|Tyranny of tir Lhaeraidd
Teyrnas tir Lhaeraidd
|Motto: "Mae ein tir gwyrdd a dymunol."
"Our green and pleasant land."
|Anthem: "Mo Ghile Mear"
"My Gallant Darling"
Map of tir Lhaeraid, detailing towns and cities.
|Official languages||Mawr Lhaeraidh
|Recognised national languages||Mân Lhaeraidh|
|Recognised regional languages||Siarad
|Ethnic groups (2016)||87% Lhaeraidd, 13% Other|
|-||Union of Caer Gobaith||April 899 CE|
|-||Articles of Sovereignty||4th March 1865|
|-||The Social Contract||18th July 1946|
|-||Constitution||11th April 2017|
185,367.646 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|-||Total||$5.21 trillion (3rd)|
|-||Per capita||$50,715 (5th)|
|Gini (2015)|| 28.6
|HDI (2015)|| 0.921
|Time zone||AST -2|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||TLD|
The Tyranny of tir Lhaeraidd (Lhaeraidd: Teyrnas tir Lhaeraidd pronounced: /ˈtə̀ɨ̯rnás tír ɬɑ̀ːɨ̯rái̯ð/), more commonly referred to as tir Lhaeraidd or simply Lhaeraidd, is a sovereign state located on the north western coast of the continental mainland of Asura. The Asuran territories of tir Lhaeraidd extend from the north western coast of mainland Asura east to the border of Cuirpthe and south to the Southern Divide Mountains, which mark the border with Arzvan and a comparatively small land border with Midrasia is located. The Teyrnas is a unitary Constitutional monarchy with its capital in the city of Neuaddduwiau which is the country's second largest city, as well as it cultural and economic heart. The largest city is Aurharbwr with its surrounding smaller urban centres. Other major urban centres include Caer Hafan, Elfryg, and Cwyl. Tir Lhaeraidd has a population of approximately 102.75 million people.
During the late Stone Age and early Bronze Age the area which now forms tir Lhaeraidd was inhabited by the numerous Ancient Lhaeraidh cultures, who would be overrun and subjected to centuries of rule by the Asuran cultures of the Fiorentine Empire until 388 CE when the decline of the Empire prompted a series of Lhaeraidd revolts, which returned the region to its ancient inhabitants. These Post-Classical Lhaeridh peoples had been heavily influenced by their Asuran overlords, and by the peoples inhabiting eastern Asura who had also migrated west into their territories; the result was a Post-Classical Lhaeraidh revival which resulted in the Octarchy, a period during which eight petty kingdoms vied for power over the region with one another. In 899 CE Teyrn Alwaen of Gwyfyr subjugated the other petty kings and formed the Teyrnas of tir Lhaeraidd as a single state under a system of feudal monarchy; the clan chiefs and petty kings of the Lhaeraidh became the landed nobility. During the Renaissance Lhaeraidh culture and power flourished and by the 17th century tir Lhaeraidd was one of the dominant cultural and military powers in Asura. The Teyrnas would reach its peak in the 1860s under the rule of the 'Renaissance King' Bronwen II, who reformed the government and introduced social and cultural liberalism to the nation.
In the late 19th century tir Lhaeraidd would become embroiled in the Great War on the side of the Grand Alliance, during which the Lhaeraidh Royal Army would fight on various fronts throughout the conflict, though primarily along the Lhaeraidh-Cuirpthe Front. Following the end of the war the Teyrnas suffered significant economic hardships spurred on by the huge casualties which left many of the nation's rural areas depopulated; a severe manpower shortage across all sectors of the economy combined with the demobilisation of millions of soldiers fuelled the economic instability and gave rise to the modern welfare state that exists to this day. In the years following the Great War a succession of Chancellors under Teyrn Bedwyr XIII enacted increasingly progressive policies including the introduction of universal healthcare, free education, workers compensation, and a host of other welfare programs aimed at supporting and placating the increasingly outspoken working classes. The Trade Unions Act of 1903 was the first of its kind in Asuran and not only made Trade Unions legally recognised and legitimate organisations, but also imbued them with rights which have remained sacred to this day.
The Social Contract of 1946 is considered to be one of the most important modern legal documents in tir Lhaeraidd's history; the Act officially enumerated the rights of the people in relation to the aristocracy and the monarch, and set out in clear terms the relationship between the three groups. Under the Social Contract it was agreed that the monarch should always represent the best interests of the Commons and the country, while the role of the aristocracy was significantly reduced making titles a largely ceremonial institution. Tir Lhaeraidd is currently ruled by the Blaengar Rhyddfrydol, led by the Taoiseach Líadáin Síomha who is the first democratically elected Head of Government in the nation's history; the reigning Teyrn is Bedwyr XVI. The reign of Bedwyr XVI has been characterised by the expansion of his father's liberal policies, along with the abolition of many of the aristocracy's powers and prerogatives, but also most strikingly by the introduction of Constitutional Monarchy. The current heir to the throne is the Tywysoges Goron (Crown Princess) Gwynyth merch Bedwyr of House Gwallteuraid, the eldest daughter of the Teyrn; she is presently 15 years of age and will be the first female monarch of tir Lhaeraidd to have succeeded the throne under the altered laws of Agnatic-Cognatic Primogeniture which came into force in 2010.
Tir Lhaeraidd is a highly developed nation with an expanding economy, and is one of the world's leading sources of economic growth. The economy of the Teyrnas is well developed with high-tech industries and pharmaceuticals featuring heavily in the nation's economic output. Income equality is relatively low however for the last four years straight their Gini ranking has been increasing, indicating and increase in income inequality; this said the HDI has been steadily increasing since 2004. The country's GDPPC is $52,500 and the average wages is $34,500 per annum.
- 1 Etymology and Terminology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Military
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
Etymology and Terminology
The name tir Lhaeraidd is taken from the name of the ancient peoples of the north western Asuran mainland who referred to themselves collectively as the Lhaeraidh which meant 'The Old People' - thus tir Lhaeraidd literally translates from their language into 'land of the Old People'. The Siaradised version of Lhaeraidh is "Lhaeridhic". The Lhaeraidh language is an ancient and complex one with myriad rules making correct native pronunciation and names for the Teyrnas and its inhabitants rare and extremely difficult except within tir Lhaeraidd itself and to a lesser extent Newrey, the result is that a broad number of spellings and pronunciations of the country's name and denonym are widely accepted as correct internationally. Examples of these accepted alternatives include; Lhaeridd, Laeraid, Lairaed, and Tirlaird. Meanwhile examples of accepted alternative denonyms include; Lhaeridhic, Laeridic, Lhaeriddic, and Tirlandic.
As Siarad becomes a more widely accepted international language for diplomacy and business tir Lhaeraidd with its archaic and very precise system of correct naming for itself is being forced to accept the more simplified and Siaradised versions of its name in diplomatic circles. For centuries using the incorrect naming format or pronunciation was considered a major diplomatic faux pas and led to numerous diplomatic incidents, however since the Great War tir Lhaeraidd has become more ambivalent towards other cultures' bastardisation of its name. This situation has been made even more convoluted as the Lhaeraidh language has separate names for the Teyrnas depending upon who is referring to it and in what context.
The correct way to refer to the Teyrnas in general as accepted in international fora is either tir Lhaeraidd or Lhaeraidd; however if a person wishes to pay particular respect to the Teyrnas' ancient customs they would use Dedwydd Lhaeraidd. It is especially important to note that if the form tir Lhaeraidd is used that the word tir should not be capitalised unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. Person of recognised Lhaeraidh descent often refer to tir Lhaeraidd as y famwlad rather than using its name, which literally translates to 'the motherland'; while many nationalities colloquially refer to their countries thus in tir Lhaeraidd it is a term of reference enshrined in various legal documents making it a secondary alternate name for the country.
Main article: History of tir Lhaeraiddmodern human habitation comes from between 46,000 and 42,000 years ago and came as a result of major archeological excavations at the base of Monnoch, west of Iska. Verifiable continuous human habitation dates from around 28,000 years ago during a brief glacial period, with the largest concentrations of humans having migrated west into Varynfwy and Ogledd. The country has numerous remains and sites dating back to the Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze Age including a number of Henges and burial mounds. Tir Lhaeraidd was populated historically by the various Paithwaidh tribes, after which the eight Diúcachtha take their names. From 92 CE onward the territory was ruled largely by proxy by the Fiorentine Empire.
The end of Fiorentine rule in 388 CE was precipitated by an uprising by a Paithwaidh Teyrnir,Breda, and her sisters who formed a coalition of local tribes in order to break the Fiorentine hegemony. Though successful in removing foreign rule the tribal coalition ultimately collapsed and the Paithwaidh tribes separated. Between 400 and 650 CE the various tribes and clans coalesced into a distinct culture now referred to by scholars as the Proto-Lhaeraidh culture, and eight petty kingdoms formed based on clan loyalties and local warlords. Various minor wars and skirmishes were fought by the Kingdoms from 650 CE on until the end of the Octarchy with the coronation of Alwaen I who inherited through his father's conquests Ffanwy, Varynfwy, Lhaeraen, Gyllnru, and Ogledd; and through his marriage to Myfanwy of Hlaanedd, Hlaanedd and Llanggwyr.
