2017 the Armed Forces employed roughly 178,000 service members, including about 9,000 volunteers. Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defense exercises and deployments abroad. Since 1989, women have been able to serve in all functions of service without restriction. About 19,000 female soldiers are on active duty. Cuirpthe was the thirteenth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2012–2016.

In peacetime, the Armed Forces are commanded by the Minister of Defense. In state of defense, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the military.

The role of the military is described in the Constitution of Cuirpthe as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1987 the term "defense" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Cuirpthe, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Cuirpthe anywhere in the world. As of 2017, the Cuirpthean military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 stationed in Veleaz, 980 in Troping and along its border with Aramas, and 800 involved in various CDN operations.

Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Sibhilseirbh (civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or disaster relief. In 2011, conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.

Economy

The Cuirpthean economy is relatively strong, with a GDP of $1.482 trillion, placing it as the world's 12th largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, and with a per capita of $40,963. The Cuirpthean economy is the 8th largest on the Asuran continent, following Vvarden at $1.804 trillion. As a member of the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations, Cuirpthe enjoys the luxury of visa-free travel with its neighbors and the free movement of goods, as well as other benefits that come with a single open market. Cuirpthean companies are allowed to operate in Commonwealth states without the need for independent registration. the Cuirpthean government is strongly in favor of a unified currency for the Commonwealth, to aid less fortunate nations in developing their economies and to further unify the economies of the constituent states. Both the Cuirpthean public and other Commonwealth nations are strongly against this idea, due to individual strengths of their economies and inherent nationalism.

Cuirpthe would be an early nation to take part in the industrial revolution, with most historians considering the nation to have fully industrialized in the mid 19th century. While agriculture remained an important Cuirpthean industry(as it still does today), factories, primarily those producing textiles and later, the steel industry, were slowly becoming the dominant force in the economy. The resources gained from colonies such as Saint Aratóir and North Arabekh contributed to the expansion of the industrial sector, providing resources such as precious metals and ores as well as an ample oil supply in Saint Aratóir(a supply that is almost completely depleted today, and now protected from extraction by the government). Luxuries such as jewelry(mainly diamond, ruby and topaz), ornate ivory decorations and other exotic goods became widely available in northern Asura. This economy only grew over the years, until the conclusion of the Great War. While not as serious as those imposed on Veleaz and Lhedwin, Cuirpthe was faced with heavy war reparations that greatly hurt the economy. As economic growth stagnated, the Cuirpthean government's solution was to print more currency, which only lowered its value. This reckless action would be one of the contributing factors to the post war global depression that destroyed a multitude of worldwide economies. Cuirpthe would be hit especially hard by the Great Famine, which nearly killed the Cuirpthean agricultural sector. These factors led to growing unrest with the nation, and the attempted overthrowing of the Republic by communist rebels. The failure of this rebellion would unify the Cuirpthean people, and contributed to the widespread hatred of communism that would lead to Cuirpthe's involvement in the Second Great War. This greater unification also caused economic reform that led to the strengthened economy boasted by Cuirpthe today.

Today, the Cuirpthean economy is a mixed market economy, with the great majority of assets in the hands of private corporations. Energy, public transport(including railroad, air and naval travel), postal services and the defense industry are primarily supplied by private companies, though many of these services have government-run counterparts. Services, primarily those associated with labor, but also insurance, security and education, make up a sizable portion of the overall economy, being one of the fastest growing sectors in Cuirpthe after the Second Great War. However, science and technology have seen unprecedented growth in the late 80s and 90s, both in the publicly funded scientific endeavors of the government and privately owned efforts to expand Cuirpthe beyond Aeia and into space.

Agriculture

Historically, the Cuirpthean economy has been centered around agriculture. However, in recent years, it makes up much less of the economy overall. In the 1960s, Cuirpthean exports made up 25% of Asuran agricultural shipping. Today, it makes up less than 12%, with economic focus having shifted toward manufacturing and other industrial sectors. Cuirpthean agriculture is composed mostly of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and beets. While most of what is produced goes toward feeding Cuirpthe, the excess is sold overseas, mostly to other CDN nations, but also allies and friendly nations, including tir Lhaeraidd, Motsvara, and others. Most of the nation's agriculture takes place in the south east, mainly in the Manore and Mayavane regions, which are relatively flat and well irrigated. 61% of Cuirpthean agriculture is done privately on family farms, with the remainder made up by large, corporate owned farms.

