tir Lhaeraidd

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Tyranny of tir Lhaeraidd
Teyrnas tir Lhaeraidd
Flag
Motto: "Mae ein tir gwyrdd a dymunol."
"Our green and pleasant land."
Anthem: "An Dath Ceomhar"
"The Foggy Dew"[1]
Map of tir Lhaeraid, detailing towns and cities.
CapitalNeuaddduwiau
Largest city Aurharbwr
Official languages Mawr Lhaeraidh
Recognised national languages Mân Lhaeraidh
Recognised regional languages Siarad
Vrnallian
Ethnic groups (2016) 87% Lhaeraidd, 13% Other
Demonym Lhaeraidh
Government Constitutional Monarchy
Parliamentary Democracy
 -  Teyrn Bedwyr XVI
 -  Taoiseach Líadáin Síomha
 -  Cathaoirleach Naoise Culhwch
Independent (Sovereign)
 -  Union of Caer Gobaith April 899 CE 
 -  Articles of Sovereignty 4th March 1865 
 -  The Social Contract 18th July 1946 
 -  Constitution 11th April 2017 
Area
 -  480,100 km2
185,367.646 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 7.6%
Population
 -  2014 estimate 102,750,000
 -  Density 214.02/km2
554.3/sq mi
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total $6.7 trillion
 -  Per capita $64,566
Gini (2015)negative increase 28.6
low
HDI (2015)Increase 0.921
very high
Currency Aurarian (TLA)
Time zone AST -2
Date format dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +03
ISO 3166 code TLD
Internet TLD .tlh

The Tyranny of tir Lhaeraidd (Lhaeraidd: Teyrnas tir Lhaeraidd pronounced: /ˈtə̀ɨ̯rnás tír ɬɑ̀ːɨ̯rái̯ð/), more commonly referred to as tir Lhaeraidd or simply Lhaeraidd, is a sovereign state located on the north western coast of the continental mainland of Asura. The Asuran territories of tir Lhaeraidd extend from the north western coast of mainland Asura east to the border of Oserland and south to the Southern Divide Mountains, which mark the border with Gwenkeltia and a small land border with Midrasia is located; to the south they share a border with Arzoa. The Teyrnas is a unitary Constitutional monarchy with its capital in the city of Neuaddduwiau which is the country's second largest city, as well as it cultural and economic heart. The largest city is Aurharbwr with its surrounding smaller urban centres. Other major urban centres include Caer Hafan, Elfryg, and Cwyl. Tir Lhaeraidd has a population of approximately 102.75 million people.

During the late Stone Age and early Bronze Age the area which now forms tir Lhaeraidd was inhabited by the numerous Ancient Lhaeraidh cultures, who would be overrun and subjected to centuries of rule by the Asuran cultures of the Fiorentine Empire until 388 CE when the decline of the Empire prompted a series of Lhaeraidd revolts, which returned the region to its ancient inhabitants. These Post-Classical Lhaeridh peoples had been heavily influenced by their Asuran overlords, and by the peoples inhabiting eastern Asura who had also migrated west into their territories; the result was a Post-Classical Lhaeraidh revival which resulted in the Octarchy, a period during which eight petty kingdoms vied for power over the region with one another. In 899 CE Teyrn Alwaen of Gwyfyr subjugated the other petty kings and formed the Teyrnas of tir Lhaeraidd as a single state under a system of feudal monarchy; the clan chiefs and petty kings of the Lhaeraidh became the landed nobility. During the Renaissance Lhaeraidh culture and power flourished and by the 17th century tir Lhaeraidd was one of the dominant cultural and military powers in Asura. The Teyrnas would reach its peak in the 1860s under the rule of the 'Renaissance King' Bronwen II, who reformed the government and introduced social and cultural liberalism to the nation.

In the late 19th century tir Lhaeraidd would become embroiled in the Great War on the side of the Grand Alliance, during which the Lhaeraidh Royal Army would fight on various fronts throughout the conflict, though primarily along the Lhaeraidh-Oserland Front. Following the end of the war the Teyrnas suffered significant economic hardships spurred on by the huge casualties which left many of the nation's rural areas depopulated; a severe manpower shortage across all sectors of the economy combined with the demobilisation of millions of soldiers fuelled the economic instability and gave rise to the modern welfare state that exists to this day. In the years following the Great War a succession of Chancellors under Teyrn Bedwyr XIII enacted increasingly progressive policies including the introduction of universal healthcare, free education, workers compensation, and a host of other welfare programs aimed at supporting and placating the increasingly outspoken working classes. The Trade Unions Act of 1903 was the first of its kind in Asuran and not only made Trade Unions legally recognised and legitimate organisations, but also imbued them with rights which have remained sacred to this day.

The Social Contract of 1946 is considered to be one of the most important modern legal documents in tir Lhaeraidd's history; the Act officially enumerated the rights of the people in relation to the aristocracy and the monarch, and set out in clear terms the relationship between the three groups. Under the Social Contract it was agreed that the monarch should always represent the best interests of the Commons and the country, while the role of the aristocracy was significantly reduced making titles a largely ceremonial institution. Tir Lhaeraidd is currently ruled by the Blaengar Rhyddfrydol, led by the Taoiseach Líadáin Síomha who is the first democratically elected Head of Government in the nation's history; the reigning Teyrn is Bedwyr XVI. The reign of Bedwyr XVI has been characterised by the expansion of his father's liberal policies, along with the abolition of many of the aristocracy's powers and prerogatives, but also most strikingly by the introduction of Constitutional Monarchy. The current heir to the throne is the Tywysoges Goron (Crown Princess) Gwynyth merch Bedwyr of House Gwallteuraid, the eldest daughter of the Teyrn; she is presently 15 years of age and will be the first female monarch of tir Lhaeraidd to have succeeded the throne under the altered laws of Agnatic-Cognatic Primogeniture which came into force in 2010.

Tir Lhaeraidd is a highly developed nation with an expanding economy, and is one of the world's leading sources of economic growth. The economy of the Teyrnas is well developed with high-tech industries and pharmaceuticals featuring heavily in the nation's economic output. Income equality is relatively low however for the last four years straight their Gini ranking has been increasing, indicating and increase in income inequality; this said the HDI has been steadily increasing since 2004. The country's GDPPC is $52,500 and the average wages is $34,500 per annum.

Etymology and Terminology

The name tir Lhaeraidd is taken from the name of the ancient peoples of the north western Asuran mainland who referred to themselves collectively as the Lhaeraidh which meant 'The Old People' - thus tir Lhaeraidd literally translates from their language into 'land of the Old People'. The Siaradised version of Lhaeraidh is "Lhaeridhic". The Lhaeraidh language is an ancient and complex one with myriad rules making correct native pronunciation and names for the Teyrnas and its inhabitants rare and extremely difficult except within tir Lhaeraidd itself and to a lesser extent Newrey, the result is that a broad number of spellings and pronunciations of the country's name and denonym are widely accepted as correct internationally. Examples of these accepted alternatives include; Lhaeridd, Laeraid, Lairaed, and Tirlaird. Meanwhile examples of accepted alternative denonyms include; Lhaeridhic, Laeridic, Lhaeriddic, and Tirlandic.

As Siarad becomes a more widely accepted international language for diplomacy and business tir Lhaeraidd with its archaic and very precise system of correct naming for itself is being forced to accept the more simplified and Siaradised versions of its name in diplomatic circles. For centuries using the incorrect naming format or pronunciation was considered a major diplomatic faux pas and led to numerous diplomatic incidents, however since the Great War tir Lhaeraidd has become more ambivalent towards other cultures' bastardisation of its name. This situation has been made even more convoluted as the Lhaeraidh language has separate names for the Teyrnas depending upon who is referring to it and in what context.

The correct way to refer to the Teyrnas in general as accepted in international fora is either tir Lhaeraidd or Lhaeraidd; however if a person wishes to pay particular respect to the Teyrnas' ancient customs they would use Dedwydd Lhaeraidd. It is especially important to note that if the form tir Lhaeraidd is used that the word tir should not be capitalised unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. Person of recognised Lhaeraidh descent often refer to tir Lhaeraidd as y famwlad rather than using its name, which literally translates to 'the motherland'; while many nationalities colloquially refer to their countries thus in tir Lhaeraidd it is a term of reference enshrined in various legal documents making it a secondary alternate name for the country.

History

Before 899 CE

A modern depiction of Breda, Warrior Queen and Liberator of the Lhaeraidh.
Human settlement within the geographic region of modern day tir Lhaeraidd began as early as 45,000 years ago as early humans migrated north and west into the fertile grasslands and forests of northern mainland Asura. By the conclusion of the region's prehistoric period the population is believed to have principally belonged to the Paithwaidh cultural family which would evolve into the Lhaeraidh cultural families by around 12,000 BC. The Asuran Conquest of Northern Asura beginning in 85 BCE was followed by a turbulent five hundred year dominion over the region and its native inhabitants during which the Paithwaidh culture was all but extinguished with the influx of foreign cultural ideas; the fall of the Asuran Empire would result in the rise of Ancient Lhaeraidh culture and languages, which also saw a resurgence of many practices of the Paithwaidh peoples. This cultural resurgence also resulted in the political evolution of Dark Ages tir Lhaeraidh, with the people now identifying themselves as a singular culture but with very different nationalities.

During the Fiorentine Domination of the region from 92 to 388 CE the lands were ruled by a succession of petty kings who held the title of Teyrn, but ruled as client kings to the Fiorentine Empire which dominated Asura at the time. The defeat of the Paithwaidh Tribal Confederation in 87 CE precipitated the Teyrn of Trefteyrnyr's surrender to the Fiorentine, and the Empire was allowed into the country; though trade and agriculture in the region continued to flourish, because the Teyrns retained some nominal authority over the locale few Fiorentine structures exist from this time, though the empire's influence on the architecture and city layout as it evolved are undeniable. Around Trefteyrnyr the Fiorentine built a province which would ultimately become the petty Kingdom of Gwyfwyr; though under the rule of the Empire the region retained its sense of self and its own unique culture.