The coronation of Alwaen I on 2 April 899 also became the founding date for tir Lhaeraidd (known by contemporaries as Wyth Tiroedd Lhaeraidd). Alwaen's descendants of the House of Gwallteuraid would continue to rule as Head of State and Government in tir Lhaeraidd until the Constitutional Reforms of 2017 under Bedwyr XVI, forty five generations later. This makes House Gwallteuraid the oldest continuously reigning royal dynasty on Aeia and the last to hold absolute executive authority over their nation in Asura.
During the Middle Ages right up through the Renaissance and into the modern era tir Lhaeraidd was ruled through a peculiar blend of aristocracy and plutocracy, where noble titles were bought, sold, and rented out by the Crown in exchange for tithes and levies. In this manner the Teyrn was able to exercise great power and implement a form of indirect taxation on the nobility who paid for their privileges; they in turn derived their income from raiding (until around 1160 CE), mercantile ventures, rents from serfs, and later through industrial ventures. As a result of the plutocratic way in which the aristocracy was ordered the concepts of aristocracy and absolute monarchy would survive more or less unchallenged until the 21st century.
During the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries the Lhaeraidd monarchy experimented with colonial rule by annexing nearby Vrnallia and Crylante, however the lack of vast profit margins combined with the Lhaeraidh aristocracy's cutthroat merchant ideology meant that the Teyrnas never aspired to the vast overseas colonial empires of other Asuran nations. Instead a succession of Teyrns from the 15th century on focused on the establishment of small trading powers and city state colonies around the world; the most notable example being Huangjin which was purchased from the Cantonese of Catai and has operated as an extension of tir Lhaeraidd ever since.
Tir Lhaeraidd served as a flashpoint for the Industrial and Scientific revolutions and managed to successfully ride the waves of rapid modernization throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. A series of commercial and financial policy shifts as well as the evolution of merchant capitalism has allowed tir Lhaeraidd to develop into the second or third largest economy by GDP in the world, and the largest in Asura.
From 1894 until 1899 CE tir Lhaeraidd participated in the Great War, fighting on the side of the Grand Alliance which was ultimately victorious. In 1904 the country declared its neutrality and initiated a program of aggressive internal development and progressive financial policies including extensive international aid plans to help nations which had been left devastated by the War recover their economies. This ideology of trade, finance, and international cooperation ultimately resulted in the formation of WACO in 1984; an organization which would ultimately be comprised of tir Lhaeraidd, Carcossica, Cuirpthe, Crylante, Vrnallia, and Navack.
Constitutional Reforms (2017 CE)
On 22 December 2016 Teyrn Bedwyr XVI put his seal on a revolutionary document which was unprecedented in tir Lhaeraidd's political history; the document, which started out as an Executive Proposal by the Teyrn himself to Parliament, grants official and full approval for government reforms which were to be led by the lower house of Parliament the Bonedd. While the document contained an opt out clause which the Teyrn could have used had the proposed reforms not been satisfactory. No legally binding document of this nature had ever gained Parliamentary approval in the entire history of the Teyrnas, much less the seal of the Teyrn.
The stated aim of the document was to 'gradually introduce a more democratic and modern system of governance, such that the Teyrn may take a secondary role in political life.' What this essentially meant was that the sole purpose of the Bonedd from that point on was to draft a series of new statutes which would establish a democratic Parliament, and ultimately a democratic executive office. Within a matter of months tir Lhaeraidd would see its first ever elections. Parliament had discussed the subject on numerous occasions with the Bonedd even passing a series of conjectural motions agreeing to the basis of a Lhaeraidh democracy even before the Teyrn's proposal entered into law.
In line with the Conjectural Procedures of 2012, 2013, and 2015 the Bonedd sought to hammer out the specifics of a proposal which would result in the abolition of the upper house of Parliament as it presently existed, the Bonedd would then occupy that position with a new lower house replacing them in turn. The Conjectural Procedures of 2013 established a consensus that any democratic system would have to operate on a constituent basis, meaning that the country would be divided into electoral districts along the lines of the old counties, with each county given a number of seats based on its population as a proportion of tir Lhaeraidd's total. Within each constituency the people would then vote upon candidates using a preferential voting system (where a constituency has more than one seat) or a system of plurality (where only one seat exists.)
After three months of continuous debate and work among policy makers and politicians the process of hammering out the documents and terms of the government reform in tir Lhaeraidd was complete. On 11 April 2017 the Bonedd presented he finalised document to the Teyrn for his approval, and within hours the Teyrn gave his assent in a momentous point in Lhaeraidh history, signing the document and affixing his seal to it rendering into law the changes therein which converted Asura's last absolute monarchy into a modern Parliamentary Democracy with a constitutional monarch as its figurehead. The document officially came into force on 17 April 2017, triggering a general election, the first in tir Lhaeraidd's eleven hundred year history.
The reforms agreed to introduced a constitutional framework which leans heavily on the ancient Lhaeraidh concepts of personal freedom and economic liberty. The country was divided into Electoral Constituencies which were based around the boundaries of tir Lhaeraidd's traditional counties; each county became entitled to a number of representatives proportionate to its population relative to the number of seats available and the total population of the Teyrnas, a system which means on average each Member of Parliament (Aelod Seneddol) represents around 125,000 citizens, forming a legislative chamber of 800 representatives.
The Upper House of the legislative became the Bonedd, an assemblage of tir Lhaeraidd's gentry. Membership is based upon paying an annual tithe to the government and anyone capable of paying the tithe can be a member; however the reforms placed strict rules in place. Companies and corporations can only provide funds for a single member's tithe, while charities may fund two. Private citizens may pay their own tithe but members of the Bonedd cannot provide funds to pay for the tithe of another member. Additionally the proportion of Bonedd members belonging to each political party or who have their tithe funded in part by such a party may not exceed 50 per party.
With the announcement that the first General Election in Lhaeraidh history would be held on 17 April 2017 the major political parties rushed to make their status official on the electoral register. The civil service's Electoral Monitoring Department was inundated with hundreds of applications for political party status on 11 April, all of which were processed thanks to the department's huge temporary staff. Most applications were approved with only a few which did not meet transparency and anti-corruption standards being rejected. The resulting rush to the campaign podium has left little time for the general public to take stock and look at each party in detail, which prompted the Teyrn's Office's to publish a list on its website which gives the names of every party and a short description of what they stand for.
In total 213 political parties formed which had more than twenty members, with smaller parties being excluded from official statistics, even though they retained the same rights and protections as their larger counterparts. Many of these political parties represented local concerns and agendas and were either formally or nominally aligned with one or other of the four major parties.
GeographyAsura, west of Cuirpthe and Midrasia, and north of Arzvan and Carcossica, which are the only nations with which it shares a land border. A few hundred miles off the northern coast can be found the Vrnallian Islands. The highest peak in tir Lhaeraidd is Glenwy Bregh which stands around 1,041 metres (3,415 ft) above sea level. The northern coastline consists mostly of wetlands and features shifting sandbars; further south the coast changes and becomes much more rugged with a large number of rocky inlets, headlands, and bays. The longest and largest river is the Llyffwy, which flows from the Vale of Hlaanedd in the south bisecting the country on its way northwards to the sea.
The vast majority of the country consists of fertile hills and temperate deciduous forests which principally consist of Alder, Ash, Birch, and most famously Oak. Large temperate coniferous forests can also be found in the southwestern regions near the border with Brancia. Though a considerable portion of tir Lhaeraidd was deforested during the Renaissance and industrial revolution since the 1980s widespread efforts to replant and cultivate new forests have been made, particularly in the central regions of the country around the city of Caer Dunn.Asura, the production potential of renewable energy has almost entirely replaced the export of coal as an important economic and environmental issue in recent years.
The territorial extent of tir Lhaeraidd is well established through a series of treaties, and the country is generally considered to have reached its present extent in 1899 with the conclusion of the Great War, at which point peace treaties with Cuirpthe finalised the border between the two countries. Small modifications to its borders have occurred since, most notably with the creation of Canmyr-Weidhal.
It is on the western seaboard of Catasurmajula, the world's largest land mass. These conditions allow convergence between moist maritime air and dry continental air. In this area, the large temperature variation creates atmospheric instability and this is a major factor that influences the often unsettled weather the country experiences, where many types of weather can be experienced in a single day. In general the climate of tir Lhaeraidd is cool and often cloudy, and hot temperatures are infrequent.