Exotic agricultural goods such as rice, tobacco, coffee, sugar and various tropical fruits like pineapple, bananas, plantains and coconut, make up nearly the entire Aratóiran economy, approximately 85%. Most of these crops are shipped directly back to the Cuirpthean mainland, with around 20% going to nearby trade partners like Renneque and Vidoria. Agriculture currently makes up 11% of Cuirpthe's GDP, and employs 6.2% of the population.

Transport

Much like Midrasia to the south, Cuirpthe holds a central position in western Asura. Because of this, as well as because of the mountainous barrier between southern and northern Asura, makes Cuirpthe a major transport hub for nations along the northern Asuran coast. Cuirpthe is home to one of the densest road networks in northern Asura, as well as a highly developed, if outdated, domestic rail system. Cuirpthe is also part of the effort to construct a Trans-Asuran High Speed Rail Network, which is expected to be fully completed in early 2019. However, road and rail connections are lacking between Cuirpthe and Midrasia due to the Vaellenian Mountains. Currently, the only major connections between the two nations run through the Invern pass, with minor roads at the edges of the range. Coupled with few major roads across northern Midrasia as a whole, most traffic between the two nations runs along this one major highway. Cuirpthean and Crylantian companies have announced plans to construct a tunnel between the two nations, running across the Strait of Glostrup. If completed, it would be the longest undersea tunnel in the world at 110 kilometers. Plans to decrease this length with the construction of artificial islands and bridges are also under discussion.

Cuirpthe's domestic railway systems, in service since the mid 20th century, connects most major cities in the nation. With the completion of the TARN in early 2019, the system is to be replaced by a newly constructed high speed railway, designed to integrate with those of its neighbors. Rail travel, once the largest and most used form of public transport within the nation, has been in decline due to the slow speed and outdated nature of Cuirpthe's rails. However, interest in the upcoming high speed rails is high, and many private companies are bidding for usage of the new system. Current trains can operate at a speed of 97 kmp/h(60 mph), and high speed replacements are expected to match Midrasian counterparts at 320km/h(200mph). Besides trains, urban areas are developed with systems of buses, subways and tram systems.

Cuirpthe also contains several airports across the nation. The most notable of these are Paul McLennan International Airport in Ballinluska and Portlaoise international Airport in Portlaoise, which handle the vast majority of all air traffic within the nation. Tuagore airport is also an important domestic destination. Ports along the northern coast of Cuirpthe make up an important part of its shipping economy, with 5 major ports along the Vrnallian Sea and Lhedwinic Channel, Portlaoise being the largest and receiving 80,000 tons of cargo annually.

Energy and infrastructure

the Lucan Nuclear Power Plant on the banks of the Annalee.

Cuirpthe is one of the largest consumers of energy in Aeia, due to its status as a developed first world country. Coal and oil, as well as natural gas, make up the vast majority of all energy production in Cuirpthe, with nuclear energy and renewable sources of energy such as wind, solar and hydroelectricity becoming increasingly common. Cuirpthean energy production also contributes to the economies of neighbor nations, primarily that of Midrasia. Efforts to adopt green technologies have grown in recent years due to the effects of climate change becoming more and more apparent. Energy conservation and emission reduction are encouraged by the government, similar to other CDN nations in western Asura, with subsidies granted to corporations that adopt cleaner sources of energy. This has had some impact on reducing the total carbon footprint of Cuirpthe, but it remains one of the highest emission producing nations in the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations.

Coal has been the largest source of energy since the industrial revolution in the 19th century, when such power sources became most common and popular. it remains a major part of the economy, with plants along the southern mountainous regions of Cuirpthe. The depletion of coal reserves on the mainland and oil reserves in Saint Aratóir has led to a shift in industrial focus, with the endeavors to adopt green energy significantly impacting Cuirpthe's sizable manufacturing industry. The government has lang been against efforts to begin processes like hydraulic fracturing(commonly known as "fracking"), wishing to conserve the environment of Cuirpthe. However, recent majorities of conservative politicians have sparked fears among environmentalists who hope to preserve the nation's natural beauty. Fracking is known to cause major water pollution and earthquakes, the main reason for its banning by previous governments.

Science and technology

The Fabhcún 9 reusable spacecraft lifting off in Fontnouveau.