In 382 CE the Teyrn of Trefteyrnyr passed away leaving his client kingdom to his daughter Breda. However because Fiorentine law at the time excluded daughters from succession and inheritance the Empire refused to recognise her claim to the city or the surrounding lands, and appointed their own Governor, dispatching with him an army. The Fiorentine legions entered Trefteyrnyr and Breda and her sisters were dragged out into the street, raped, and then tortured - much to the disgust of the local inhabitants. After the capture of the city was complete loyalists among the population free Breda and her sisters and smuggled her into the surrounding countryside. Over the next four years Breda and her sisters Maera, and Sinead, built a coalition of Paithwaidh tribes, who now called themselves Lhaeraidh, and with an army claimed to be 100,000 strong marched on Trefteyrnyr. Caught by surprise the army fell and the governor fled to the nearby Fiorentine stronghold of Civas Colonia where he rallied the remnants of his legion.

Over the next two years a series of small battles and skirmishes were fought between Breda's Lhaeraidh army, and the Fiorentine legions, finally climaxing at the Battle of Phen Faol, where the Lhaeraidh crushed the Fiorentine legions decisively, forcing the Fiorentine surrender and withdrawal from Gwyfwyyr and by 400 CE the whole of modern day tir Lhaeriadd. With the end of the Fiorentine Domination in tir Lhaeraidh Breda established her Kingdom of Gwyfwyr in Trefteyrnyr while other tribal chiefs did likewise in the remaining lands, bringing an end to the Classical Period in tir Lhaeraidd.

The early Dark Ages in the region were dominated by neo-tribal and clan orientated groups; the Lhaeraidh were known during this period primarily as land raiders from a pastoral agrarian base. As time passed tribal chiefs and clan elders grew in power and the late Dark Ages population surge along with the adoption of the Lhaera-Gallic alphabet by religious centres resulted in the formation of early proto-feudal monarchies. The old pastoral order and prevalence of raiding against neighbouring tribes and cultures eventually came to an end as the region stabilised and society became increasingly agricultural in nature. By 650 CE eight distinct petty kingdoms, all of common culture and descent had arisen leading to the period known as the Octarchy and the region was referred to collectively as Wyth Tiroedd "the Eight Lands".

According to the contemporary historian Gwynn of Dubhaihn Wyth Tiroedd under the Octarchy consisted of Varynfwy, Lhaeraen, Gwyfyr, Ffanwy, Gyllnru, Ogledd, Hlaanedd, and Llanggwyr. Each were reasonably powerful political entities within the context of Wyth Tiroedd, and within the wider context of the period. They represented the western remnant of the broader Paithwaidh culture which had been supplanted elsewhere by the northward and southward migration of other tribal and nomadic peoples from locales such as Lhedwin. Gwynn of Dubhaihn states that the Octarchy began with the reigns of Edwyr (Circa 650 CE - 676 CE) in Varynfwy, and Aethwyn (652 CE - 673 CE) in Gyllnru who established the first of the Lhaeraidh kingdoms. The evolution from tribal and clan based fiefs into a more formalised political system of monarchy came swiftly to the Wyth Tiroedd and according to the Geirfa o Hwice, written by the Venerable Hyld in 922 CE, saw the abandonment of the traditional system of Gavelkind among the tribal chiefs. Under the unified rule of the Wyth Teyrnyr "Eight Kings" tribes were abandoned in favour of more organised societies, while the clans formed the basis of later Houses of Nobility.

While the dates of the beginning of the Octarchy is a hotly debated subject among academics the period's end does have a very specific date given in the works of both Arwyn the Elder (902 CE) and Hyld (922 CE) as the 2nd April 899 when Alwaen of Gwyfyr was crowned Teyrn of the Wyth Tiroedd Lhaeraidd, which would later become simply tir Lhaeraidd. Alwaen I had been the anointed King of Gwyfyr which had, under the rule of his father Cerwyn had conquered Varynfwy, Lhaeraen, Gyllnru, and Ogledd. The ascension of Alwaen, who was married to Myfanwy of Hlaanedd which had itself conquered Ffanwy between 876 and 884, resulted in the marital union of all eight thrones of tir Lhaeraidd and formed the modern Teyrnas.

Yr Hen Teyrnas (899-1077 CE)

The period directly following the formation of tir Lhaeraidd is known by scholars a Yr Hen Teyrnas which translates to 'The Old Tyranny' and represents a period of unrestrained feudalism within the Teyrnas. The Wyth Teyrnyrs had varying ranks and forms of nobility as well as wildly varying titles, the result of this was a melting pot period where there were no clearly defined boundaries between the power and status of one lord and the next; some academics today recognise the period as one of almost continuous civil war as the tribal chiefs, powerful freemen, landowners, and nobility fought amongst themselves to carve out their own dominions within the new realm and to define their social and political positions within it.

Alwaen I was a Teyrn content to allow his subjects to fight amongst themselves, inter-tribal warfare was both a fact of life and a tradition during the Octarchy and with the present situation in Asura being what it was there was no cause to change this. According to Arwyn the Elder Teyrn Alwean was "...contented to let his subjects and foemen to fight amongst themselves for the scraps of lesser power and privilege, bestowing favours upon those who proved their strength and striking down they who presumed too much." During his reign Alwaen only took up arms in order to suppress those who tried to challenge his authority, and a series of battles succeeded in establishing the power of the Teyrn as supreme. The most notable conflict of this period was between the Clans Hekwyn and Fwyr whose forces clashed numerous times throughout Alwaen's rule and the rule of his successors Harwyn I and Tyrone I, however this was far from the only clash between the people of tir Lhaeraidd at this time. The Lhaeraidh at this time had no concept of an all powerful king, and most loyalties were of a personal nature rather than to some idea of a country and though the powers of the Teyrn would be defined during this period it was not until its conclusion with the Weeping of Caer Dunn.

During the Yr Hen Teyrnas there were three distinct movements which defined the overall ideologies of the different factions vying for status and power under Alwaen's dominion. The Rhyddfreiniwyr represented the ancient system whereby a town or village was allowed to elect its own leader so long as that leader paid homage to the Teyrn and provided levies in times of war; a movement which was doomed to failure, a thing even acknowledged at the time by Arwyn the Elder and Hyld, because they lacked any unity on a national level. The Benaduryr represented the tribal and clan chiefs who believed that the lands should be divided between the different clans rather than by a hierarchy of nobles. Finally the Bendefigaeth represented the landed aristocracy, a movement which started out small but steadily grew in size as successive Teyrns rewarded faithful servants with lands, titles, and powers over the common folk.

The Rhyddfreiniwyr (not to be confused with rhyddfreiniwr) had no leadership to speak of and existed solely on a local basis where villages continued to elected their elders and pay homage directly to their Teyrn; as a movement they were more or less nonexistent and were more a representation of the ancient status quo rather than a singular force. Alwaen and his successors did not particularly favour this form of governance, since the Rhyddfreiniwyr raised poorer quality levies when war came, and were incapable of orchestrating organised taxation of the land or people; not only that by the people from areas where the Rhyddfreiniwyr held sway tended to show less respect and pay less heed to the Teyrn's commands than those from elsewhere. The last independent Rhyddfreiniwyr stronghold of Hafanpysgotwr was captured and sacked by forces loyal to Merwyn mab Erwyl, a local landowner granted the title of Iarla over the newly established Iarling of Offeirhan. Some of the larger towns and cities were allowed to continue to elect their leaders well into the 12th and 13th centuries, but the Rhyddfreiniwyr ceased to be a significant political or social force within tir Lhaeraidd even before the fall of Hafanpyrgotwr.

Continued violence between noblemen within the Bendefigaeth as well as against the forces of other factions prolonged the Yr Hen Teyrnas; as time passed and feudalism took hold across Asura in general the calls for an established aristocratic order became louder and louder - the problem lay in the fact that while the nobility agreed that an order needed to be established few could agree upon where they should stand within it. Clashes between the Bendefigaeth and the Benaduryr would be the primary source of conflict throughout the period and the Benaduryr increasingly represented a a counterculture within the Teyrnas which threatened the power and authority of the Teyrn. Though the Benaduryr accepted that the Teyrn reigned above the level of their own Chiefs and accepted his power to raise local lords, they fiercely resisted the concept of a largely, powerful landed aristocracy which had temporal power over the clans themselves. In this context it is perhaps unsurprising that the bloodiest battles were fought between the Bendefigaeth and the Benaduryr.

In 1074 the Yr Hen Teyrnas came to an end with the decision by Teyrn Alwaen II to back the Bendefigaeth; tired of the lack of a consensus among his nobles, and by the obstinate attitude of the Benaduryr the Teyrn raised his own levies and called his banners. With an army of between fifty and eighty thousand men the Teyrn issued a royal decree to all of the Bendefigaeth which listed every recognised nobleman in the Teyrnas, along with his titles, holdings, and relative standing within the realm. With such a large army under the Teyrn's command the nobility were cowed into accepting the royal decree. Next Alwaen II summoned the leaders of the Benaduryr to a Clansmeet at Caer Dunn in March 1077; once every clan had arrived with each leader bringing a force of warriors, the Teyrn issued an ultimatum which decreed that the clan leaders themselves, along with the clan elders, would be granted lands and titles of nobility and would abandon the system of clan and tribal politics in favour of the feudal system; any clan which refused would be considered traitor and would be wiped out.

The ultimatum lead to the Weeping of Caer Dunn; of the sixteen clans three elected to challenge the Teyrn by the rite of single combat, agreeing that if the King's champion should win they would submit, five refused to accept the decree outright and the remaining eight agreed to the terms. What followed is broadly debated, even by the historians of the period; Arwyn the Younger claims that the Teyrn struck down the five clan leaders who refused there and then, and this cowed the three who demanded single combat to settle the matter. Ulfraed of Gwladyncyfarfod claims that the Teyrn's men massacred all who challenged the ultimatum, while Owain mab Cerwyn claims that the Teyrn dismissed the five, defeated the champions of the three and then turned on the five clans who refused. What is known for certain is the outcome; all of the historians agree that after the events of the meeting at Caer Dunn the King's army along with ten of the clans assaulted and massacred the five who had refused the ultimatum. Archaeological evidence from the site of the massacre backs up the historical accounts, sealing the Weeping as one of the bloodiest events in tir Lhaeraidd's history.