The climate in the Teyrnas is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Aerh climate classification system, a classification it shares with most of northwest Asura. Regional climates are influenced by the North Opal Ocean and latitude. Ogledd, Lhaeraen, and Ffanwy, being closest to the Ocean, are generally the mildest, wettest and windiest regions of the country, and temperature ranges here are seldom extreme. Eastern areas are drier, cooler, less windy and also experience the greatest daily and seasonal temperature variations. Northern areas are generally cooler, wetter and have slightly larger temperature ranges than southern areas.
Traditionally tir Lhaeraidd is divided into eight provinces, referred to as Duchies, or locally as Diúcachtha, which are drawn around the historic borders of the Eight Kingdoms which existed prior to the unification of the country in 899; these duchies are then divided into Counties or Tuatha, which in turn are divided into Baronies or Baróiní. Under the ancient feudal system each Duchy was ruled by a Diuice, who in turn issued titles based on payments received by their subjects. The Baronies were drawn around the authority of the local nobility, all the lands belonging to the people paying the Teyrn's taxes to a specific noble were considered to be a part of the Barony.
In modern terms the traditional Duchy, County, and Barony borders are maintained, and within the Constitution of 2017 which converted the nation into a Constitutional Monarchy these borders were reinforced under the electoral system which was implemented. Thus the traditional territorial divisions and their names have managed to endure more or less unchanged since around 1486 when laws were passed preventing landowners from choosing which local priest to pay their taxes to. Minor alterations have since been made to account for shifting river courses, drained swamplands, and man made lakes and waterways.
The organisation of local government in tir Lhaeraidd is relatively straightforward, something which the current constitution retained from the previous system of Absolute Monarchy. Power flows directly from the central government down into departments at Duchy level, and in turn this flows down to the Counties and eventually to the Baronies. All localised authorities have their powers clearly delineated in statute by the constitution so that they are ranked in tiers rather than individual authorities being granted specific powers; this tiered system of generalised power makes local governance highly effective and considerably streamlined.
The only mainland exceptions to the traditional Duchy-County-Barony system are the Metropolitan areas of Aurharbwr, which, due to the different governmental and political needs of a large urban area, operates as its own 'Duchy' though for ceremonial purposes it is a part of Gyllnru, Saied for similar reasons, and the capital city. The Metropolitan authority is then devolved to local 'borough' authorities; and though the powers are spread in a different way to elsewhere in the country they remain clearly delineated into tiers within the Metropolitan authority.
Historically land was divided by the Teyrn down to the Diuice who paid an annual tax to the Crown in exchange for the continued rule over their lands, and continued use of their titles and privileges. In turn, so as to raise the tax levied by the Crown and mitigate the expense, the Diuice developed a system whereby they essentially did the same but to lesser nobility thereby allowing those subjects within their lands with sufficient wealth to acquire titles and rank of their own. This third rank would then divide their own holdings among their wealthier subjects. Thus the basis for the modern Duchy-County-Barony structure was created. Initially the division of land to subordinate nobility by the Diuice was informal and unofficial; it boosted the efficiency of the tax collection system thereby enabling for greater funds to be levied by the Crown, but these lesser nobles had little recognition or formal status or ranking.
In 1223 Bedwyr VII convened a meeting of the Diuice and all the landing nobility and gentry beneath them. This Cúirt Míosa whole establish a formal system of rank and would determine who paid what to whom. Under the new system those nobles who paid direct homage to the Diuice were elevated to the rank of Tuaidh (Count), with the lands they ruled referred to as Tuatha (Counties); under this system there were a fixed number of Tuatha in each Diúcachtha and the only way to create more was with the Teyrn's assent. Tuaidh could then pay an additional tax directly to the Teyrn to be recognised by a higher rank and title; this started with the title of Iarla (Earl) and progressed to Tiarn (Margrave). Below the Tuaidh were organised the Baróin (Barons), who could also pay a tax directly to the crown for elevated rank, these being in reverse order of precedence; Barun (Baron), Ceannasaí Lord), and Leastuidh (Viscount). In 1602 Alwaen IV/I further introduced the titles of Baróinéad (Baronet) for those who did not hold land, but where independently wealthy enough to pay a tax directly to the Crown, it would ultimately be the Baróinéid who formed the bulk of the Teyrn's physical and military support and powerbase over the coming centuries..
The Lhaeraidh state controls three small, but economically significant, overseas territories. In terms of administration these are controlled as Metropolitan Areas in the same manner as Aurharbwr and each elect their own representatives to the central Lhaeraidh government based on their populations. These overseas territories are Caer Dyf in Vestrim, Kish in Araabekh, and Huangjin in Yidao. The oldest of these territories is Kish, but the most densely population and wealthiest is Huangjin. These territories are geographically small, each on occupying a small island or peninsula along the coast of their respective continents. Approximately 80% of the land area of each territory is urban with the remaining 20% being government owned agricultural land. Since 2008 there have been ongoing land reclamation and artificial island projects in Kish and Huangjin in an effort to increase the cities' liveable and farmable land area.
The Teyrnas is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Teyrn Bedwyr XVI is the head of state. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn" the elected government. The Constitution of the Teyrnas consists mostly of a collection of disparate written sources, including statutes, judge-made case law and international treaties, together with constitutional conventions which revolve around a central document which lays out the basics of how the government is elected. As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and "constitutional law", the Senedd can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament, and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Senedd can pass laws that future Senedd cannot change.
Tir Lhaeraidd has a parliamentary government based on the Newreyan system that has been emulated around the world: a legacy of the Newreyan Empire. The Dáil Lhaeraidh (parliament) of the Teyrnas meets in the Old Guilds Hall in Neuaddduwaiu and has two houses: an elected Seneddol and an appointed Bonedd. All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.Taoiseach, the Teyrnas' head of government, belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the Seneddol; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber. The Taoiseach chooses a cabinet and its members are formally appointed by the monarch to form His Majesty's Government. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government.
The cabinet is drawn from members of the Taoiseach's party or coalition and mostly from the Seneddol but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both. Executive power is exercised by the Taoiseach and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the tir Lhaeraidd, and become Ministers of the Crown. The current Taoiseach is Líadáin Síomha, who has been in office since 17 April 2017. Síomha is also the leader of the Blaengar Rhyddfrydol. For elections to the Seneddol, the UK is divided into a number constituencies, each electing a number of Aelod Seneddol (Members of Parliament) based upon their population in proportion to the country as a whole; there are 800 seats available in total. General elections are called by the monarch every five years.
Blaengar Rhyddfrydol, Cyngres Genedlaethol, Ffederasiwn Dinesydd and Llais Labrwr are considered to be tir Lhaeraidd's four major parties.
Law and Justice
Tir Lhaeraidd has a common law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy. The court system consists of the Bench of Lord Justices, the Bench of Appeal Justices , the Crown Court, the High Court, and the Magistrates Court, all of which apply the law of tir Lhaeraidd. Trials for serious offences must usually be held before a jury. The Crown Court and the Bench of Lord Justices have authority, by means of judicial review, to determine the compatibility of laws and activities of other institutions of the state with the constitution and the law. Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public. The Criminal Courts of Justice is the principal building for the criminal courts.
Garda, more commonly referred to as the Gardaí, is the state's civilian police force. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure. It is headed by the Garda Commissioner, who is appointed by the Government. Most uniformed members do not routinely carry firearms. Standard policing is traditionally carried out by uniformed officers equipped only with a baton and pepper spray.
The Military Police is the corps of the Army responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment. In wartime, additional tasks include the provision of a traffic control organisation to allow rapid movement of military formations to their mission areas. Other wartime roles include control of prisoners of war and refugees.
Tir Lhaeraidd's citizenship laws relate to "the friends and associates of tir Lhaeraidd", including islands and seas, thereby extending them to Vvarden, Crylante, Navack, and Canmyr-Weidhal, all of which were part of WACO. Therefore, anyone born in these areas who meets the requirements for being a Lhaeraidh citizen, such as birth in the territories of WACO to a Lhaeraidh or CW citizen parent or a parent who is entitled to live there without restriction on their residency, may exercise an entitlement to Lhaeraidh citizenship, such as a Lhaeraidh passport or driver's license.
The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Taoiseach. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the Lhaeraidh Armed Forces. Though the ultimate formal executive authority over the government of the Teyrnas is still by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in the Senedd and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent.Bedwyr IV died, and was succeeded by his son Harwyn II who was the result of an extra-marital relationship with a kidnapped Newreyan princess. All subsequent Lhaeraidh monarchs are descended from Harwyn II and his half brothers Magwyr I and Bedwyr V. In 1077 the Archddyfarniadmawr was introduced which is the first written legal document in Lhaeraidh history, beginning the process of limiting the Teyrn's power and creating a form of liberal absolutism in tir Lhaeraidd.
From 1598 onward the Teyrns of tir Lhaeraidd started to lay claim to various lordships, duchies, and principalities in northern Asura and Lhedwin; most notably in modern day Vrnallia and Crylante. As a result the Teyrns of tir Lhaeraidd extended their authority and gained the status of monarch overseas as well as at home. As the Lhaeraidh dominion over Lhedwinnic territories continued the nature of these territories as political entities changed and came increasingly under the direct authority of the crown without recourse to the Lhaeraidh plutocracy of the time.