Cuirpthe has long held a major focus on the advancement of modern technology and scientific understanding. Cartography and advancements exploration were important to explorers in the Commonwealth era, though not as much so as in Midrasia. Rather, much of the advancement brought on by Cuirpthe are in various academic fields, most notably physics, mathematics and space exploration. The discovery of subatomic particles is credited to Newreyan-Cuirpthean scientist Ernest Wesley, leading to significant advancements, primarily in the discovery of nuclear fission. Cuirpthean astronomers have played a major part in space exploration, with astronomer Gregory Devoy discovering the dwarf planet of Mur and its moon Tuoni. Cuirpthean scientist Micheil Càidh is credited with the discovery of cellular life. His discovery and many pioneers following would bring innovation in medicine, research methods and new technologies. Engineer Desmond Graham would contribute to some of the earliest spacecraft in service from Cuirpthe, particularly the Freedom series of rockets that launched a multitude of orbital probes and early satellites, as well as servicing the Cupla Program.

The technology industry in Cuirpthe is large, due to a focus on information technology in the manufacturing industry. Along with Midrasia, Cuirpthe is one of the two most influential nations in the Asuran Space Agency, and leads the Asuran side of the Asura-Arabekh Aerospace Agency. The Cupla program, the first of the western Asuran programs to send multiple astronauts in the same capsule, was a major Cuirpthean endeavor, sending 9 separate missions before the cancellation of the program. Cuirpthean astronaut Rubharaí ú Sé completed the world's first spacewalk, exiting his ship on the Cupla 4 mission. Cuirpthe and Midrasia collaborated in the Galios Program, which landed the first men on the Moon. Orbital Dynamics, a privately owned corporation based in Tuagore, hopes to land humans on the planet Minerva by the year 2029. Similarly, A4's own Pethnýs program hopes to do the same by 2040. Saint Aratóir acts as a secondary launch site alongside the Midrasian Fortnouveau launch facility, useful due to its proximity to the equator. On average, 25-40 vessels are launched from the colony annually. Computer parts, smart devices and satellite components make up a major part of Cuirpthean manufacturing, with parts and components exported to companies across Asura for use in new devices.

Tourism

Tourism has been a prominent part of the Cuirpthean economy for decades, primarily due to the rich Fiorentine history in the region. Cuirpthe has a sizable tourism industry, with over 16.8 million visitors arriving in the nation every year(Though this number only includes those that remain within the nation's borders for greater than 24 hours at a time). Cuirpthean culture and history contribute to its relative popularity, though the somewhat colder climate has made it less popular than its neighbors in southern Asura. Besides foreign visitors, an estimated 26.3% of Cuirpthean citizens spend their holidays within the nation's borders. The majority of foreign tourist activity is in the north, in major cities, while domestic tourism is more common in the south, due to the great number of northerners wishing to see the Vaellenian mountains and the Fiorentine ruins beneath them. Most of the remaining ruins lie in the south where Fiorentina held more control, and all have been marked as World Educational And Cultural Organization historical sites. Also included are ancient pagan monuments and settlements, though most settlements have evolved or been incorporated into cities.

Ballinluska and Portlaoise see 65% of travel to Cuirpthe, acting as the cultural centers of Cuirpthe. These cities attract visitors thanks to the cultural cuisine, historical significance and accessibility thanks to their hosting of international airports. The National History Museum in Ballinluska is a major urban tourism site, as well as other monuments across the country such as Parliament, the Royal Palace of Cuirpthe, Great Castle at Narraghmore, ruins of Intermodium(primarily the Amphitheater, the most well preserved structure in the complex), and various sites along the Limes Marrus that once divided the Fiorentine Empire from ancient Cuirpthe. Beach tourism is less popular than in warmer nations like Midrasia and Aquidneck, but still exists on the shores of the Lhedwinic Channel.

Tourism from CDN member states accounts for most foreign travelers, aided by the visa-free travel policy in the Asuran free travel area. Midrasia, Newrey, Crylante, Navack and tir Lhaeraidd are not only popular destinations for Cuirpthean travelers, but also are home to many of the tourists that visit Cuirpthe each year. The largest resort in Cuirpthe is in Portlaoise, generally considered the cost effective choice for travelers. Those willing to spend more can enjoy resorts in the mountains, home to some of the most scenic vistas in Northern Asura.