Immediately following the Weeping of Caer Dunn Alwaen II set about consolidating his position and subjugating the clans whose armies he had slaughtered; the Archddyfarniadmawr followed, a document which set out the rights of every man and woman in the realm according to their station. This document established the systems of serfdom and feudalism in tir Lhaeraidd, while simultaneously enshrining the basic civil rights of the rhyddfreiniwr (freemen) and the bendefigaeth (aristocracy) and bonedd (gentry). Under the Archddyfarniadmawr senior clansmen were raised into either the Bendefigaeth or Bonedd, while a larger proportion were made rhyddfreiniwr; however most ended up as gwerinwyr (peasants). It was the issuing of the Archddyfarniadmawr which is generally accepted as the event which brought an end to the Yr Hen Teyrnas.

The Feudal Era (1077-1702 CE)

The Archddyfarniadmawr was rapidly and brutally enforced by the Teyrn and the Bendefigaeth, and the formation of the growing bonedd classes gave rise to the adoption of knighthood in tir Lhaeraidd. The concept of knighthood in tir Lhaeraidd was peculiar and unique to the Teyrnas and very different from the institution as practised elsewhere in Asura. Ideals of chivalry were never adopted and the role of knights was entirely different; while they did indeed serve as the military elite in Lhaeraidh society at the time they were also all small land holders, with there being no such thing in tir Lhaeraidd as a landless knight, since knighthood was conditional on holding land. Therefore knights were fewer and fulfilled a vital economic role in times of peace; granted leasehold over small amounts of land either by the Teyrn or members of the Bendefigaeth they were responsible for organising and overseeing the peasantry and enforcing the laws of the land.

In times of war all knights were required to serve in the armies of the Teyrn or their local lord, and were also responsible for raising levies from their land. The system was highly efficient and resulted in large armies consisting mostly of sparsely trained and equipped peasant levies. However prior to the Feudal Period a strong warrior culture had existed in tir Lhaeraidd and even with the disarmament and dismembering of the clans as social, political, and military forces it was impossible to eliminate a separate dedicated warrior class altogether. Early Teyrns of the post Archddyfarniadmawr period relied upon warriors drawn from the former clans as they tended to be the most loyal, effective, and experienced soldiers. The result was that a separate unique warrior class was born which operated parallel to the knights; the members of this class were known as Rhyfelwr, or Gallowglasses.

The Rhyfelwr were full time soldiers in service to the Teyrn and his lords; since members of the Bendefigaeth were not required to raise peasant levies directly but were required to provide troops in times of war all lords maintained at least a nominal force of Rhyfelwr so as to be able to meet their feudal obligations should their knights fail to raise sufficient troops. The Rhyfelwr typically fought on foot, however wealthier lords also maintained cavalry to support their knights; the traditional image of the Rhyfelwr is of a main garbed in leather and mail, armed with a greatsword, broadsword, dirk, and shield however historical records indicate that there were no specific rules regarding the arms and armour a Rhyfelwr could use.

By 1126 CE the Archddyfarniadmawr had established a stable situation in tir Lhaeraidd which prompted a period of relative economic prosperity and led to the foundation of the system of Guilds to manage the key trades practised in the Teyrnas. These guilds consisted of rhyddfreiniwr and owed direct allegiance to the Teyrn, paying taxes to him rather than the local lord; in exchange the Teyrn granted them significant rights such as the issuing of charters of trade as well as control over the trade they represented. The most powerful of the Guilds to rise during this time were the Urdd Gwehydd (weavers), Urdd y Gofaint (blacksmiths), and Urdd coediwryn (woodsemn). Under the guild system the quality of goods was regulated and increased, increasing revenues and also productivity; because the guilds were under the Teyrn's protection and authority a situation was born whereby lords were made to pay the guilds to produce everything that the peasantry could not.

The War of the Maidens (1086-1094 CE)

Historians generally agree that the War of the Maidens began in 1086 when the Lhaeraidh Teyrn, Bedwyr IV, landed a small raiding fleet on the coast of Newrey. The Teyrn had been returning from a series of raids further east and never intended to land in Newrey at all, except that according to Arwyn the Younger in his Llyfr Mawr Hanes "Teyrn Bedwyr was drunk upon the glory and plunder of his latest conquests, and, commanded his men to celebrate; not having the wisdom of his father he did fail to ensure that some remained sober and as a result his fleet did get lost." Upon landing in Newrey, convinced that he was in fact still in the north and east, Bedwyr IV led his force inland, whereupon they happened into the city of Cyningburgh where they set about raiding and pillaging.

It is unclear what precisely happened in the ensuing chaos as historical account differ on the subject; however it is widely accepted that Bedwyr and his men breached the royal holdfast and made off with three Newreyan princesses. According to letters and documents from the time Bedwyr did not realise his mistake, or that the princesses were Newreyan and therefore from his ally, until several weeks later when he finally sobered up and stopped for long enough to actually talk with the attractive young princesses he had been bedding up to that point. Though an immediate effort was made to return the princesses to Newrey along with a series of apologies and offers of recompense, the general condition of the Princesses upon their return (deflowered and pregnant), combined with the fact that the Newreyan Teyrn had already dispatched a fleet to exact revenge, to spark the war.

What followed were a series of tit for tat raids back and forth along the coastlines of tir Lhaeraidd and Newrey which lasted for a further eight years until Bedwyr IV died and was succeeded by his only son, Harwyn, who was his bastard by one of the Princesses. Upon the ascension of Harwyn to the throne, the concerned regency council offered to send three Lhaeraidh princesses to Newrey with a bounty of gold as a bridegift for each in recompense. At this point the war had been a long and bloody one for both sides as Newreyan forces had sacked a number of towns and villages along the coast, while Lhaeraidh raiders continued to do likewise in Newrey.

The Golden Age of Raiding (1080-1160 CE)

With the formalisation of the feudal system in tir Lhaeraidd came a growing sense of national unity; the nobility could no longer simply fight one another for land since landright was given by the Teyrn, and the dissolution of the clans all but eliminated the internecine conflicts between different factions of Lhaeraidh. With fewer opportunities for warfare and raiding within tir Lhaeraidd the nobility now looked abroad with hungry eyes; it was not long before the Teyrn started to issue Anrheithiariadh, documents officially authorising nobles and knights to lead raiding parties abroad. This system had no uniform structure to it, but seems to be one of the earliest examples of state funded privateering on Aeia. Lhaeraidh raiding parties ranged up and down the coast of Asura and even managed to exact tribute from the peoples of modern day Vrnallia.

During this period the main role of the Teyrn was to issue Anrheithiariadh and to punish those who breached their terms, and on an international level it was a source of antagonism. However the nature of the times meant that it was hard to verify who was raiding what, and tir Lhaeraidd used this and various other forms of military and diplomatic obfuscation to avoid war on a larger scale. However by 1150 the patience and attitude of foreign rulers towards tir Lhaeraidd forced the Terynas to reform once again; in place of raiding came the beginnings of a period of trade in which merchants from tir Lhaeraidd managed to stretch a web across the entire continent and even into Arabekh, Majula, and Engortia.

The Plutocracy (1150-1596 CE)

The era of raiding sparked the transition from a martial society to an economic one; while the nobility still raised armies to participate in wargames armed conflict was no longer the primary focus of noble or royal attention. The influx of wealth from the Golden Age of Raiding, as short as it had been, had given the wealthier Lhaeraidd a taste of a more stable and comfortable life. Soon the raiding parties reformed themselves into trading organisations and armed trading fleets and convoys soon replaced the raiding parties, exporting Lhaeraidd goods such as dyes, copper, tin, and silver, as well as fine arms and armour freely throughout the known world. Each trading organisation was tied directly to a noble lord and crews were often led by knights or younger sons of the given lord; this made tir Lhaeraidd very distinct from most other Asuran nations at the time in that the nobility were actively engaged in international trade, making them both aristocrats and plutocrats all at once.

Increasing trade revenues resulted in increased demand for Lhaeraidh goods, chief among them fine wool textiles. The guild system in tir Lhaeraidd had resulted in an unprecedented level of quality in even the most basic woven goods, and these goods could now be effectively exported in quantity far and wide. Merchants throughout the Astellian Lands in modern day Arzoa were willing to pay high prices for cloth, both plain and decorated. The existence of Vrnallian trading posts along the coast of tir Lhaeraidh also allowed for indirect trade which say bolts of cloth sold in tir Lhaeraid being exported by Vrnallian traders north into Glanodel and what would become Lhedwin. Highly profitable trade routes through modern day Oserland and on into Newrey were also established overland, and even after paying the dues to the local lords for safe passage a good profit was ensured.

Lhaeraidh coinage dating from this period has been found as far south as northern Arabekh and along the coast of Kavo, as far east as modern day Ternca, and as far north as Glanodel and Linathia. There have even been artifacts of Lhaeraidh origin found in the deep interior of Majula. This wide dispersal of coinage minted in tir Lhaeraidd came about not only because of the prevalence of Lhaeraidh traders in this period, but also for two other key reasons; firstly Lhaeraidh coinage was largely uniform and of reliable quality and weight in gold or silver, secondly in 1224 Teyrn Bedwyr VII established the Royal Gold Exchanges in Aurharbwr, Saiad and Neuaddduwiau where merchants and noblemen alike could exchange their foreign gold and silver for reliable Lhaeraidh currency. Thus foreign currency and gold which came into tir Lhaeraidd was more often than not melted down, purified, and reminted as Lhaeraidh coinage.

The turn of the 16th century brought with it radical changes in the nature and position of the nobility; with titles and noble rank being largely defined by monetary investment and contribution to the Crown rather than by birth. In 1502 the Statute of Nobility was issued which totally redefined the nature of the nobility and gentry, noble ranks were subject to payment to the Crown, with higher ranks requiring a higher contribution in order to maintain; meanwhile the Gentry were granted a ranking system of their own which allowed the purchasing of status and prestige with coin. All of this combined with the Teyrn's own land holdings and economic investments to make the Crown exceptionally wealthy, and the concept of personal rule evolved into a system of statehood; the old feudal order gradually faded away as ever more comprehensive systems of taxation were put in place. Suddenly the Crown was receiving money in excess of what it needed in order to function and in 1529 Teyrn Llewellyn II initiated the first program of state funded education in the country's history, investing in eight universities and almost one hundred academies throughout the Teyrnas.