Unlike other monarchal powers in Asura during the Colonial era the Lhaeraidh monarchy did not seek to extend its reach into vast overseas territories. Being focused on trade and wealth rather than military conquest or political extension, and having had their fill of colonialism in Asura, the Lhaeraidh monarchy instead involved itself in the creation of powerful trading companies which colonies a number of small settlements and ports across the world. The direct result of this policy of trading companies funded and run by the monarch and the royal family is that the Teyrn of tir Lhaeraidh remains a colonial ruler over cities abroad to this day and is most notably the Monarch of Huangjin off the Canton Coast.
In 1799, after years of insurrection and back and forth between Lhedwinnic rebels and under threat of attack from the Navackian Kingdom, the Teyrn of tir Lhaeraidd (Eurig I) surrendered his and his family's claims to lordship in Lhedwin and withdrew his forces from his Vrnallian and Crylantean territories. This would ultimately precipitate the formation of the Kingdom of Lhedwin, and bring an end to the Lhaeraidh monarchy's interest in colonial expansion of any kind.
Either through marriage or blood the royal family of tir Lhaeraidd is related to every royal house in Asura, and is the oldest continuous royal dynasty in Asura. In addition the current Teyrn, Bedwyr XVI, was the last absolute monarch in Asura and is credited with the peaceful transition to democratic government and constitutional rule.
|Country||Status||Current state of relations||Mutual Embassies||Visa Requirement||Foreign Ambassador||Lhaeraidh Ambassador|
|Ajerrin||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Isla Caithness|
|Aleia||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||Paul Velling||Michael Anders|
|Aquidneck||Very Good||Relations with Aquidneck are positive with the Aquido-Lhaeraidh Treaty having been signed in 1993. Aquidneck recognises WACO's neutrality.||Yes||No||Dame Anna Picola||Syr Gwyfyth Talbot|
|Araabyne||Fair||Tir Lhaeraidd recently deployed its armed forces to the Araabyne, ending the Fourth Brush War.||Yes||Yes||Thomas van Haal||Syr Andrew O'Doaill|
|Aramas||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||No||Yes||None||None|
|Arzvan Republic||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Cait Sidhe|
|Bevenia||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Isla Trennery|
|Biladia||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Iain Lanne|
|Crylante||Excellent||Crylante and tir Lhaeraidh are co-signatories of the West Asuran Concordat and maintain a single market, free trade zone, open borders, and various other agreements.||Yes||No||Flavia La Rivera||Richard Daltry|
|Cuirpthe||Very Good||Curipthe and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the CLT.||Yes||No||Oliver Lind||Oscar Rees|
|Dreyvisevich||Fair||Dreyviisevich and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the CPSN-Lhaeraidh Treaty.||Yes||Yes||Aurora Grachevsky||Bedivere Doran|
|Hipasia||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Aindrea Bedwyr|
|Isolaprugna||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Andreas Carbrey|
|Malban||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Comoghan O'Reilly|
|Midrasia||Excellent||Midrasia and tir Lhaeraidh are co-signatories of the Mydro-Lhaeraidh Accord and maintain a free trade zone, open borders, and various other agreements.||Yes||No||Lisa Ouaterloo||Eógan Ramsay|
|Navack||Excellent||Navack and tir Lhaeraidh are co-signatories of the West Asuran Concordat and maintain a single market, free trade zone, open borders, and various other agreements.||Yes||No||TBD||Amanda Clarke|
|Newrey||Excellent||Newrey and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the Lhaeraidh-Newreyan Treaty.||Yes||No||TBD||Lúcás Suibhne|
|Onza||Very Good||Onza and tir Lhaeraidd are in the process of formalising their relations.||Yes||No||TBD||Eamon Kilmarney|
|Tiwura||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Valter Harkness|
|Veleaz||Neutral||There are no outstanding issues between the two nations.||Yes||Yes||TBD||Máirtín Wynfor|
|Vrnallia||Very Good||Vrnallia and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the Saied Convention.||Yes||No||TBD||Máel Sechnaill Fionn|
|Vvarden||Very Good||Vvarden and tir Lhaeraidd are in the process of formalising their relations; Vvardeni diplomats are being received in Neuaddduwiau and a treaty is anticipated soon.||Yes||No||TBD||Kate Mullaney|
Main article: Rí-Fórsaí Armtha
The Lhaeraidh military is collectively referred to as Rí-Fórsaí Armtha (His Majesty's Armed Forces) and consist of the Rí-Airm (Army) and Rí-Dúghorm (Navy) both of which maintain their own air corps. The Armed Forces are managed by the Defence Office and controlled by the General Staff, who are nominally led by the Secretary to the Defence Office (currently Syr Jory Hafan). The Commander-in-Chief is the Lhaeraidh monarch, Teyrn Bedwyr XVI to whom all servicemen and women swear an oath of allegiance, with the exception of the Swiftriver Regiment of the Army which ceremonially answers to the Heir Apparent. The Armed Forces are charged with protecting the Teyrnas and its overseas territories and aiding in the defence its allies Cuirpthe, Crylante, and Navack. In addition the Armed Forces maintain garrisons and military facilities overseas in Huangjin and Crylante.
The Lhaeraidh Armed Forces have played a major role in Asuran and global military history. Tir Lhaeraidd was one of the first Asuran military powers to adopt a modern professional army, and later gunpowder weapons. From the 16th until the 19th century they were involved in armed occupations in modern day Crylante and Vrnallia. The Lhaeraidh Army Model, formulated in the 16th century helped to revolutionise the way in which land wars were fought, and how armies were trained and maintained. The Navy meanwhile would prove key from the 17th Century onwards for maintaining the trade lanes and outposts upon which the Lhaeraidh global trade network relied.
The Lhaeraidh army, known as Rí-Airm (literally "Royal Army"), is the principle land warfare force of tir Lhaeraidd. As of 2016 the Army consists of approximately 400,000 trained regulars, and just over 150,000 part-time reservists. Rí-Airm is distinctive among Asuran armies in that it allows the full, equal, participation of women in all departments.
Rí-Airm was established in 1542 during the reign of Llewellyn III/I under the full name Rí-Airm tir Lhaeraidd. All members of Rí-Airm swear an oath of allegiance to the Teyrn; however as of the constitutional reforms of March and April 2017 command of the army and its maintenance falls to the elected government through the Ministry of Defence. Prior to the reforms of 2017 the army could be deployed on the orders of the Teyrn without the need for consultation, however now this power rests with the Taoiseach provided they receive permission from parliament.
Rí-Airm has seen action in every major armed conflict that tir Lhaeraidd has been involved in since its foundation in 1542, including the Crylantean and Vrnallian occupations, the Battle of Llangwfwy, and the Great War. The victories won throughout its history have allowed tir Lhaeraidd to maintain its global trade network and independence and Rí-Airm proudly makes the boast that "We may have lost battles, but we have never lost a war."
The current Chief-of-Staff for the army is General Syr Edoghan Caldwell, and the current Chief Field Commander is Field Marshal Syr Eada Kent.
HistoryLlewellyn III/I and was built around a core of veteran soldiers and Lhaeraidh mercenaries known as Gallóglaigh. Under the organizational control of a small force of bankers and financiers from Aurharbwr Rí-Airm was managed and maintains along very mathematical line with regiments of a fixed size being raised and maintained and uniformity in terms of equipment and strategy being a key factor in its growth.
The Gallóglaigh who were hired by the Crown to train and lead Rí-Airm were drawn from the mercenary clans and warrior classes who, due to the stripping of the clans' powers, had been forced to seek other means of making a living. These men were veteran soldiers, many of whom had fought in the wars of foreign powers as far afield as Catai and Arabekh and they had a reputation for competence in the field which had given them an almost mythic reputation.Asura, as well as in the development of strategies for their use, and in 1624 under Teyrn Bedwyr VIII the first dedicated regiments of musket armed troops were formed. The Lhaeraidh Ceathrú (literally 'quarter') formation, which used a mix of pike or halberd infantry and musketmen, became an incredibly successful strategy and one which was emulated by other armies. The ceathrú would prove unbeatable in battle until the late 18th century as firearms, and in particular artillery, became more advanced. At the Battle of Llangwfwy in 1694 Rí-Airm faced a major challenge from a similarly armed and equipped force of soldiers and militias raised by rebellious merchants and gentry. Though the battle resulted in a stalemate strategically Rí-Airm demonstrated its ability to inflict massive casualties even in the face of equal opposition.
Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries Rí-Airm continued to protect Lhaeraidh interests around the world, with the small, but elite, Colonial Regiments being deployed with the navy and marines overseas to protect the trading posts and merchant enclaves established by the Lhaeraidh government and trading companies. The soldiers of the Colonial Regiments were selected from the most promising recruits in the regular army and given special training, superior equipment, and much increased pay (including a guaranteed pension). The Colonial Regiments were seen not only as a simple protection force but also as the ideal force to test new weapons, technologies, and strategies, the most notable breakthroughs which were adopted as a result of this being rifled weapons and eventually automatic firearms.