Demographics

Cuirpthe's population is estimated to be 34,245,102, according to the most recent census taken in July of 2017. Cuirpthe's small size in relation to its neighbors contributes to this relatively small population, making it 8th in western Asura and 10th in the entirety of the continent. Cuirpthe's population density is 192 people per square kilometer. The most populated areas of Cuirpthe are along the northern coastline, as well as on the banks of the Ballisodare and Annalee, historically populated areas due to their ability to sustain crops and large settlements. The five most populated provinces, in order of most to least populated, are Kistinlusca, Rinnockuey, Dromleigh, Eallsabh and Narraghmore, and the three most populated cities are Portlaoise, Ballinlusca and Tuagore; Upper and Lower Vaellenia are thw two least populated provinces, primarily due to the mountains that make up the majority of the regions. The population has been steadily rising over the last century, following the Great Famine of 1907, an event that lowered the population by almost 35%, both through death and emigration, and forced the nation to rely on meager imports from its neighbors. Following the end of the famine in 1912, the population recovered and has been increasing ever since. Cuirpthean life expectancy has generally stayed close to 80.35 years (79.46 for males and 81.23 for females), with an average fertility rate of 1.63 children per woman, quite low in terms of all of Aeia but relatively average in Asura.

A small but significant portion of the population consists of national minorities due to close relations with neighbors as well as an influx of immigration in the early 20th century. The largest of these minorities, at around 24% of the population, identify as Lhaeraidh in origin, due to the blurred line between Cuirpthean and Lhaeraidh culture in the early days of both nations. 19% of the population is made up of ethnically Newreyans and Midrasians, the former caused by the large period in which the two states were a single Kingdom and the latter caused by occupation of some Cuirpthean regions following the Great War. The last major ethnic group is Alemannic at 11% of the population. Following the Great War, a great number of Alemannic immigrants flocked to Cuirpthe to take part in the rapidly developing industry, and becoming a major part of north Cuirpthean culture in the post-war period. other notable groups include the native Aratóiran peoples and Vidorians, which make up about 0.8% of the total population. Many Cuirpthean citizens also live overseas, primarily in other CDN nations, but also in parts of Asura, mostly tir Lhaeraidd, Newrey and Crylante, though this portion of the population makes up only about 12% of all citizens.

Major Cities

Ethnic Groups

The Cuirpthean ethnicity is considered to be of Thiaric origin, with an admixture of Fiorentine(Midrasians) and Lanamannic(Newreyans) groups. Some regions express this separate heritage more than others; Areas along the north and east have high Alemannic and Newreyan populations while similarly, Midrasian and Vaellenian groups inhabit the far south, as well as some Lileldic and Rigjordic minorities in the north. Immigration from Alemannia following the Great War, as well as a second wave following the Second Great War, influenced the culture and demographics of northern Cuirpthe greatly, and the 400 year union of Cuirpthe and Newrey led to a hugely intertwined culture. In 2006, the census reported that approximately 91% of Cuirptheans are white, with the remaining 9% made up by Arabekhi, Majulan and Cataian minorities.

It is estimated that around 30% of the population is at least partially descended from the different waves of immigration received throughout the 20th century. The largest of these waves was a number of Alemannic travelers relocating to the northern coast in the wake of the Second Great War, a group of almost 1.1 million. Similarly, Lhedwinic and Veleazean immigrants were common following the First Great War, as well as Midrasians and Newreyans crossing the newly opened border. Also following the first Great War were inhabitants of the former Cuirpthean colonial possessions of Cuirpthean descent, returning to the nation following the independence of the overseas states.

Cuirpthe, while not as major as some of its neighbors, remains a destination for immigrants. The nation accepts on average 50,000 legal foreign born nationals a year. The CDN allows free movement between member states and as such, most Cuirpthean immigrants originate from other CDN states.

Approximately 76% of the population identifies as "White Cuirpthean", making up the largest portion of the national population. 7% identifies as Newreyan, 3% for both Midrasian and Alemannic, and 2% for other white Asuran ethnicities. 2% of the remaining population is considered North Arabekhi, originating in the former Cuirpthean North Arabekh colony. 1% claims to be eastern Majulan, with 3% East Cataian, 2% Native Rennekkan and 1% other ethnicities. Much of this is estimated to fill in gaps left by those who chose not to identify themselves as any ethnicity.

Similarly to Midrasia, academic and political scrutiny have been directed at the Cuirpthean census for conflating race and ethnicity. Between 1991 and 2016, bills to restrict, limit and even abolish the census have been presented to Parliament 6 times. None of these bills has ever passed, and the census continues to occur every 5 years.

Language

Cuirpthean is the official language of Cuirpthe, and is predominantly spoken by the majority of the population. Cuirpthean is a Peripheral Thiaric language, closely related to Mawr Lhaeraidh and Mardic. To a lesser extent, it is also related to Central Thiaric languages like Vaellenian and Mân Lhaeraidh. Cuirpthean vocabulary is derived almost entirely from the Thiaric branch of the Cataisuran language family, with significant minorities of words borrowed from Newreyan and Old Fiorentine. Cuirpthean is written using the Fiorentine alphabet.