The Transitional Period (1596-1702 CE)

The Teyrn's Army at the Battle of Llangwfwy.
The Transitional Period is considered by most scholars to be the time during which the Feudal system officially started to fade and tir Lhaeraidd moved towards a system of absolute rule and modern statehood. Though tir Lhaeraidd had by now been united as a single country for over six hundred years up to this point it was held together by the strength and authority of the monarchy on a basis of deferred personal loyalty; the realm had a singular name, but ultimately the feudal order allowed for the divergence of lords from the Crown if they so chose. 1596 saw the passage into law, with the consent of the Bendefigaeth, the Articles of State which defined the realm for the first time in a legal document as a single unified and indivisible state under the rule of the Crown. It is this document which is now widely considered to be the basis of the modern constitution.

A major issue with the Articles of State was that they granted the Bendefigaeth with influence and power over national policy as legislators, but ignored the contribution of the Bonedd. Independently wealthy freemen could become members of the Gentry through paying for a minor title, but they could not gain a say in the country's affairs, a situation which sparked discontent and unrest. A direct result of this unrest was the Congress of Aurharbwr, a meeting of the aforementioned groups which eventually led to a series of letters being sent to the Crown demanding additional rights and powers for the Bonedd. When the Crown rejected the demands the Congress began refusing to pay their taxes and dues to the Crown. The whole situation reached a breaking point in 1694 when the Teyrn, Bedwyr IX, mobilized the army in order to collect the taxes by force.

When word spread to the leaders of the Congress that a Royal Army had been mobilised against them the response was rapid; local freemen militias were raised and the Bonedd started to divert their levies into a Congressional Army in order to meet the threat. There is some scholarly debate as to whether this period should be referred to as a civil war, however since the tensions resulted in just a single battle before peace was secured, most consider it to be simply a period of extraordinary unrest. At Llangwfwy the Congressional Army met the Royal forces and gave battle, after eight hours of fighting in which approximately 32,000 men were killed, the Teyrn agreed to meet with the Congress to discuss an end to the unrest. The Battle of Llangwfwy had resulted in a stalemate, despite the Royal Army's superior training and arms, and this meant that for the Teyrn the writing was on the wall.

The result of the talks between the Teyrn and the Congress was the formation of a bicameral legislative system with the Upper House consisting of the Bendefigaeth, and the lower of the Bonedd; not only that but the agreement effectively brought about the end of the system of serfdom and initiated the process which would lead to a modern wage labour force. Because the Bonedd agreed that the Teyrn's power was supreme and had never challenged the idea of monarchy in tir Lhaeraidd the Teyrn granted them pardons provided they disarm and never raise arms again.

In the years following the Battle of Llangwfwy a series of major social reforms were enacted allowing any man who grew wealthy enough to own property and pay Crown duties to become a member of the Bonedd. With reform however came increased taxation, with the commons required to pay rents on the land they worked, and taxes to the Crown; a system which brought with it unrest. In order to avoid a repeat of 1694 the Teyrn began to force through laws whereby the commons paid taxes to their lord and the lord paid taxes to the crown based upon what was raised in taxes. The Bendefigaeth and Bonedd grudgingly agreed to the tax reforms, provided that the power to set the rates of tax be given over to the bicameral legislature.

Lhaeraidh Ascendancy in Crylante (1557 - 1726 CE)

Upon the death of Magnus VII of the Crylantean Empire a succession crisis erupted in the south Lhedwinnic nation. Having a loose claim to the throne himself the Teyrn, Llewellyn III, claimed the throne and sailed with a small army to Crylante to enforce his claim. With the might of the Lhaeraidh military behind him the other claimants to the Crylantean throne surrendered their claims and Llewellyn III of tir Lhaeraidd was crown Llewellyn I of Crylante. Llewellynic Crylante was ruled in much the same fashion as Crylante had been before, except now Crown Lands were paying revenues to tir Lhaeraidd; having more interest in increasing the size of his domain than actually ruling these additional areas a series of Governors were appointed from among the local aristocracy to manage the affairs of Crylantean territories while the Teyrn was in tir Lhaeraidd.

The status quo was maintained in Crylante more or less intact throughout Llewellyn's reign, with the exception of an influx of Lhaeraidh traders and merchant interests becoming involved in the nation's economy. Essentially Crylante was ruled as a separate nation in most senses, under a Personal Union with tir Lhaeraidd, and maintained its own laws and customs - a system which worked very well so far as most in Crylante were concerned. However as Llewellyn's rule progressed Lhaeraidh merchants became frustrated with the local Governor's priorities and with the trade policies there which favoured the Crylantean merchant classes. Unable to sway Llewellyn the merchants set about influencing his successors.

The Llewellynic System in Crylante was maintained in spite of the Lhaeraidh merchant interests throughout the reigns of Llewellyn IV/II, Alwaen IV/I, and Bedwyr XIII/I; however after the ascension of Alwaen V/II in 1651 the political situation rapidly changed. The increasing power of the merchant classes in tir Lhaeraidd meant that the pressure upon Alwaen to break down the barriers between Crylante and tir Lhaeraidd was huge. Having accumulated several personal debts to merchant guilds and companies as the heir apparent Alwaen sought to placate and pay off his debts by turning Crylante into a commercial asset, and an extension of the Lhaeraidh trading empire.

The resulting Alwaenic Reforms reduced the power of Crylante's Truathi clergy and stripped them of much of their land and wealth; to counterbalance this the power of the secular elite were increased and Alwaen ensured that the merchants treated the Crylantean nobility favourably. A consequence of this policy was rapid land reform in Crylante which came in the face of opposition and dissent from among the lower classes and the Crylantean merchant classes who now found themselves operating in direct competition with those from tir Lhaeraidd.

Under the Alwaenic System Lhaeraidh gentry and second sons were encouraged to move to Crylante to establish Plantations there. The plantation system had previously been adopted in Vrnallia and had proven both effective and profitable as a means of governing the land. These plantations were essentially large agrarian, and later industrial, land holdings with a fortified manor at their centre; ruled by transplanted Lhaeraidh Gentry, and in some cases members of the Crylantean nobility who had willingly converted to the Lhaeraidh religion and adopted Lhaeraidh customs. The long term plan behind these plantations was to transform the Crylantean ruling classes into Lhaeraidh gentry and thereby assimilate and control the Crylantean population.

Locally the Alwaenic System was hugely unpopular especially among the Truathi clergy and the local peasant classes. Not even the abolition of serfdom in 1694 had much of an impact upon the anti-Lhaeraidh sentiment, and the Lhaeraidh Teyrn and his government's reluctance to employ a military force to suppress rebellious movements meant that an anti-Lhaeraidh counterculture was established and flourished throughout the 18th century. The Alwaenic System finally came to an end in 1726 during the reign of Iestyn II/I when, in the face of increased pressure the Crown of Crylante and the Lordship of Vrnallia were merged.

The Vrnallian Plantations (1598-1726 CE)

In 1598 Teyrn Tyrone VI "the Great" laid claim to the lands of Vrnallia and initiated a policy of plantations, to resettle the territory with Lhaeraidh farmers; through a process of diplomacy certain Vrnallian lords invited the Teyrn's men into Vrnallia and openly supported the plantations in exchange for wealth and recognition of their ancient claims. Despite the support of certain Vrnallian lords and landowners large numbers of Vrnallians violently opposed the plantations policy and raised armies to raid and sack the Lhaeraidh settlements in the southernmost island. The early attacks were met by local militias of ill equipped Lhaeraidh settlers who were equipped and organised in the manner of the traditional Lhaeraidh fianna, rendering them vulnerable to more organised tactics and advanced weaponry. After the plantations near Lakiaš were raised and the settlers slaughtered in 1605 the Teyrn mobilised his own army and led an expedition to Vrnallia to secure the islands in fact as well as name.

Landing near Lakiaš and Dnuhozuš with two forces of 10,000 each, armed with muskets, pikes, and halberds and with dedicated cavalry and artillery in tow the Lhaeraidh forces established a series of fortified encampments along the coast and secured the two cities where they had made landfall. A series of skirmishes between the Vrnallian forces and the Expeditionary Force followed. The Vrnallian forces initially faced were not professional soldiers and lacked training; instead they were local labourers and farmers forced off their land, or otherwise aggrieved at the Lhaeraidh and armed with such weapons as were available. However eventually lords opposing the Lhaeraidh invasion raised armies of their own, and gave battle numerous times between 1606 and 1610.

A stark difference in doctrine, structure, and equipment divided the two forces. The Lhaeraidh armies under Teyrn Tyrone VI featured mixed units of pikemen and musketmen, lightly armoured but well drilled, supported by lancers and sword cavalry, as well as early storm troopers armed with broadswords and pistols. By comparison most Vrnallian soldiers still wore leather armour and wielded spears or crossbows and few arquebus; though they fought in formation, much as the Lhaeraidh did, they were unrecognisable as an army in the same way that the Lhaeraidh, in their green or blue uniform kilts and issue breastplates were. In straight open battle Lhaeraidh firepower inevitably carried the day, however victories were not without cost and in 1608 the Teyrn was required to call upon a further 10,000 men so as to recoup some of his losses.

By 1635 the Lhaeraidh had been fighting on and off with various Vrnallian lords and warlords for the better part of forty years, and though the larger part of the enemy had been subjugated and the lords brought to heel insurgent forces remained in the hills. Unable to effectively eliminate the insurgent forces the then Teyrn, Bedwyr VIII, ordered a change in strategy. Known Vrnallian holdouts were surrounded, the plantations fortified and the armies left at major settlements in each island. Under this system many holdouts were forced out of their hiding places through starvation and desperation, unable to live off the land; others were killed attempting to raid the now fortified plantations. Support for the holdouts among the Vrnallian peasantry gradually petered out and in 1640 it was recorded that almost all violence had ended.

The Kingdom of Crylante and Vrnallia (1726 - 1799 CE)

In 1726, during the reign of Alwaen VI/III, the Kingdom of Crylante and the Lordship of Vrnallia were merged into a single entity within the Lhaeraidh Crown which was referred to as the Kingdom of Crylante and Vrnallia. In truth this political entity existed in name only since both Crylante and Vrnallia were now ruled by the Teyrn's government directly from Neuaddduwaiu. The Kingdom was short lived and existed in a period of rapidly growing Lhedwinnic nationalism; the United Kingdom of Lhedwin had come into existence in northern Lhedwin in 1668 and since then numerous rebel groups had used this as leverage against the Lhaeraidh crown.