By the end of the 19th century confidence within the high command of Rí-Airm was at an all time low; tir Lhaeraidh had not engaged in a major land war with a large or modern power in decades and though the Colonial Regiments continued to prove highly effective in keeping the peace overseas the bulk of Rí-Airm was considered to be mediocre at best by their commanders. Despite the introduction of modern technologies such as repeating firearms and automatic weapons none of the army leadership felt confident in the force's ability to prosecute a major war. This crisis of confidence within Rí-Airm was what led to its mostly lacklustre performance during the Great War.Cuirpthean forces against whom they would fight the majority of the war the overall performance of Rí-Airm was relatively poor; most historians now consider this to be due to the lack of confidence the Generals had in their own forces and the fear that if Rí-Airm were defeated in the field while attacking Cuirpthe, that they would not be able to recover sufficiently to repel a counterattack. Hindsight has proven this to be untrue, but at the time the fear that a single major defeat could spell disaster for the entire war effort was pervasive at the time.
After the Great War a great many of Rí-Airm's highest ranking officers were sacked by Teyrn Bedwyr XII and his government; this shakeup led to the Modern Army Reforms in 1906 under Teyrn Bedwyr XIII, which were driven by a new generation of more driven meritocratically appointed senior officers and staff. The advent of Lhaeraidh neutrality in 1905 also had a significant impact on Rí-Airm at this time and as the 1906 reforms began the key influencing consideration was that Rí-Airm must be able to prosecute a land war against the country's powerful neighbours who might threaten their neutrality and sovereignty. The reforms on 190 would ultimately lead to the army as it is today.
|Brenner L1909||Limited Issue||Reliable 11.5mm LBA semi-automatic pistol issued as an alternative to the L1975 at the request of the officer.||Small Arms (Pistol)||L1 115|
|Brenner L1975||Regular Issue||The standard issue sidearm for all military personnel.||Small Arms (Pistol)||L4 9|
|Brenner AG2005||Regular Issue||Standard issue automatic rifle for Army personnel, chambered in 5.56mm WACO.||Small Arms (Assault Rifle)||AG6 556|
|Brenner AG1958||Limited Issue||Standard issue firearm for reserve forces and National Guard units.||Small Arms (Assault Rifle)||AG2 762|
|Brenner PL1996||Regular Issue||Standard issue sub-machine gun for CQE operations.||Small Arms (SMG)||PL9 9|
|Brenner GP1960||Regular Issue||Standard issue general purpose machine gun across all military branches.||Small Arms (MG)||GP9 762|
|Brenner R1995||Regular Issue||Standard issue AMR for the Army, also used as a support weapon in marksman and sniper teams.||Small Arms (AMR)||R12 127|
|Brenner R1984||Regular Issue||Standard issue marksman's rifle for the Army, also used as the primary weapon in sniper teams.||Small Arms (TR)||R10 762|
|Grendel MBT Mk1||Regular Issue||The MBT of the Lhaeraidh Army, which currently owns and maintains approximately 500 of the newer A5 model.||Main Battle Tank||G MBT1|
|Grendel SSV Mk2||Regular Issue||Steadily being phased into regular use so as to replace the ageing CVR (T).||Armoured Fighting Vehicle||G SSV2|
|Met Fabrikan Syrfelwyr||Regular Issue||A large number are maintained by the National Guard and Reserve units, they see only limited use by other branches of the military.||Infantry Mobility Vehicle||MF IMV1|
|Met Fabrikan Rhyfelwr||Regular Issue||The Army maintains just over a thousand of these vehicles while the National Guard and Reserves maintain a combined three hundred. Most were upgraded in 2010 with new turret and armour configurations.||Armoured Fighting Vehicle||MF AFV1|
|Grendel Citawr||Being Phased Out||Despite efforts to upgrade this line of vehicles Army funding for the project was withdrawn and the vehicles are now being replaced, principally with the Grendel SSV Mk2.||Armoured Fighting Vehicle||G AFV2|
|Met Fabrikan Bytheiad||Regular Issue||Approximately one and a half thousand of these vehicles are maintained throughout the armed forces with many variants in use including 4x4 and 6x6 models. Funding for continuing development of the design has been secured.||Armoured Fighting Vehicle||MF IMV2|
|Met Fabrikan Cynol||Regular Issue||As part of a continuing program of equipment assessment and development the Cynol is being retained for improvements in design.||Armoured Fighting Vehicle||MF AWV1|
Rí-Airm operates some of the world's oldest continuously serving Foreign Regiments. These units each consist of 1,250 personnel supported by a full administrative staff the majority of whom are drawn from either the populations of tir Lhaeraidd's overseas territories, or (as is the case for approximately 73% of their total manpower) citizens of foreign countries. While several Foreign Regiments have been raised since 1676, with several being formed during the Great War, only five remain today the 2nd and 12th Coisithe Arabaidh founded in 1677 and 1680 respectively, the 1st and 5th Coisithe Vestraidh founded in 1721 and 1896 respectively, and the 1st Coisithe Cataidh which was founded in 1822. The Foreign Regiments accept recruits from many nations, with the Coisitha Arabaidh accept recruits from Kish, Onza, the Araabyne, and other Arabekhi nations, the Coisitha Vestraidh accept recruits from Caer Dyf and the Vestric nations, while the Coisithe Cataidh accepts recruits from Huangjin and the Cataian nations. All members of the Foreign Regiments are granted the same pay, rights, and equipment as soldiers serving in the regular army and any who suffer severe injuries during their service automatically receive Lhaeraidh citizenship. Soldiers serving in the Foreign Regiments are referred to as Gallowglasses, taken from the Lhaeraidh word Gallóglaigh meaning literally foreign warriors and the word Gallóglaigh is used in place of Private as the enlisted rank of soldiers, otherwise the rank structure of the regiments is identical to that of the rest of the army. Joining the Foreign Regiments is considered by many Lhaeraidh to be something noble, and the Gallóglaigh are treated with respect and are often held in a near mythic regard - due in no small part to the role of the Foreign Regiments during the Great War. The Foreign Regiments are widely regarded as elite troops.
Recruitment into the Foreign Regiments grants a number of advantages; firstly should a recruit without Lhaeraidh citizenship join they will receive citizenship upon their honourable discharge from the regiment, and are treated as a citizen during their service. Additionally should a Gallóglaigh perish under honourable circumstances during their service their spouse, children, or elected next of kin are entitled to Lhaeraidh citizenship. All Gallóglaigh receive pay at the same rate per rank as the rest of the army, which in the case of many nations from which recruits are drawn, means that they are earning substantially more money than they otherwise would. All Galloglaigh receive the same benefits as soldiers in the rest of the army, together with the same training and equipment. Upon their recruitment all Gallóglaigh become immune from extradition for crimes committed outside tir Lhaeraidd or Crylante until they leave the service; to prevent abuse of this certain crimes preclude recruitment and should a recruit commit further crimes during or post-service they may still be extradited, additionally they may still be extradited once their service has concluded regardless of the circumstances of this. Lhaeraidh citizens who join the Foreign Regiments may also gain a pardon for a criminal conviction for certain crimes should the convicting Court offer this in lieu of other sentences. The major disadvantage of joining the Foreign Regiments is that their training is considered to be substantially more difficult than that of the regular army, with a focus on survival skills, bushcraft, extreme physical and mental fitness, and stealth; furthermore unlike any other part of the military the crime of desertion and punishable by death, however deserters must be found guilty by a civilian Court to an extreme evidenciary standard.
The first Foreign Regiment was raised in 1676 and would go on to become the 1st Coisithe Arabaidh. The Regiment was made up of native Arabekhi mercenaries who had served the Comhlacht Trádála Comhcheangailte Arabaidh and was formed by the Crown after substantial lobbying by C.T.C.A. shareholders. The origins of the Regiment are somewhat murky, and most historians now agree that the reason that the C.T.C.A. wished for the mercenaries to become a regiment of the Army was so that they could avoid paying them what they were owed, rather than any real sentiment that they ought to be rewarded for their service. Initially the regiment which was simply referred to as "The Foreign Regiment" (Reisimint Choigríche) was led by its own officers and structured in the same manner that the mercenary company had been prior to their induction, except that they were accompanied by Lhaeraidh advisors and instructors. In 1677, when the C.T.C.A. succeeded in having a second mercenary company recruited by the Crown, the "Foreign Regiment" was renamed the 1st Coisithe Arabaidh, or 1st Arabekhi Infantry. The recruitment of a second foreign regiment also resulted in a decision by Army officials to formally organise, equip, and train their foreign regiments and so the 1st and 2nd Coisitha Arabaidh were restructured along conventional Asuran lines as Reisiminta Coisithe Líne (Line Infantry Regiments). This was a substantial change since the mercenary forces had been a mixture of troops including infantry, cavalry, pikemen, musketmen, and archers and were now turned into uniform units of musket armed line infantry. The reorganisation of the Foreign Regiments would not conclude until 1682 and involved a number of mutinies which nearly resulted in their disbandment. The Coisitha Arabaidh would follow the blueprint of tir Lhaeraidh's Asuran Line Infantry regiments and then their evolution through the Dochtúir Coisithe Rialta into Regulars.