Cuirpthe is mostly spoken within Cuirpthe's own borders, with 89% of the population being native speakers, and 7% claiming to speak it as a second language. Due to the greater extent of its borders prior to the Great War, Cuirpthean is also spoken in some portions of the neighboring countries. This includes a significant portion of tir Lhaeraidd, close to the border, regions of Newrey on the far side of the Eallsabh and some small portions of northern midrasia.

There are several dialects of Cuirpthean, noticeably different from the standard language but close enough to be considered the same. These include an Alemannic dialect spoken in some small parts of the northern coast, originating in Alemannic immigrants learning the language, and introducing their own words to fill in the blanks of Cuirpthean. Similarly, a Lhaeraidh dialect exists throughout the western provinces and some regions of tir Lhaeraidd, a mix of the two Peripheral Thiaric languages. All of these dialects are mutually intelligible, and spoken by less than 10% of the total population. Notable native minorities are Newreyan, Vaellian, Lilledic, {[wpl|Insular Danish|Rigjordic}} and Mawr Lhaeraidh. Around 76% of Cuirptheans claim to be multilingual, with only 23% claiming to speak three or more languages; the most commonly spoken second language is Newreyan, at 63% of all multilingual speakers, followed by Midrasian at 37% and Mawr Lhaeraidh at 12%.

Religion

Religions in Cuirpthe
  Orthodox Alydianism (42.7%)
  Irreligious (39.9%)
  Derwyedd (8.7%)
  Truathi (3.7%)
  Puritan Alydianism (2.8%)
  Other (2.2%)

Upon it's formation in the late 18th century, Orthodox Alydianism was the most common religion in practice, at nearly 80% of the entire population. This majority Alydian population has continued until modernity, with the current population of Alydian population hovering at 42.7%. Orthodoxy was the official religion of the nation until 1987, when the national church was abolished. The remains of the national church still operates, though unofficial and no longer associated with the government. Cuirpthe's hands-off approach to religion in recent decades has lead to a mixture of religious views, though many of the smaller groups are insignificant compared to the population of practicing Alydians. The official secularization of the government has also led to a large irreligious population within Cuirpthe, at 39.9% of the total population. this group also includes 6.2%, who neglected to list any specific religion.

Apart from the two largest groups, many smaller religions are practiced within Cuirpthe's borders. Derwyedd is common in western and southern Cuirpthe, making up 8.7% of the total Cuirpthean population, though it is rarely practiced in central or western Cuirpthe. Truathi, a major religion in Lhedwin to the north, is practiced most commonly by Lhedwinic families along the coast. In total, the Cuirpthean Truathi population comes to around 3.7% of all of Cuirpthe. Dwindling numbers of Puritans also practice, mostly in southeast Cuirpthe. Puritans only compose 2.8% of the population, steadily decreasing over the last several decades. Ksaiism, Irsad, Göktanrism and other small religions make up the last 2.2% of Cuirpthe, with very few practicing citizens. Church attendance has steadily decreased over the years, with the atheist and agnostic population growing in recent years.

Alydianism has almost completely replaced the native religions of Saint Aratóir, making up 82% of the colony's religion. Cuirpthean missionaries have historically converted the majority of their colonial populations when possible, seeing native religions as inherently heretical and evil. The native beliefs of Aratóiran peoples who once inhabited the island have all but been wiped out and forgotten. The destructive tactics of explorers have led to the majority of religious sites and monuments, as well as records and stories, being destroyed and lost to the ages. Archaeologists have for decades attempted to reclaim lost texts and records of the native religions, with little results to show for their efforts.

Health

Cuirpthe is home to a system of clinics and hospices dating back to the earl medieval era, founded by crusader knights and holy orders that formed headquarters in major Cuirpthean cities. many of these organizations still operate today under their original orders, most notably the Holy Order of the Cuirpthean House of Astraeus in Balandrae, commonly known as the Order of Astraeus or Astraean Knights. The order, spread out among the many Cuirpthean states in the early Middle Ages, pioneered early forms of medicine and treatments. Cuirpthe also has one of the oldest systems of universal health care, originating in the 1889 Act for Civilian Rights, which laid out the natural human right to receive healthcare and treatment for their injuries and illnesses. Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

Cuirpthe's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013, according to a study by the Aeian Public Health Organization. In 2014, Cuirpthe spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care during a short period of expansion and reorganization to reduce the overall cost of providing it to the entire population. Cuirpthe has an extremely long life expectancy, one of the longest in the world. In 2014, the rate of life expectancy was 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births). In 2010, the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 41%, followed by malignant tumors, at 26%. In 2008, about 82,000 Cuirptheans had been infected with HIV/AIDS and 26,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982). According to a 2005 survey, 27% of Cuirpthean adults are smokers. Obesity in Cuirpthe has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2007 study shows Cuirpthe has the fifth highest number of overweight people in Asura.