The plantation system which had been introduced prior to the Union worked well for tir Lhaeraidd, but it did not foster cultural integration or any sort of friendly dialogue between settlers and the locals, since the fortification of the plantations placed very real divisions between them. The result was that the Vrnallian islands and Crylantean territories became a breeding ground for whispered discontent and resentment towards the Lhaeraidh establishment, which was only checked by the compliance of the Vrnallian and Crylantean nobility and by tir Lhaeraidd's generally liberal policies. Even so this could not prevent an eventual outpouring of nationalist sentiment which began to be expressed in 1791 after a band of notorious Vrnallian bandits were executed, overnight the bandits became martyrs and demands for independence grew.

A series of clashes between nationalist forces supported by a growing number of native lords, and the Lhaeraidh army across the islands ended in 1799 when the Lhaeraidh Teyrn, Eurig I agreed to withdraw from the Kingdom. The plantation system was becoming increasingly unstable and unprofitable, and with rising violence there were no opportunities to change this, and merchants were rapidly withdrawing from the territory as the United Kingdom made ever more pointed demands for the lands to be ceded. Eurig's withdrawal signaled the end of Lhaeraidh rule in Crylante and Vrnallia, and brought into being the two short lived independent nations of Crylante and Vrnallia which were rapidly absorbed into the Lhedwinnic Kingdom.

Early Modern Era (1702-1899 CE)

Lhaeraidh painters such as Arthur Gyldr (1736-1923) depicted an idealized view of rural tir Lhaeraidd at the start of the 18th century.
During the late 18th century and early 19th century, there was considerable social upheaval as a largely agrarian society was transformed by technological advances and increasing mechanisation, which was the Industrial Revolution. Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centres of production, as the steam-based production factories could undercut the traditional cottage industries, because of economies of scale and the increased output per worker made possible by the new technologies. The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in the rate of infant mortality (to the extent that many Sunday schools for pre-working age children (5 or 6) had funeral clubs to pay for each other's funeral arrangements), crime, and social deprivation.

In 1709, a coke-fired blast furnace was established to produce cast iron, replacing charcoal, although continuing to use blast furnaces. The ensuing availability of inexpensive iron was one of the factors leading to the Industrial Revolution. Toward the end of the 18th century, cast iron began to replace wrought iron for certain purposes, because it was cheaper. Carbon content in iron was not implicated as the reason for the differences in properties of wrought iron, cast iron, and steel until the 18th century.

The later works of artists such as O'Hanlon (1752-1827) depict the very rapid changes occurring within tir Lhaeraidd during the industrial revolution.
The basis of the Lhaeraidh Empire was the concept of global trade and merchant capitalism, a theory which emphasised the need for trade in as many locations, with as many clients as possible. By being present and founding trading posts throughout Aeia and by establishing stock markets and financial centres which included banking ventures on a vast scale tir Lhaeraidd was able to play a commanding role in the development of the global economy. Rather than seeking to dominate vast areas of land through direct control the Lhaeraidh instead set out to colonise small areas of land to serve as trade and supply stops, all of which was facilitated by a rapidly growing merchant navy. The Lhaeraidh colonial policy was defined by this theory of trade and wealth generation, rather than control and the production of goods. Through their vast trade network and web of trading posts the Lhaeraidh Empire was formed, the backbone of which was finance.

The Industrial Revolution (1770-1820 CE)

In 1706 the first global insurance brokers was established in Aurharbwr. The Yswiriant a Chyllid Gorfforaeth Aurharbwr, or YCGA, was responsible for ensuring merchant vessels and merchant ventures throughout the world while simultaneously serving as a major investor in other private enterprises. It was the YCGA which served as the principle financier of the Industrial Revolution in tir Lhaeraidd. There were also innovations in marine insurance and legal structuring of firms like the joint stock company. These innovations helped manage risk. For example, ships were financed by shares, with each of 16 merchants, say, holding a 1/16 share. This minimised risk and maximised opportunity for windfall gains. Even more important in this respect was the staples market (staplaufarchnad) itself that helped to manage the risk of price fluctuations. Related instruments were the provision of trade credit to suppliers in order to secure favoured access to raw materials (Lhaeraidh merchants routinely bought up grain harvests in the East Asuran and West Engortian areas and grape harvests in Arzoa and Midrasia, important in the wine trade, before they were harvested) and the financing of commodity trade with bills of exchange, which helped bind customers to the merchant.

The explosive growth in capital accumulation directly led to an equally explosive growth in investment in fixed capital for industries related to trade. Technological innovations like the wind-driven sawmill, which significantly increased productivity in ship building, offered opportunities for profitable investment, as did the textile industries (mechanised fulling, new draperies) and other industries that made use of mechanisation on the basis of wind power. This mechanisation was based on yet another invention a type of crankshaft that converted the continuous rotational movement of the wind (windmill) or river (water wheel) into a reciprocating one.

Industrialists and engineers such as the Sagitean émigré Alexander Anders Armstrong drove the industrial revolution in tir Lhaeraidd and became incredibly wealthy in the process.
In a period loosely dated from the 1770s to the 1820s, tir Lhaeraidd experienced an accelerated process of economic change that transformed a largely agrarian economy into one of the world's first industrial economies. This phenomenon is known as the "industrial revolution", since the changes were far-reaching and permanent throughout many areas of Britain, especially in the developing cities. Economic, institutional, and social changes were fundamental to the emergence of the industrial revolution. The new institutional setup ensured property rights and political safety and thereby supported the evolution of the Bonedd into an economically prosperous middle class. Another factor is the change in marriage patterns through this period. Marrying later allowed young people to acquire more education, thereby building up more human capital in the population. These changes enhanced the already relatively developed labour and financial markets, paving the way for the industrial revolution starting in the mid-18th century.

The kingdom provided the legal and cultural foundations that enabled entrepreneurs to pioneer the industrial revolution. Starting in the later part of the 18th century, there began a transition in parts of tir Lhaeraidd's previously manual labour and draft-animal–based economy towards machine-based manufacturing. It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. Factories pulled thousands from low productivity work in agriculture to high productivity urban jobs.

The introduction of steam power fuelled primarily by coal, wider utilisation of water wheels and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries.

A long run of good harvests, starting in the first half of the 18th century, resulted in an increase in disposable income and a consequent rising demand for manufactured goods, particularly textiles. The invention of the flying shuttle enabled wider cloth to be woven faster, but also created a demand for yarn that could not be fulfilled. Thus, the major technological advances associated with the industrial revolution were concerned with spinning. During this time the Spinning Jenny was invented, a device that could perform the work of a number of spinning wheels. However, while this invention could be operated by hand, the water frame could be powered by a water wheel. Indeed these inventions are credited with the widespread introduction of the factory system in tir Lhaeraidd, and are the first examples of the successful mill owner and industrialist in Lhaeraidh history. The water frame was, however, soon supplanted by the spinning mule (a cross between a water frame and a jenny) and mules were later constructed in iron.

As they were water powered, the first mills were constructed in rural locations by streams or rivers. Workers villages were created around them, such as Melinaunewydd outside Aurharbwr. These spinning mills resulted in the decline of the domestic system, in which spinning with old slow equipment was undertaken in rural cottages.

The steam engine was invented and became a power supply that soon surpassed waterfalls and horsepower. The first practicable steam engine was used for pumping water out of mines. A much more powerful steam engine had a reciprocating engine capable of powering machinery. The first steam-driven textile mills began to appear in the last quarter of the 18th century, and this transformed the industrial revolution into an urban phenomenon, greatly contributing to the appearance and rapid growth of industrial towns. The progress of the textile trade soon outstripped the original supplies of raw materials. By the turn of the 19th century, imported Arabekh and Majulan cotton had replaced wool in the North West, though wool remained the chief textile in elswhere. Textiles have been identified as the catalyst in technological change in this period. The application of steam power stimulated the demand for coal; the demand for machinery and rails stimulated the iron industry; and the demand for transportation to move raw material in and finished products out stimulated the growth of the canal system, and (after 1830) the railway system.

Such an unprecedented degree of economic growth was not sustained by domestic demand alone. The application of technology and the factory system created such levels of mass production and cost efficiency that enabled Lhaeraidh manufacturers to export inexpensive cloth and other items worldwide. In the late 18th century and early 19th century a series of technological advances led to the Industrial Revolution. Tir Lhaeraidd's position as one of the world's pre-eminent traders helped fund research and experimentation. It was also fuelled by a rejection of mercantilism in favour of the predominance of capitalism.

The Industrial Revolution saw a rapid transformation in the Lhaeraidh economy and society. Previously, large industries had to be near forests or rivers for power. The use of coal-fuelled engines allowed them to be placed in large urban centres. These new factories proved far more efficient at producing goods than the cottage industry of a previous era. These manufactured goods were sold around the world, and raw materials and luxury goods were imported to tir Lhaeraidd.

Build-Up to the Great War (1820-1894 CE)

Inside the Brenner munitions factory at Caer Taeryn in 1892.
Owing to its land position in Asura and the continually growing emphasis on trade within tir Lhaeraidd the succeeding monarchs between 1820 and 1890 began fostering closer ties to the neighbouring Midrasian Empire and Arzoan Kingdom so as to maintain the status quo and provide a form of insurance for their own mercantile empire. Though the Lhaeraidh military was well established and funded few nations considered it to be on a par with those of central and eastern Asura, and even the Lhaeraidh governments of the time significantly underestimated the efficacy of their own military forces. Hoping to secure a wider military pact to provide them the security that they felt was lacking the Lhaeraidh government approached the Midrasians multiple times. The surprising defeat of Midrasia to Veleaz however put a dampener on tir Lhaeraidd's efforts, only to see them renewed in 1887 after the Midrasians renewed their efforts to form a coalition to counter Veleazan colonialism.

Beyond positive relations with Midrasia tir Lhaeraidd had very little interest in starting a war, and though it maintained a powerful and highly mobile force so as to defend its trade posts and Cantonments from native, foreign, or piratical attack, it was not prepared for a war on a large scale. Throughout the 1860s and 1870s in the wake of the Arzoan Civil War concerns at home grew that foreign insecurities and instability could result in an attack on Lhaeraidh soil. Oserland's alliance with Veleaz served to fuel concerns and prompted massive government investment in a series of defensive forts along the Oser-Lhaeraidh border, these positions would eventually be further fortified with concrete lined permanent trenches and other defensive position. Recent advances in artillery allowed for mobile, flying batteries to be positioned behind these defenses, maximising coverage at comparatively minor expense.