The acquisition of Huangjin in 1820 resulted in the formation of two Foreign Regiments which followed what had now become known as Dochtúir Coisithe Rialta (Regular Infantry Doctrine) meaning they were equipped with Séala 1808 muskets and formed into standardised formations along Asuran lines. However the formation of the Vestric regiments happened rather differently; the colonisation of Caer Dyf in 1596 resulted in trade with the native population and soon several local tribal and ethnic groups were regularly trading with Lhaeraidh merchants in Caer Dyf; according to the governor's records from the time significant concerns about the defence of Caer Dyf existed and a substantial garrison of Lhaeraidh regulars was stationed in the colony. The governor of Caer Dyf was forced on numerous occasions during the 17th century to hire native warriors to aid in the defence of Caer Dyf and the hunting of smugglers and pirates, particularly during the Second Navo-Lhaeraidh War when the garrison was reduced. In 1721 at the urging of the C.T.C.V. and their rival Cuideachta Trádála Thuaidh the Crown authorised the recruitment of native Vestric peoples and the offspring of intermarriage between Vestric and Asuran people into Foreign Regiments, the Crown however only provided sufficient money to provide these regiments with minimal arms and shot, and as a result the governor opted to employ them as irregulars. Later as the importance of the Foreign Regiments grew, and soldiers from Vestrim started to be deployed in the Lhaeraidh homeland as a prestige and manpower boost, the regiments were reorganised, however the Asuran officers leading the Vestric regiments strongly resisted efforts to enforce the Dochtúir Coisithe Rialta and as a result they retained their Irregular status, being equipped with rifles and employed as Light Infantry.
During the Great War the Foreign Regiments were mobilised and redeployed to Asuran fronts. At some times during the war only one regiment protected each of tir Lhaeraidd's overseas territories. It was during the Great War that many of the historical Foreign Regiments were raised in order to increase manpower. Kish raised a total of twelve regiments during the war, Caer Dyf raised six, and Huangjin raised fifteen. Records from the time attest that the number of troops drawn from the Foreign Regiments was insubstantial compared to the over two million soldiers raised from the homeland, however the appearance of troops from the Foreign Regiments provided a huge morale boost on both the home front and the front lines. Propaganda made much of the contribution of the Foreign Regiments and emphasised their valour and successes. Based upon after action reports and dispatches declassified in 1998 the Foreign Regiments on average suffered 27% higher casualties than their Lhaeraidh allies with historians such as Mack (1999) and Guidis (2007) claim was a result of their use by tacticians as spearhead troops; battle orders bear this out showing that a Foreign Regiment was 18% more likely to be chosen to lead an assault on enemy positions. However Hanlon (2005) points out that in spite of the disparity in their deployment as well as institutional racism among those in high command positions the Foreign Regiments fought with outstanding bravery; based upon various collections of first hand accounts and after action reports Foreign Regiments often secured their objectives far more efficiently than the Lhaeraidh units around them, which resulted in higher casualties, further they would be more likely to hold the line for much longer than Lhaeraidh troops would in spite of further claims that they were equipped with an insufficient number of machine guns and grenades.
Overviewmarket economy. Based on international exchange rates the Lhaeraidh economy is either the second or third largest in the world, and the largest in Asura. The Treasury Office, led by the Secretary of State for the Treasury, is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Rí-óir is the Teyrnas' central bank and is responsible, through the Rí-bhrionnú, for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the Aurarian. The Aurarian is used as an international reserve currency in Araabyne, Crylante, and Navack. Since 1997 the Rí-óir Financial Control Board, headed by the Chief Executive of the Rí-óir, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Treasury each year.
The Lhaeraidh has a primarily tertiary economy focusing on trade, goods exchange, and financial services. Aurharbwr is a global financial centre, and the financial heart of WACO, and has the largest GDP of any city in Asura. Neuaddduwaiu is also a significant financial centre. Tourism, in particular eco-tourism, is very important to the Lhaeraidh economy with over 40 million tourists arriving in tir Lhaeraidh every year from all over the world. Aurharbwr, Neuaddduwaiu, and Caer Dunn are also consistently among the most visited cities in the world. creative industries account for approximately 11% of the nation's total GDP, and has been growing at a rate of approximately 5% per annum since 2005.
Tir Lhaeraidh was one of the flashpoints for the industrial revolution in Asura with an initial concentration on the textile industry, which later gave way large to the manufacture of refined metals such as steel. Ship and train manufacture became major industries in the 19th century, fuelled by the country's rich deposits of coal, iron, tin, and copper. Lhaeraidd merchants, shippers and bankers developed overwhelming advantage over those of other nations allowing the Teyrnas to dominate international trade in the 19th century.Asura, Rennekka, and Catai began to industrialise during the late 19th and early 20th centuries tir Lhaeraidd found it more and more difficult to compete with foreign heavy and mass industry. Competition gradually became more and more difficult causing a significant decline in the Lhaeraidh steel and textile industries, forcing the economy to diversify. During the 1960s and 1970s the government engaged in a series of projects intended to redefine Lhaeraidh industry and set up and reformed a number of educational institutions to build up a more specialized workforce and encourage Tionscal lár growth. By the 1980s Lhaeraidh industry had become much more specialized and developed, focusing on producing high complexity and high quality parts, rather than large scale mass produced products.
The automotive industry is a significant part of the Lhaeraidh manufacturing sector and employs around 1,350,000 people, with a turnover in 2015 of some £115 billion, generating £45.8 billion of exports (9.6% of the UK's total export goods). In 2015 tir Lhaeraidd produced around 2.1 million passenger vehicles and 121,500 commercial vehicles. Tir Lhaeraidh is a major centre for engine manufacturing and in 2015 around 6.2 million engines were produced in the country. The Teyrnas has a significant presence in motor racing and the Lhaeraidh motorsport industry employs around 60,000 people, comprises around 5,500 companies and has an annual turnover of around £8.4 billion.
The aerospace industry of tir Lhaeraidd is the third or fourth largest national aerospace industry in the world depending upon the method of measurement and has an annual turnover of around £40 billion. In 2016, the global market opportunity for Lhaeraidh aerospace manufacturers over the next two decades was estimated to be £5.8 trillion. Related industries which focus upon composite alloys and specific parts for aircraft which are manufactured overseas also make up a major share of the aerospace industry's annual turnover, with companies from Catai in particular importing engines and other highly specialized parts from tir Lhaeraidd.
Hawker Aeronautics, whose corporate headquarters and principle manufacturing plants are located in tir Lhaeraidh, play major role in several international military aerospace projects including the manufacture of F-22 Raptors and F-35 Lightning II to the armed forces of WACO nations, and others overseas. A number of other aerospace companies, both Lhaeraidh and international, have offices and manufacturing facilities in tir Lhaeraidh and thanks to recently approved grants many are now moving their research and development facilities into the country.
The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the Lhaeraidh economy and the country has one of the highest share of global pharmaceutical R&D expenditures per capita globally.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and efficient by Asuran standards, producing about 86% of food needs with less than 1.6% of the labour force (765,000 workers). Around two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, one-third to arable crops. Farmers are subsidised by WACO's Common Agricultural Policy. Tir Lhaeraidd retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.
From 2010 until 2015 the average income in tir Lhaeraidd steadily rose above the rate of inflation, while the cost of living remained at or only slightly above inflation, meaning that real income was on the rise. However recent global financial developments have resulted in a decline in average income increases since then and as of 2017 the average income has risen more or less in line with inflation. The unemployment rate is estimated to be around 2.9% overall, however this figure is lower for 18-25 year olds thanks to extensive apprenticeship programs.
Tir Lhaeraidd is one of the world's largest sources of credit and investment finance, with both government funded and private interests competing in the open market. The Lhaeraidh government, through the Rí-óir, is responsible for providing credit to governments around the world as well as major investments in business and government operations. A major example of Lhaeraidh financial involvement is in Dreyvisevich where loans from Rí-óir, combined with private investment are helping to fund and advance research and development projects in sustainable energy sources. Other major recipients of Lhaeraidh investment, loans, and finance include Cuirpthe, Onza, Newrey, Vvarden, and Navack. Tir Lhaeraidh controversially maintains firm economic ties with Vestrim.
Science and Technology
Tir Lhaeraidd was a major centre for the Scientific Revolution from the late 16th century on, and helped to lead the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century. The Teyrnas has continued to operate at the forefront of scientific and technological developments ever since through publicly and privately funded institutes of learning in Neuaduwwwaiu and Aurharbwr. Research and development remains a major industry in tir Lhaeraidd with major international corporations investing in Lhaeraidh universities which in turn provide research facilities and staff.