Education

Responsibility for educational supervision in Cuirpthe is primarily organised within the individual regions of the nation. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrolls the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the Meanscoil enrolls intermediate students and lasts six years, and the Gairmscoil prepares pupils for vocational education and workplace training. The Chuimscoil unifies all forms of secondary education and is available to all students following primary education. Students wishing to attend a Meanscoil or Gymnasium need to have good marks in order to do so, and must have their application to said school accepted.

A system of apprenticeship called Oideachas Déag leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world. Most of the Cuirpthean universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is a high school education. However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the university, and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

Cuirpthe has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Cuirpthe include some of the oldest in the world, with Carlingford University (established in 1396) being the oldest. It is followed by the Roscrea University (1409), the Bandon University (1419) and the Mullingar University (1456). The University of Ballinluska, founded in 1810, became an economic model and cited example for many Asuran and Western universities. In the contemporary era Cuirpthe has developed eleven Universities of Excellence, elite colleges that require intense study, outstanding marks and near unanimous acceptance in order to enroll.

Culture

Cuirpthe's culture comprises elements of the culture of ancient peoples, later immigrant and broadcast cultural influences (chiefly Thiaric culture, Newrickization and aspects of broader Asuran culture). In broad terms, Cuirpthe is regarded as one of the Maíraidh nations of Asura, alongside tir Lhaeraidd, the Mardin Isles, and Vaellenia. This combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed Cuirpthean interlace or Maíraidh knotwork. These can be seen in the ornamentation of medieval religious and secular works. The style is still popular today in jewelry and graphic art, as is the distinctive style of traditional Cuirpthean music and dance, and has become indicative of modern "Maíraidh" culture in general.

Arts

Literature

Cuirpthe has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches, both in Cuirpthean and Newreyan. Poetry in Cuirpthean is among the oldest vernacular poetry in Asura, with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century. Cuirpthean remained the dominant literary language down to the sixteenth century, despite the spread of Newreyan from the fifteenth century on. The banning of the Cuirpthean language in everyday use by Newrey led to growth in its use in the arts, as a form of passive protest against cultural oppression. Prominent names from the medieval period and later include Donncuan Ó Scannail (fourteenth century), Feidhlim Ó hAlluráin (seventeenth century) and Toimilin Ó Conaire (eighteenth century). Cionnaola Ó Tuairisc (c. 1743 – c. 1800) was an outstanding poet in the oral tradition. The latter part of the nineteenth century saw a rapid movement to popularize Newreyan as the national language of Cuirpthe. Cultural nationalists in government prevented this, and movements to rediscover Cuirpthe's cultural origins led to the native language returning to its old popularity. This was to produce a number of notable writers, including Tomaltach Mac Carrghamhna, Clothra Uí Sabháin and others. Cuirpthean-language publishers such continue to produce scores of titles every year, with most books published in both Cuirpthean and Newreyan.

In Newreyan, Olivier Ward (23 March 1647 – 14 October 1733), often called one of the earliest and most popular satirist in the Newreyan language, gained fame for works telling tales of Fiorentine Asura or fantastical stories, such as the famous Isaac's Journey, telling of a man that finds himself stranded among a society of miniature people. Other notable eighteenth century writers of Cuirpthean origin included Ellis Cole and Rowan Edwards, though they spent most of their lives in Newrey. The Cuirptho-Newreyan novel came to the fore in the nineteenth century, featuring such writers as Blair Richards, Gabriel Gibson, and (in collaboration) Olivia Sharp and Florence Hill. The playwright and poet Aaron Russell, noted for his epigrams, was born in Cuirpthe. Modern Cuirpthean literature is often connected with its rural heritage through Newreyan-language writers such as David McGahern and Seamus Riley and Cuirpthean-language writers such as Carhal Ó Luain.

Art

The earliest known Cuirpthean graphic art and sculpture are Neolithic carvings found at sites across the nation and is traced through Bronze age artifacts and the religious carvings and illuminated manuscripts of the medieval period. During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, a strong tradition of painting emerged, including such figures as Rowan Atkinson, Leonard Griffiths, Simon Evans and Luke Evans. Contemporary Cuirpthean visual artists of note include Sean Murphy, Avery Abosch, and Renee Maher.