Key developments in automatic weapons by Caolán Gallchobhar resulted in the invention of the Gallchobhar Automatic Rifle, better known by its export name as the RAG 1893, and the refinement of the Maxim design into the Lommán 1894. By 1894 tir Lhaeraidd fielded one of the best equipped and most modern military forces in the world, yet its leaders remained uncertain of its capabilities and feared that foreign powers with more experienced forces would be able to make significant gains against their ultra-modern and largely untested military equipment. Military thinkers of the time still placed an emphasis on cavalry and infantry charges, and this translated into the typical battlefield tactics and organisational structure of the army at the time. Mobile artillery units complemented the idea of a rapidly moving cavalry force, machine guns did not and were relegated to dedicated units trained in static warfare. To their credit the military had the foresight to equip its cavalrymen with carbines and semi-automatic handguns.

The Great War (1895-1899 CE)

Members of the 2nd Bibracte Grenadiers on the Oser Front furing the Great War.
With fifteen hours of the Veleazan government's declaration of war on Midrasia the government of tir Lhaeraidd declared war on Veleaz and started mobilising its forces. When Oserland entered the war it immediately became clear where tir Lhaeraidd's focus would lie in the coming conflict and troops were poured into the eastern border regions to shore up the existing defences which had been built there. The early stages of the war consisted of the manning and fortification of the front lines with barbed wire, mines, and temporary trenches; the Lhaeraidh military command had little desire to be engaged in a war and largely doubted the ability of its forces to successfully enter Oserland; the result was that they never really tried in earnest to do anything more than launch periodic skirmishes over the border while constantly shelling the Oser soldiers and positions whenever they came too close. The pattern of shelling and raiding would continue well into the war, with Lhaeraidh commanders quite willing to allow the Oser forces to attack their lines and be batted off the by the extensively fortified positions they encountered.

Despite the military's general malaise support for the war as well as morale among the general population were high and various popular songs were written during this period that became rallying cries for young men to join the armed forces and fight. The war served as the impetus for considerable cultural development and during the war years the prevalence of popular music grew; with tunes such as Alliance Soldier, Lhaeraidd Soldier, and The Lhaeraidd Brigade being used to bolster confidence and morale, as well as belief in the cause.

Within the wider context of the war tir Lhaeraidd's main contribution was manpower; since Lhaeraidd law allowed citizens to sign on with foreign armies so long as they not raise arms against the Teyrnas thousands of young men flooded into the ranks of other Alliance armies and fought all over the world on almost every front of the war. Since support for the war among the populace was high, but low among the military chiefs, many young men found that the only way to achieve glory and recognition in combat was to sign on with foreign powers; in particular Newrey. The fact that so many young men went off to fight for foreign powers made the Lhaeraidh attitude one of pride, but also led to a culture of sorrow as such men were seldom afforded the same honours or recognition in death as those who fought for the Teyrnas itself. At home this meant increasing unrest as the government refused to support wounded Lhaeraidh who fought abroad, or their families should they die.

Socially the Great War brought about significant change, the number of men going off to fight meant fewer men remained to work in the factories or bring in the harvest, and women increasingly filled the roles of men in the fields of manual labour. The only industries which women were not permitted to work were mining and steel manufacture. The increasing reliance on female manpower to keep the economy going and supply the war effort meant increasing demands for women's rights and equality, and finally in 1898 laws were enacted allowing women to become Bonnedd in their own right and hold seats in parliament. This would spur on a decade of social and legal change which ultimately resulted in the complete legal equality of men and women in 1904.

The Modern Era (1899-Present)

The beginning of the Modern Era in tir Lhaeraidd is generally placed at the conclusion of the Great War, though some scholars place it later in 1905 when the Teyrnas formally declared neutrality in perpetuity.

Economic reforms during the 20th century provoked rapid urban development.
The rise of trade unionism and organised labour in tir Lhaeraidd allowed for a great deal of social progress, the development of the consumer society and rapid growth of disposable income which had come as a result in turn led to an economic resurgence which allowed the Lhaeraidh economy and treasury to recover from the Great War. The national debt was significantly reduced allowing for greater government spending and the expansion of the National Health Service to encompass the entire population. By 1936 all children were required to remain in education until the age of 16, and further education up to the age of 21 was free for all regardless of background. The 1938 Apprenticeships Act tackled youth unemployment and the unskilled labour force, as well as economic inequality, by enabling those young people who had not achieved academically to enter work and attain training in a skill.

Unions pressed forward the importance of apprenticeships as a means of boosting wage expectations, and business owners and industrialists promoted them as they provided both a constant supply of cheap labour and a skilled workforce which allowed for industrial advancement. However by 1946 tensions between trade unions and industrialists had reached a peak, as business owners sought increased automation and a reduction in the skilled workforce, in favour of more advanced manufacturing techniques. The trade unions fought against the change, holding back the Teyrnas' economic and societal progress by almost a decade, as young people continued to be trained in obsolete manufacturing methods to fill skilled roles which were no longer necessary. Eventually the situation reached its climax in 1954 with the declaration of O'Comhghán's War.

Then Chancellor Rhioridh O'Comhghán challenged the trade unions openly and forced through numerous changes in the law weakening the trade union's stranglehold over the workforce. Between 1954 and 1960 a series of vicious strikes and strike breaking actions broke out across tir Lhaeraidd coupled with protests against the government as O'Comhghán's reforms were introduced; government funding for training in the obsolete manufacturing techniques was withdrawn. The initial result was a dip in wages, however as minimum wage laws took effect wages steadily increased. O'Comhghán left office in 1961 and was succeeded by Aedan O'Madwyn. O'Madwyn's policies were more forgiving, focusing on government investment in education, training, and industry so as to expand demand for 'new skill sectors'.

The Post-War Years (1899-1912 CE)

The post-war situation in tir Lhaeraidd was tense. Incredibly high casualties during the Great War had left the population demoralised and depressed; the clamour for change steadily grew as workers demanded improved working conditions and started to form unions. Demands for political change took the form of Working Men's and Veteran's Associations, who pressed for the abolition of the ancient laws restricting high government office to members of the aristocracy. A decade of intermittent strikes and protests by the working classes followed, punctuated by the rise of the Woman's Association and demands for women's rights. The government response was increasingly liberal, having witnessed the communist revolutions which had come in the wake of the Great War the establishment feared that the monarchy may be under threat.

Labour strikes and walkouts became a common sight during the early 20th century.
In this atmosphere of uncertainty and instability the government took measures to protect itself, not by combating the demands for change, but through processes of gradual reform. Because wealth and plutocracy existed within tir Lhaeraidd before the war the attitude of the aristocracy was very different to that seen in other nations; with less to lose from the reduction of their ancient privileges they were more willing to accept changes. In 1904 a series of laws ensured complete legal equality of men and women, a rare example of legislative foresight which arguably has not yet been caught up with by society itself. In 1903 the Trade Unions Act legalised unions and set out the basic rights of workers, including the minimum wage, pensions, and safety requirements.

The rise of trade unionism resulted in major economic and social change within tir Lhaeraidd, most significantly the adoption by many companies of the 'living wage' which not only increased the value of Lhaeraidh goods but also brought about the concept of disposable income and ultimately the beginning of the consumer society. With the series of laws which followed the Trade Unions Act on 1903 came increasing quality of life for the working classes, and in 1910 the first National Health Act was entered into law which established free government run paediatric clinics and hospitals. Additionally in 1910 a second law, the National Education Act made basic education up to the age of fourteen mandatory for all children and between 1910 and 1912 hundreds of schools were opened which adhered to a national curriculum.

In 1906 under public pressure by veteran's and soldier's widows associations the 14th May was declared a national holiday with the official name of Remembrance Day, however the holiday is now more commonly referred to as Dubhán's Day in honour of tir Lhaeraidd's greatest hero of the Great War. The day was declared to be one of national remembrance and mourning for all those who died during the Great War, and the date of 14th May was chosen because it was the date of Dubhán's last stand in Erika. Since 1923 representatives from Oserland have been invited to attend the Dubhán's Day commemorations in Neuaddduwiau, making it a day of international commemoration for the lost. Notably 1912 saw the construction and consecration of the Llwynmilwr, a forty square kilometre grove on the famed 'Plains of Royal Leath' as a national centre of remembrance, where the names of tir Lhaeraidd's honoured military dead have been inscribed in stone ever since.

The O'Callaghan Plan (1912-1932)

Chancellor Aledh O'Callaghan, father of the O'Callaghan Plan.
The O'Callaghan Plan (Officially the Asuran Economic Recovery Program) was a Lhaeraidh initiative begun in 1912 with the aim of assisting in the economic reconstruction of the defeated powers and remnant states following the Great War. During the course of the program tir Lhaeraidd gave approximately $2 billion ($20 billion in current estimates) NSD per year to nations throughout Northern Asura, in particular Glanodel. The plan lasted for twenty years. The publicly stated goal of tir Lhaeraidd was to assist in the recovery of war-ravaged economies and to break down trade barriers, however the declassification of government documents in 1998 revealed that it was also intended as a means of preventing the spread of communist and fascist ideology. The O'Callaghan Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, and encouraged an increase in productivity, labour union membership, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.

The Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states roughly on a per capita basis. A larger amount was given to industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general Asuran revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was also directed towards the former Lhedwinic nations, with less for those further south and east. The largest recipient of O'Callaghan Plan money (per capita) was Glanodel, followed by Vrnallia and Crylante. Many Asuran countries received Plan benefits.

Developing Relations With Arzoa (1926-1984)

A key feature of tir Lhaeraidd's post-war foreign policy centred around relations with Arzoa, and by 1941 both nations were coordinating a joint foreign policy strategy. Between 1926 and 1974 tir Lhaeraidd and Arzoa averaged one significant diplomatic summit every six month, and the result of this ongoing diplomatic process were the treaties now collectively referred to as the West Asuran Accords. The multiple treaties formed a complex lattice of agreements which encompassed every facet of the two country's relations with one another and they included military and economic agreements which tied the two countries together. The growth of mutual relations was largely a result of the post Great War economic climate in Asura, and the desire of tir Lhaeraidd not to be drawn into other country's wars.