Between 2004 and 2008 tir Lhaeraidd produced 8% of the world's scientific research papers and had a 10% share of scientific citations, the highest in the world per capita.
Gwyfyr and Llangwyr are the two principle arable farming regions within tir Lhaeraidd, however large scale vegetable farming also takes place in Lhaeraen and Varynfwy. The highlands of Hlaanedd as well as Gyllnru and Ogledd primarily rely upon pastoral farming, with sheep, cattle, and goats being of particular prominence in these regions; indeed there are more sheep in Ogledd than there are people. Varynfwy is the countries main source of dairy products with hard and blue cheeses coming from the area providing a significant portion of the export market. High quality cheeses are also famed in Varynfwy which has been a dairying centre since around 950 CE, with the earliest continuously running dairy farm dating back to 1012 CE. The 2008 CSGK virus had a significant impact upon domestic pastoral farming, threatening the industry and several rare breeds unique to tir Lhaeraidd, in particular the Hlaanedd Highlander breed of cow which is the source of highly prized beef steaks, were devastated by the disease. New biosecurity measures and more intensive health regulations introduced in 2010 have gone a considerable way towards rebuilding the industry, and government funding for farmers of rare breeds has steadily increased over the last five years.
An arterial road network connects the major towns and cities of tir Lhaeraidd with each large urban area also served by a series of radial roads and bypasses. The Aurharbwr radial bypass network, known as the R-17 is the busiest bypass in the world. In 2010 there were approximately 50 million licensed vehicles in tir Lhaeraidd. Major motorways operate using a toll system and are maintained by the government.
The Lhaeraidh rail network is comprehensive and links every major urban centre within the country; through international agreement the rail network in tir Lhaeraidd is also directly linked with those of Cuirpthe, Vvarden, Arzvan, Carcossica, and Midrasia meaning that one train can take a person from Saied in northern tir Lhaeraidd all the way to the southern coast of Carcossica; not only this but a single ticket can link passengers in any WACO country to any rail station in WACO, via a series of ferries which link mainland Asura with Lhedwin. Proposals were made public in March 2017 to link the WACO rail network with those of several Asuran nations within the Asuran Community.
While the entire Lhaeraidh network presently uses a high speed system under the WACO development projects a series of upgrades and taking place, expected to be complete in 2020, will mean that the Lhaeraidh and WACO rail networks will all be using a high tech modular system.
Tir Lhaeraidd is the world's 5th largest consumer and 7th largest producer of electricity, and is home to a large number of the world's major energy companies. The largest Lhaeraidh oil and gas company is CA which produces 60% of the country's domestic output of natural gas and 54% of oil; the vast majority of which is exported for international consumption. Since 1987 with the passage into law of the Pollution and Clean Air Edict the domestic use of fossil fuels for energy production has been in sharp decline with now only 7% of tir Lhaeraidd's energy needs filled by gas powered stations and oil and coal now out of use thanks to punitive taxes on their use. The remaining 97% of tir Lhaeraidd's energy is produced through mixed renewable and sustainable means, meaning that surplus oil is principally used in manufacturing.
Government and private funding into the research and construction of 'Green Energy' facilities exploded in the 1990s and due to the tax breaks and subsidies for green energy providers they now dominate the domestic energy market. As of 2016 68% of tir Lhaeraidd's green energy was produced by windfarms, the majority of which are based offshore; the remaining 32% is produced variously by solar power, hydroelectric dams, tidal generators, and two state of the art geothermal plants in the mountains of Hlaanedd. The domestic solar panel business has seen a huge increase in demand, with solar cells and generators now widely available and affordable; as a result many Lhaeraidh homes, particularly older and less energy efficient ones, now feature their own solar panels.
The coal industry in tir Lhaeraidd died out in the 1970s when the combination of cheap imports and the discovery of natural gas offshore put most of the mining companies out of business. From 2008 onwards however as the demand for coal rose internationally the Lhaeraidh coal mining industry saw a revival; in 2016 estimates indicate that around 20 million tonnes of coal were produced in that year alone, all for overseas export.
Nuclear power accounted for around 12% of tir Lhaeraidd's energy production between the 1970s and 1990s; the country's last civilian nuclear power plant was retired in 2005 however the military maintains two small plants for experimental use as well as military energy supply which are not linked to the national grid. The topic of nuclear power is considered to be highly controversial in tir Lhaeraidd and the laws governing the commercial use of nuclear power are punitive as a result.
Water Supply and Sanitation
Access to improved water supply and sanitation in tir Lhaeraidd is universal. It is estimated that 98.7% of households are connected to the sewer network. According to the Environment Office, total water abstraction for public water supply in tir Lhaeraidd was 21,223 megalitres per day in 2007. The economic regulator of water companies is the Oifig Seirbhísí Uisce (OSU). The Environment Office is responsible for environmental regulation, and OSU for regulating drinking water quality. Drinking water standards and wastewater discharge standards in the Teyrnas are determined domestically, in consultation with the regulatory bodies of other WACO nations.
Historically much the tir Lhaeraidd was forested, however since prehistoric times man has deforested large areas of the country. The period during which most of the country was deforested was from the 17th century on until the early 20th century when timber was required as both a fuel and a building material in the industrial revolution, and the growth and maritime trade. From 1922 on concerted efforts were made to preserve tir Lhaeraidd's remaining forests, and to replant those which had been clear cut; as a result tree farming became a growth industry and by 1954 the country had become Asura's main source of high value timber for decorative use. From 1860 until 1900 numerous efforts were made to introduce mahogany and ebony to tir Lhaeraidd with only modest success; these efforts were eventually abandoned under the 1922 Reforestation Edicts in favour of replanting native trees, however small numbers of mahogany and ebony trees can still be found preserved in national parks.
From the 15th century until the early 20th century Lhaeraidh Oak was in huge demand both domestically and internationally and as a result the genus was widely cultivated for commercial use. Lhaeraidh Oak was the primary material used in the construction of Lhaeraidh naval vessels and had a reputation for its strength as a building material which meant that it was exported to other Asuran nations for their use; in particular Cuirpthe and Aquidneck.
Agriculture in tir Lhaeraidd is intensive, mechanised, and highly efficient, producing 86% of the country's food needs with less that 1.6% of the workforce. Large areas of arable land are given over to the country's three main crops; oats, wheat, and barley which have been cultivated in tir Lhaeraidd since recorded history began; other crops include a variety of vegetables, primarily root vegetables, and some fruit. As part of the reforestation efforts initiation in the 1920s large apple and pear orchards were established in order to further diversify tir Lhaeraidd's food supply, and to encourage farmers to assist in the reforestation effort.
Tir Lhaeraidd is Asura's largest cultivator of bees and producer of honey and honey based products.
The production of various alcoholic drinks is a well known Lhaeraidh tradition with ale, mead, and cider being the principle produce in their industry; however Hlaanedd whiskey is also highly prized the Hlaanedd distilleries are among the oldest and most prestigious in the world.
During the Industrial Revolution tir Lhaeraidd was one of the world's leading producers of iron and copper; mining was a growth business until declining global demand and rising costs drove the majority of domestic Lhaeraidh mining companies out of business. A modern resurgence has however been experienced thanks to the growth of the technology sectors which has increased demand for copper and rare earth materials of which tir Lhaeraidd has large reserves. Gold and silver mining also make up a significant proportion of the mining industry in tir Lhaeraidd in terms of gross economic output with mining operations in Llanggwyr and Hlaanedd having been under way since at least the 5th century.
A census takes place in tir Lhaeraidd every six years and is undertaken by the Biúró Daonáirimh. The 2014 census puts the population of tir Lhaeraidd at 102,750,233 giving it the largest overall population in both WACO and Asura, and 7th in the world. Between 2008 and 2014 the population increased by an average annual rate of approximately 0.5%. This compares to 0.3% per year in the period 2002 to 2008 and 0.2% between 1996 and 2002. The 2014 census also confirmed that the proportion of the population aged 0–14 has decreased by a third and the proportion of older people aged 65 and over has more than doubled. It has been estimated that the number of people aged 100 or over will rise steeply to reach over 626,000 by 2080.
Tir Lhaeraidd is one of the most densely populated countries on the planet, with a total population density of 480,100 km2, with a particular concentration in the north between Aurharbwr and Neuaddduwaiu.
In 2016 the average total fertility rate (TFR) across the Teyrnas was 2.42 children per woman. While a rising birth rate is contributing to current population growth, it remains below the 'baby boom' peak of 3.21 children per woman in 1934, above the replacement rate of 2.1, and higher than the 2002 record low of 1.99. In 2011, 47.3% of births in tir Lhaeraidd were to unmarried women. The Biúró Daonáirimh published a bulletin in 2015 showing that, out of the Lhaeraidh population aged 16 and over, 2.6% identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. 4.5% of respondents responded with "other", "I don't know", or did not respond.