Music

Music has been in evidence in Cuirpthe since prehistoric times. Although in the early Middle Ages the church was "quite unlike its counterpart in southern Asura", there was considerable interchange between monastic settlements in Cuirpthe and the rest of Asura. Outside religious establishments, musical genres in early Thiaric Cuirpthe are referred to as a triad of weeping music (goltraige), laughing music (geantraige) and sleeping music (suantraige). Vocal and instrumental music (e.g. for the harp, pipes, and various string instruments) was transmitted orally, but the Cuirpthean harp, in particular, was of such significance that it became the symbol of several small Cuirpthean states, as well as the Kingdom of Dromleigh's national icon. Classical music following Asuran models first developed in urban areas, in establishments of Cuirptho-Newreyan rule such as Castle Narraghmore, St Ryan's Cathedral and Alydian Church as well as the country houses of the Cuirptho-Newreyan ascendancy. In the 19th century, public concerts provided access to classical music to all classes of society. Yet, for political and financial reasons Cuirpthe has been too small to provide a living to many musicians, so the names of the better-known Cuirpthean composers of this time belong to emigrants. Cuirpthean traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalizing cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects. It has influenced various music genres, such as to some extent modern rock. It has occasionally been blended with styles such as rock and roll and punk rock.

Architecture

Cuirpthe has a wealth of structures, surviving in various states of preservation, from the Neolithic period, such as the Nass Valley Tombs, Castleblayney stone, and Augher stone circle. As the Fiorentines never conquered northern Cuirpthe, architecture of Chalcian or Fiorentine origin is extremely rare beyond the south. Invern is the only major settlement to feature prominent Fiorentine architecture with the city's famous temple ruins. The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age architecture. The Cuirpthean round tower originated during the Early Medieval period.

Alydianism introduced simple monastic houses across the nation. Maíraidh kings and aristocrats occupied ringforts or crannógs. Church reforms during the 12th century stimulated influence from other cultures, with newly constructed abbeys gaining inspiration from the common Fiorentine design. Maíraidh settlement had been limited to the Monastic proto-towns, such as Carrigkerry, where the current street pattern preserves the original circular settlement outline to some extent. Significant urban settlements only developed following the period of Lhedwinic raiding. The major Lhedwinic Longphorts were located on the coast, but with minor inland fluvial settlements, such as the eponymous Longford.

Castles were built by the Newreyans during the late 15th century, such as Ballinluska Castle and Narraghmore Castle, and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter under Feudalism. These charters specifically governed the design of these towns. Two significant waves of planned town formation followed, the first being the 16th- and 17th-century plantation towns, which were used as a mechanism for the Newreyan kings to suppress local insurgency, followed by 18th-century landlord towns. Surviving Newreyan founded planned towns include Drogheda and Coleraine; plantation towns include Losset and Portlean; well-preserved 18th-century planned towns include Milford and Culdaff. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country.

Cathedrals, such as St Leon's, were also introduced by the Newreyans. They were dominant in directing the abbeys by the Late Middle Ages, while elegant tower houses, such as Tremone Castle, were built by the Maíraidh and Newreyan aristocracy. Many religious buildings were ruined with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Following the Restoration, palladianism and rococo, particularly country houses, swept through Cuirpthe, with the Houses of Parliament being the most significant.

With the erection of buildings such as The Custom House, Four Courts, General Post Office and King's Inns, the neoclassical and Georgian styles flourished, especially in Ballinluska. Townhouses produced streets of singular distinction, particularly in Ballinluska, Portlaoise and Culdaff. Beginning with the Vestric designed art deco church at Ahoghill in 1921, Cuirpthean architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century. Other developments include the regeneration of Antrim and an urban extension of Ballinluska at Davistown. Completed in 2008, the Elysian tower in Culdaff is the tallest storeyed building in Cuirpthe, at a height of 71 metres (233 feet), surpassing Culdaff County Hall.

Science

The Cuirpthean philosopher and theologian Johannes Morus Curiugena was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages. Maxwell Davis Nicholson, a Cuirpthean explorer, was one of the principal figures of Frigidaran exploration. He, along with his expedition, made the discovery of the approximate location of the South Magnetic Pole. Leon Watson was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early gentleman scientist. He is largely regarded one of the founders of modern chemistry and is best known for the formulation of Watson's law.