Diplomatic relations between Arzoa and tir Lhaeraidd had been consistently positive ever since the conclusion of the Great War in 1899. Over the succeeding century a number of key diplomatic and economic agreements were formed between the two nations in order to secure their position as regional powers in Asura. Between 1926 and 1974 the nations averaged one major diplomatic summit every six months, with a complex latticework of treaties and agreements forming as a result. Each new summit brought with it not only new agreements but alterations to existing ones which made the legal, diplomatic, and political system incredibly complicated and inefficient on a practical level.

Since 1960

As the living and minimum wages increased and consumer society evolved tir Lhaeraidd underwent a period of significant social and cultural change throughout the 1960s. Social liberalism started to overtake the existing conservatism, with new mediums of art and music becoming popular; the widespread introduction of easily affordable mass produced records enabled Lhaeraidh artists to grow in influence. Genres such as Rock and Roll, Psychedelia, and Pop established the music industry as a multi-million Aurarian business sector, and by 1966 nearly every home had a record player and radio. The widespread introduction of television in the previous decade allowed for the vast expansion of mass media during the 60s as broadcasting techniques and technologies advanced; live news broadcasting from around the world became possible and global awareness became commonplace.

From 1972 onward tir Lhaeraidd became a major consumer, importing goods from all over the world to satisfy the domestic demand for market diversity. The evolution of consumerism led to an evolution in economic policy and successive governments started to pursue open market policies which focused upon and allowed for economic diversity; it was no longer sufficient to have a single brand or manufacturer for a given item, as the consumers demanded additional variety. Government investment in startup businesses, new technologies, and new market concepts make tir Lhaeraidd a key modern financial and commercial hub, attracting businesses and entrepreneurs on a global level. The statistical results of this period are clear, by the end of 1979 seven out of ten families own one or more cars, nine out of ten owned a television, and almost everyone home featured central heating and internal plumbing.

The provision of household amenities rapidly improved both in terms of availability and reliability from 1960 onward, as the government converted its localised providers for fuel, water, sanitation, and electricity into national organisations. From 1962 on every home in the country was connected to the national infrastructural grid. The number of houses with a fixed bath, or shower, rose sharply and the ability of homeowners to afford home improvements significantly increased. Between 1968 and 1980 DIY and home improvement became major pastimes and huge economic sectors, with modernity and technology now being considered necessities not only by the public but by the government who began to extend social credit and investment schemes to those home owners unable to afford basic improvements.

The West Asuran Concordat (1984-1985)

Main Article: West Asuran Concordat

In 1984 Teyrn Bedwyr XV of tir Lhaeraidd proposed that a summit be held in the key Lhaeraidh trading hub of Aurharbwr to streamline all existing treaties and agreements between the two nations into a single document. With much fanfare the summit was held on the 21st January 1985 and lasted for five days during which every aspect of Arzoa and tir Lhaeridd's bilateral relations were studied and discussed. At the conclusion of the summit the West Asuran Concordat was proposed to replace the complex web of treaties. Under the Concordat a new body called the West Asuran Concordat Organisation (WACO) was created to manage all diplomatic talks and agreements between the two nations on a bilateral basis. WACO was set up in the border towns of Canmyr and Weidhal which had grown up right next to one another along the border; with the establishment of WACO the towns were merged to form the Free Town of Canmyr-Weidhal which over time would evolve into a key financial, trading, and diplomatic centre.

The Concordat was officially signed by King Alphonse II of Arzoa and Teyrn Bedwyr XV of tir Lhaeraidd on the 5th February 1985 and by November 1985 WACO was well established in Canmyr-Weidhal. As of 1st May 1986 every major diplomatic summit between the two nations has been held at the WACO headquarters in the town centre and in 1999 the Town Council was given a grant of an additional five square miles by both Arzoa and tir Lhaeraidd into which it could expand. As of 2006 Canmyr-Weidhal occupies an internationally recognised position as an open city for trade under the joint sovereignty of both Arzoa and tir Lhaeraidd.

Geography

Glen Lyffwy in the Highlands of Hlaanedd.
The geography of tir Lhaeraidd is varied, from the low lying wetlands of the north, to the central forests and grasslands, down to the forested mountains and hills of the south, with many large and highly developed urban centres separated by large areas of rural and even unused land. The mainland extent of tir Lhaeraidd, known as its Metropolitan Extent, is located in the northwestern extremity of mainland Asura, west of Oserland and Midrasia, and north of Arzoa and Gwenkeltia, which are the only nations with which it shares a land border. A few hundred miles off the northern coast can be found the Vrnallian Islands. The highest peak in tir Lhaeraidd is Glenwy Bregh which stands around 1,041 metres (3,415 ft) above sea level. The northern coastline consists mostly of wetlands and features shifting sandbars; further south the coast changes and becomes much more rugged with a large number of rocky inlets, headlands, and bays. The longest and largest river is the Llyffwy, which flows from the Vale of Hlaanedd in the south bisecting the country on its way northwards to the sea.

The vast majority of the country consists of fertile hills and temperate deciduous forests which principally consist of Alder, Ash, Birch, and most famously Oak. Large temperate coniferous forests can also be found in the southwestern regions near the border with Arzoa. Though a considerable portion of tir Lhaeraidd was deforested during the Renaissance and industrial revolution since the 1980s widespread efforts to replant and cultivate new forests have been made, particularly in the central regions of the country around the city of Caer Dunn.

Caer Mornagh on the coast of Loch Lanach in western Lhaeraen.
The total land area of tir Lhaeraidd is 480,100km2. Crops and fallow land accounts for 20% of the land area, grasses and rough grazing 26%, other agricultural land 5%, forest and woodland 38%, and urban development 11%. An abundance of natural resources such as coal, iron, and zinc contributed significantly to the industrial growth of tir Lhaeraidd during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, energy is a major component of tir Lhaeriadd's economy. Whilst tir Lhaeraidd was once the largest producer of coal in Asura, the production potential of renewable energy has almost entirely replaced the export of coal as an important economic and environmental issue in recent years.

The territorial extent of tir Lhaeraidd is well established through a series of treaties, and the country is generally considered to have reached its present extent in 1899 with the conclusion of the Great War, at which point peace treaties with Oserland finalised the border between the two countries. Small modifications to its borders have occurred since, most notably with the creation of Canmyr-Weidhal.

Climate

A typical autumn scene in the coastal village of Gomcorman, Gyllnru.
The entirety of tir Lhaeraidd's Asuran mainland lies within the temperate zone, with temperatures usually ranging between -12°C in the winter and 32°C in the summer. The prevailing wind is from the West, bringing with it shifts in weather from the ocean; during the winter occasional winds from the northeast bring down snowstorms in the northern coastal regions of the country. Two thirds of the country's annual rainfall typically falls within the western third of the country, however the higher altitude of the regions further inland, combined with a high water table, means that the landscape is generally wetter in the East where the country's famous fog is at its most common. Oceanic currents brought in by the Trader's Stream generally ensures milder winters than the rest of northern Asura, but also brings with it more wet weather, giving tir Lhaeraidd the highest average rainfall on the Asuran mainland. The summers are typically warmest in the southwest of the country. Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills.

It is on the western seaboard of Asur-Engomajula, the world's largest land mass. These conditions allow convergence between moist maritime air and dry continental air. In this area, the large temperature variation creates atmospheric instability and this is a major factor that influences the often unsettled weather the country experiences, where many types of weather can be experienced in a single day. In general the climate of tir Lhaeraidd is cool and often cloudy, and hot temperatures are infrequent.

The climate in the Teyrnas is defined as a temperate oceanic climate, or Cfb on the Aerh climate classification system, a classification it shares with most of northwest Asura. Regional climates are influenced by the North Opal Ocean and latitude. Ogledd, Lhaeraen, and Ffanwy, being closest to the Ocean, are generally the mildest, wettest and windiest regions of the country, and temperature ranges here are seldom extreme. Eastern areas are drier, cooler, less windy and also experience the greatest daily and seasonal temperature variations. Northern areas are generally cooler, wetter and have slightly larger temperature ranges than southern areas.

Administrative Divisions

Traditionally tir Lhaeraidd is divided into eight provinces, referred to as Duchies, or locally as Diúcachtha, which are drawn around the historic borders of the Eight Kingdoms which existed prior to the unification of the country in 899; these duchies are then divided into Counties or Contaetha, which in turn are divided into Parishes or Paróistha. Under the ancient feudal system each Duchy was ruled by a Diuice, who in turn granted holdings to the Iarlaitha. The Paróistha were drawn around the authority of the local Priest, all the lands belonging to the people paying the Teyrn's taxes to a specific priest were considered to be a part of the Parish.

In modern terms the traditional Duchy, County, and Parish borders are maintain, and within the Constitution of 2017 which converted the nation into a Constitutional Monarchy these borders were reinforced under the electoral system which was implemented. Thus the traditional territorial divisions and their names have managed to endure more or less unchanged since around 1486 when laws were passed preventing landowners from choosing which local priest to pay their taxes to. Minor alterations have since been made to account for shifting river courses, drained swamplands, and man made lakes and waterways.

The organization of local government in tir Lhaeraidd is relatively straightforward, something which the current constitution retained from the previous system of Absolute Monarchy. Power flows directly from the central government down into departments at Duchy level, and in turn this flows down to the Counties and eventually to the Parishes. All localized authorities have their powers clearly delineated in statute by the constitution so that they are ranked in tiers rather than individual authorities being granted specific powers; this tiered system of generalized power makes local governance highly effective and considerably streamlined.

The only exception to the traditional Duchy-County-Parish system is the Metropolitan area of Aurharbwr, which, due to the different governmental and political needs of a large urban area, operates as its own 'Duchy' though for ceremonial purposes it is a part of Gyllnru. The Metropolitan authority is then devolved to local 'borough' authorities; and though the powers are spread in a different way to elsewhere in the country they remain clearly delineated into tiers within the Metropolitan authority.

Politics

The Teyrnas is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Teyrn Bedwyr XVI is the head of state. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn" the elected government. The Constitution of the Teyrnas consists mostly of a collection of disparate written sources, including statutes, judge-made case law and international treaties, together with constitutional conventions which revolve around a central document which lays out the basics of how the government is elected. As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and "constitutional law", the Senedd can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament, and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Senedd can pass laws that future Senedd cannot change.