Historically the indigenous peoples of tir Lhaeraidd are considered to be primarily drawn from the Paithwaidh ethnic family, various branches of which settled the region during the Bronze Age, with the various major Paithwaidh migrations largely having ended by 500 BCE. During the period between the 1st and 10th centuries CE various other ethnic groups moved into Paithwaidh lands and established small enclaves; these include Vrnallians around Saied, Cuirpthean around Burnhaddon, and Crylanteans around Kilmarnagh. Later migrations of people across the border from what is now Midrasia would create a diverse society within Southeastern Hlaanedd, particularly around Eborakon. The vast majority of people living in tir Lhaeraidd today identify themselves ethnically as 'White Lhaeraidh' however precise figures are difficult to ascertain as the government collects no data on ethnicity in its censuses.
There has been a degree of non-white migration into tir Lhaeraidd since the mid 17th century when sea trade to Arabekh, Majula, and eastern Catai began with Aurharbwr and Saied both housing sizeable black Arabekhi and east Cataianese communities from around 1740 onwards. Aurharbwr boasts the oldest permanent Cataianese community in Asura after Canton and Chenese merchants belonging to the Huangjin Trading Company migrated to the city in 1736. The small trading posts and port cities controlled by the Lhaeraidh crown also gave access to tir Lhaeraidh to peoples indigenous to Arabekh (in particular north Arabekh) and Majula, however since none of these matched the scale of Huangjin such communities are smaller.
It is believed that tir Lhaeraidd has a total non-white population of around 8.2%.
Mawr Lhaeraidh is the official and statutory language of tir Lhaeraidd; however additional legal recognition is given to both national languages Mân Lhaeraidh and Siarad. Despite the fact that Mawr Lhaeraidh is the primary language of 87% of tir Lhaeraidd's population and is the primary language of the country most of the place names and proper nouns are derived from the older Mân Lhaeraidh language. Thanks to close association with WACO there are also speakers of Crylantean, Navackian, and Vrnallian with languages such as Huang Cantonese, and Araabyne also being spoken due to the nation's history of global trade.
Approximately 87.3% of tir Lhaeraidd's population are bilingual, most of those speaking the two Lhaeraidh languages; 37.6% of the population are trilingual with most of those speaking Siarad as their tertiary language, except in border regions with Vvarden where the principle tertiary language is Vvardenni. Notable pockets of Vrnallian and Crylantean speakers can be found in Saied and Aurharbwr.
The dominant religion in tir Lhaeraidd is Derwyedd which is a form of modern polytheistic druidism which has evolved from the ancient indigenous practices of the region. Derwyedd has been the principle religion of tir Lhaeraidd for more than two thousand years, with the earliest references and accounts of the faith coming from Fiorentine accounts from around the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE.
Due to the unstructured nature of the Derwyedh faith the number of people following the religion has weathered the rise of modern scepticism and the Scientific Revolution. Derwyedd is principally a moral guidebook and mythological religion which focuses on thanksgiving and the worship and reverence of nature rather than specific gods or idols; efforts to organise the faith beyond systems for the appointment of clergy have never been successful with all people with a university Masters in Derwyedd Theology were traditionally eligible to proclaim themselves a Derwyd or Druid. Senior clergy are elected by conclaves to which all Derwyd are invited.
The government formed the Lhaeraidh Derwyedd in 1877 which is the official governing body of Derwyedd and since 1925 it has been responsible for the ordination of clergy and for organising the annual conclaves during which senior clergymen are elected and matters of theology are discussed. Senior clergymen play a purely administrative role, serving a chief bureaucrats rather than religious leaders per se; as a result there is no single authority on matters of faith and there exist many factions within Derwyedd which provide varying views with relation to morality and the like.
According to the Administration of Religion Act 1877 Derwyedd is defined as ‘’The belief in the existence of the Elder Triad, combined with the continued reverence of nature and natural forces.’’ This very loose definition means that not all followers of Derwyedd follow the same gods or even the same pantheon, and are united only in the belief that before all other gods came to be there were three Elder Gods, known as the Elder Triad. As such Derwyedd is technically not a single religion but a conglomerate of varying denominations and religious movements centred around a unifying mythology.
Lhaeraidh culture is considered to be one of the oldest extant cultural groups in Asura, and possibly Aeia as a whole, with a direct historic link dating back to pre-Fiorentine Asura and before the Common Era. In spite of its age and its cultural impact upon tir Lhaeraidd Lhaeraidh culture has had only a modest impact upon foreign powers, in large part due to the nation's typically minimalist foreign policy over the centuries. The center of Lhaeraidh culture is Neuaddduwiau, the capital city, which is considered to be one of the most vibrant and culturally rich cities in the world. Although historically largely an insular culture since the cultural revolutions of the 1960s and 1970s the impact of Lhaeraidh culture upon Aeia has increased steadily through various notable works of literary and musical influence.
Scholars consider the Lhaeraidh culture to be the largest extant branch of the wider Paitwaidh cultural family which previously spread throughout Northern and Western Asura, with smaller related cultural enclaves located in Midrasia, Cuirpthe, Vrnallia, Crylante, and Navack which are a result of historic Lhaeraidh political influence on the region, and numerous invasions and migrations. There is a continuous archaeological record relating to the Lhaeraidh culture dating back to circa 2000 BCE, making the Lhaeraidh culture and people one of the oldest continuous groups in Asura.
The culture of tir Lhaeraidd attracts approximately 48 million tourists each year, accounting for 84.2% of the nation’s total income from tourism.
Tir Lhaeraidd is notable for housing some of the oldest examples of Asuran and pre-Fiorentine architecture, as well as some of the earliest examples of stoneworking and monuments building on the mainland continent. The most well documented example of this is the Llangfwy Henge, a series of concentric stone monuments which have been designated a world heritage site. In addition it houses a considerable number of structures in various states of preservation and from throughout the nation’s history with particular efforts being placed in the preservation of ancient burial grounds and cairns.
Dark Ages and Medieval Lhaeraidh architecture primarily relied upon timber and timber frame construction methods, meaning that few examples remain an a well preserved condition, however from the sixth century until the fourteen century CE the nobility and military elite started to construct large round towers from stone, around which wooden fortifications and settlements were constructed. A result of this is that many significant archaeological sites have been uncovered and subsequently preserved by excavating near these round towers. The tendency of pre-modern Lhaeraidh builders to construct settlements in concentric rings around a central round tower or round house has left a unique impression upon the Lhaeraidh landscape.
From the twelfth century CE on a large scale process of fortification was undertaken by successive Teyrns. Early Lhaeraidh castles were simply expansions of the existing method of round tower construction, however as building techniques improved through the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries increasingly large and architecturally impressive castles were constructed. A principle example of early Lhaeraidh castle building is Old Castle in Neuaddduwiau which is the symbolic seat of the Teyrn. Castles in tir Lhaeraidh are primarily confined to the border regions, as well as the internal borders of modern day Glaanedd due to the need to defend against foreign aggressors and crusaders.
The steady coalescence of the Derwyedd clergy introduced simple monastic houses, which were constructed in isolated locations or on the outskirts of major settlements. Gaelic nobles and clans occupied ringforts or crannógs. Lhaeriadh settlement had been limited to the Monastic proto-towns, such as Kells, where the current street pattern preserves the original circular settlement outline to some extent. Significant urban settlements only developed following the tenth century.
With the rise of Lhaeraidh trade and the cooling of religious tensions between the still pagan Teyrns and the organised religions of early-modern Asura, foreign influences entered into Lhaeraidh architecture resulting in the adoption of the Neoclassical style which is heavily prevalent in cities such as Neuaddduwiau, Aurharbwr, and Saied, and which came to form the bulk of the developing administrative and political base. From around 1700 CE native Iestynian styles developed resulting in an explosion of public and private buildings in this style, with structures built between 1700 and 1850 becoming a Lhaeraidh cultural icon.
Holidays and Festivals
The majority of the Lhaeraidh cultural calendar continues to be dominated by ancient religious customs centred around the Derwyedd faith. Most festivals take place on astrologically significant dates, with both the Summer and Winter Equinoxes as well as solar and lunar eclipses forming the basis of significant national holidays. Several other religious holidays are recognised nationally, including Bealtaine and Lúnasa; in rural areas many people also celebrate Lamber's Day in celebration of the traditional season of birthing lambs.
Significant secular holidays include Unification Day on 25th April each year, Breda's Day on the 1st May, and the Teyrn's birthday which is presently celebrated on 2nd January. The Lhaeraidh calendar also celebrates Veteran's Day and Remembrance Day on the 1st and 11th November respectively. The week between Unification Day and Breda's day is considered to be tir Lhaeraidd's national holiday.
A Lhaeraidh holiday which has gained widespread popularity internationally is Samhain, which is more commonly referred to as Halloween.