19th century physicist, Travis Burton, discovered the Burton effect. Father Ernest Joseph Baker, Professor of Natural Philosophy in Carrigkerry College, is best known for his invention of the induction coil, transformer and he discovered an early method of galvanization in the 19th century.

Other notable Cuirpthean physicists include Cuirptho-Newreyan scientist Albert Fletcher. With Richard Douglas Stevens, he was the first to split the nucleus of the atom by artificial means and made contributions to the development of a new theory of wave equation. Micheil Càidh was the first to document the existence of microbial life following his discovery of cells in onions. Rowan Miller, a physicist and mathematician, made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics and the electron theory of matter. His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a book on theoretical physics published in 1900.

Owen Graham introduced the term electron in 1893. The astronomer Elijah Duncan discovered pulsars in 1968. Notable mathematicians include George Quinlan, famous for work in classical mechanics and the invention of quaternions. Joseph Hopkins's contribution of the Hopkins Box remains influential in neo-classical microeconomic theory to this day. Tyler Byrne was a specialist in number theory and discovered a 2000-digit prime number in 1999.

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Cuisine

Food and cuisine in Cuirpthe takes its influence from the crops grown and animals farmed in the nation's temperate climate and from the social and political circumstances of Cuirpthean history. For example, whilst from the Middle Ages until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century the dominant feature of Cuirpthean farming was the herding of cattle, the number of cattle a person owned was equated to their social standing among the common folk. Thus, herders would avoid slaughtering a milk-producing cow and instead raise pigs and poultry for slaughter.

For this reason, pork and white meat were more common than beef, and thick fatty strips of salted bacon (known as rashers) and the eating of salted butter (a dairy product rather than beef itself) have been a central feature of the diet in Cuirpthe since the Middle Ages. The practice of bleeding cattle and mixing the blood with milk and butter was common. Black pudding, made from blood, grain (usually barley) and seasoning, remains a breakfast staple in Cuirpthe. All of these influences can be seen today in the phenomenon of the "breakfast roll".

The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced cuisine thereafter. The general population of Cuirpthe in this time experienced great poverty, and a diet of subsistence coupled with the relatively low price of potatoes created a potato-centered diet popular with the poor. A typical family, consisting of a man, a woman and four children, would eat 110 kg of potatoes a week. Consequently, dishes that are considered as national dishes represent a fundamental unsophistication to cooking, such as the Cuirpthean stew, bacon and cabbage, boxty, a type of potato pancake, or colcannon, a dish of mashed potatoes and kale or cabbage.

Since the last quarter of the 20th century, with a re-emergence of wealth in Cuirpthe following the worldwide depression of the 30s, a "New Cuirpthean Cuisine" based on traditional ingredients incorporating international influences has emerged. This cuisine is based on fresh vegetables, fish (especially salmon, trout, oysters, mussels and other shellfish), as well as traditional soda breads and the wide range of hand-made cheeses that are now being produced across the country. An example of this new cuisine is "Kinsale Lawyer": lobster cooked in whiskey and cream. The potato remains however a fundamental feature of this cuisine and the Cuirptheans remain the highest per capita consumers of potatoes in Asura. Traditional regional foods can be found throughout the country, for example coddle in Ballinluska or drisheen in Portlaoise, both a type of sausage, or blaa, a doughy white bread particular to Carlingford.

Cuirpthe once dominated the world's market for whiskey, producing 90% of the world's whiskey at the start of the 20th century. However, as a consequence of bootleggers (who sold poor-quality whiskey bearing Cuirpthean-sounding names thus eroding the popularity for Cuirpthean brands) and the effects of the Great Depression killing many companies that produced it, sales of Cuirpthean whiskey worldwide fell to a mere 2% by the mid-20th century. In 1953, an Cuirpthean government survey, found that 50 per cent of whiskey drinkers in Vestrim had never heard of most brands of Cuirpthean whiskey.

Cuirpthean whiskey remains popular domestically and has grown in international sales steadily over a few decades. Typically, Cuirpthean whiskey is not as smoky as a Lhaeraidh whisky, but not as sweet as Vestric whiskies. Whiskey forms the basis of traditional cream liqueurs, such as the "Cuirpthean coffee" (a cocktail of coffee and whiskey reputedly invented at small bar in Drogheda) is probably the best-known Cuirpthean cocktail.

Stout, a kind of porter beer, is typically associated with Cuirpthe, although historically it was more closely associated with Newrey. Porter remains very popular, although it has lost sales since the mid-20th century to lager. Cider is also a popular drink. Red lemonade, a soft-drink, is consumed on its own and as a mixer, particularly with whiskey.

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