Government

Tir Lhaeraidd has a parliamentary government based on the Newreyan system that has been emulated around the world: a legacy of the Newreyan Empire. The Senedd (parliament) of the Teyrnas meets in the Old Guilds Hall in Neuaddduwaiu and has two houses: an elected Seneddol and an appointed Bonedd. All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.

Líadáin Síomha, Taoiseach of tir Lhaeraidd at a recent WACO summit.
The position of Taoiseach, the Teyrnas' head of government, belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the Seneddol; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber. The Taoiseach chooses a cabinet and its members are formally appointed by the monarch to form His Majesty's Government. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government.

The cabinet is drawn from members of the Taoiseach's party or coalition and mostly from the Seneddol but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both. Executive power is exercised by the Taoiseach and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the tir Lhaeraidd, and become Ministers of the Crown. The current Taoiseach is Líadáin Síomha, who has been in office since 17 April 2017. Síomha is also the leader of the Blaengar Rhyddfrydol. For elections to the Seneddol, the UK is divided into a number constituencies, each electing a number of Aelod Seneddol (Members of Parliament) based upon their population in proportion to the country as a whole; there are 800 seats available in total. General elections are called by the monarch every five years.

Blaengar Rhyddfrydol, Cyngres Genedlaethol, Ffederasiwn Dinesydd and Llais Labrwr are considered to be tir Lhaeraidd's four major parties.

Law and Justice

Tir Lhaeraidd has a common law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy. The court system consists of the Bench of Lord Justices, the Bench of Appeal Justices , the Crown Court, the High Court, and the Magistrates Court, all of which apply the law of tir Lhaeraidd. Trials for serious offences must usually be held before a jury. The Crown Court and the Bench of Lord Justices have authority, by means of judicial review, to determine the compatibility of laws and activities of other institutions of the state with the constitution and the law. Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public. The Criminal Courts of Justice is the principal building for the criminal courts.

Garda, more commonly referred to as the Gardaí, is the state's civilian police force. The force is responsible for all aspects of civil policing, both in terms of territory and infrastructure. It is headed by the Garda Commissioner, who is appointed by the Government. Most uniformed members do not routinely carry firearms. Standard policing is traditionally carried out by uniformed officers equipped only with a baton and pepper spray.

The Military Police is the corps of the Army responsible for the provision of policing service personnel and providing a military police presence to forces while on exercise and deployment. In wartime, additional tasks include the provision of a traffic control organisation to allow rapid movement of military formations to their mission areas. Other wartime roles include control of prisoners of war and refugees.

Tir Lhaeraidd's citizenship laws relate to "the friends and associates of tir Lhaeraidd", including islands and seas, thereby extending them to Arzoa, Crylante, Navack, and Canmyr-Weidhal, all of which are part of WACO. Therefore, anyone born in these areas who meets the requirements for being a Lhaeraidh citizen, such as birth in the territories of WACO to a Lhaeraidh or CW citizen parent or a parent who is entitled to live there without restriction on their residency, may exercise an entitlement to Lhaeraidh citizenship, such as a Lhaeraidh passport or driver's license.

The Monarchy

Teyrn Bedwyr XVI, the current Teyrn of tir Lhaeraidd.
The monarchy of tir Lhaeraidd, commonly referred to as the Lhaeraidh monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the Teyrnas, its dependencies and its overseas territories. The monarch's title is "Teryn" (male) or "Teyrnir" (female). The current monarch and head of state, Teyrn Bedwyr XVI, ascended the throne on the death of his father, Teyrn Bedwyr XV, on 2 February 2014.

The monarch and his or her immediate family undertake various official, ceremonial, diplomatic and representational duties. As the monarchy is constitutional, the monarch is limited to non-partisan functions such as bestowing honours and appointing the Taoiseach. The monarch is, by tradition, commander-in-chief of the Lhaeraidh Armed Forces. Though the ultimate formal executive authority over the government of the Teyrnas is still by and through the monarch's royal prerogative, these powers may only be used according to laws enacted in the Senedd and, in practice, within the constraints of convention and precedent.

Gwynyth merch Brienne, the Etifedd Tywysoges (Crown Princess) and heir apparent of tir Lhaeraidd.
The Lhaeraidh monarchy traces its origins from the petty kingdoms of early medieval Asura, which consolidated into the Teyrnas of tir Lhaeraidd. In 1093, the last pureblooded Lhaeraidh monarch, Bedwyr IV died, and was succeeded by his son Harwyn II who was the result of an extra-marital relationship with a kidnapped Newreyan princess. All subsequent Lhaeraidh monarchs are descended from Harwyn II and his half brothers Magwyr I and Bedwyr V. In 1077 the Archddyfarniadmawr was introduced which is the first written legal document in Lhaeraidh history, beginning the process of limiting the Teyrn's power and creating a form of liberal absolutism in tir Lhaeraidd.

From 1598 onward the Teyrns of tir Lhaeraidd started to lay claim to various lordships, duchies, and principalities in northern Asura and Lhedwin; most notably in modern day Vrnallia and Crylante. As a result the Teyrns of tir Lhaeraidd extended their authority and gained the status of monarch overseas as well as at home. As the Lhaeraidh dominion over Lhedwinnic territories continued the nature of these territories as political entities changed and came increasingly under the direct authority of the crown without recourse to the Lhaeraidh plutocracy of the time.

Unlike other monarchal powers in Asura during the Colonial era the Lhaeraidh monarchy did not seek to extend its reach into vast overseas territories. Being focused on trade and wealth rather than military conquest or political extension, and having had their fill of colonialism in Asura, the Lhaeraidh monarchy instead involved itself in the creation of powerful trading companies which colonies a number of small settlements and ports across the world. The direct result of this policy of trading companies funded and run by the monarch and the royal family is that the Teyrn of tir Lhaeraidh remains a colonial ruler over cities abroad to this day and is most notably the Monarch of Huangjin off the Canton Coast.

In 1799, after years of insurrection and back and forth between Lhedwinnic rebels and under threat of attack from the Navackian Kingdom, the Teyrn of tir Lhaeraidd (Eurig I) surrendered his and his family's claims to lordship in Lhedwin and withdrew his forces from his Vrnallian and Crylantean territories. This would ultimately precipitate the formation of the Kingdom of Lhedwin, and bring an end to the Lhaeraidh monarchy's interest in colonial expansion of any kind.

Either through marriage or blood the royal family of tir Lhaeraidd is related to every royal house in Asura, and is the oldest continuous royal dynasty in Asura. In addition the current Teyrn, Bedwyr XVI, was the last absolute monarch in Asura and is credited with the peaceful transition to democratic government and constitutional rule.

International Relations

Country Status Current state of relations Mutual Embassies Visa Requirement Foreign Ambassador Lhaeraidh Ambassador
 Aquidneck Very Good Relations with Aquidneck are positive with the Aquido-Lhaeraidh Treaty having been signed in 1993. Aquidneck recognises WACO's neutrality. Yes No Dame Anna Picola Syr Gwyfyth Talbot
 Arzoa Excellent Arzoa and tir Lhaeraidh are co-signatories of the West Asuran Concordat and maintain a single market, free trade zone, open borders, and various other agreements. Yes No Amelie Toven Siobhan Breda
The Campagnies Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Eoghan Medrod
Castrix Fair Castrix and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the Castro-Lhaeraidh Treaty. Yes Yes TBD Nuallán Uilleam
 Cheonsam Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD No representative
The Community of Pan-Slavic Nations Fair The CPSN and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the CPSN-Lhaeraidh Treaty. Yes Yes Aurora Grachevsky Bedivere Doran
 Crylante Excellent Crylante and tir Lhaeraidh are co-signatories of the West Asuran Concordat and maintain a single market, free trade zone, open borders, and various other agreements. Yes No Flavia La Rivera Richard Daltry
 Glanodel Very Good As of 1992 Glanodel has been included in the Lhaeraidh-Newreyan Treaty. Yes No Kristian Berg Amhlaidh Lorccán
Hipasia Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Aindrea Bedwyr
Isolatonia Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Andreas Carbrey
Johka Poor The Lhaeraidh government and WACO have condemned Johka for their genocide of the Johkk minority, and have imposed economic sanctions. Yes Yes TBD Stewart Finlay
 Kavo Poor The Lhaeraidh government and WACO have condemned ArKav for their conduct in the Fourth Brush War and their support for an apartheid regime. No Yes None None
Malban Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Comoghan O'Reilly
 Midrasia Excellent Midrasia and tir Lhaeraidh are co-signatories of the Mydro-Lhaeraidh Accord and maintain a free trade zone, open borders, and various other agreements. Yes No Lisa Ouaterloo Eógan Ramsay
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Navack
Excellent Navack and tir Lhaeraidh are co-signatories of the West Asuran Concordat and maintain a single market, free trade zone, open borders, and various other agreements. Yes No TBD Amanda Clarke
 Newrey Excellent Newrey and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the Lhaeraidh-Newreyan Treaty. Yes No TBD Lúcás Suibhne
 Ohen Very Good Ohen and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the Aurharbwr Accords. Yes No TBD Conn Eógan
 Oserland Very Good Oserland and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the Oser-Lhaeraidh Economic Treaty. Yes No Oliver Lind Oscar Rees
 Rohst Fair Rohst and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the RtL Bilateral Agreement. Yes No TBD Harri Fionnlagh
Rosskava Fair Rosskava and tir Lhaeraidh maintain amiable, relations which include the Treaty of Moskva. Yes Yes TBD Gwilym Flannán
 Saraibia Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Price Óengus
 Sheera Poor The Lhaeraidh government and WACO have condemned Sheera for their conduct in the Fourth Brush War and their support for an apartheid regime. No Yes None None
Soyuzkaya Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Neifion Kennedy
Tarasanovia Poor The Lhaeraidh government and WACO have condemned Tarasanovian support for Johka Yes Yes TBD Ailpein Ádhamh
Ternca Fair Ternca and tir Lhaeraidh maintain reasonably good, relations which include the Lhaeraidh-Terncan Economic Cooperation Pact. Yes Yes Tsaplina Olesya (Asya) Kieran Illtyd
Terton Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Shea Gearóid
Veleaz Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Máirtín Wynfor
 Vrnallia Very Good Vrnallia and tir Lhaeraidh maintain close, positive, relations which include the Saied Convention. Yes No TBD Máel Sechnaill Fionn
Villedegris Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Christie Price
Wustenland Neutral There are no outstanding issues between the two nations. Yes Yes TBD Bedwyr Máel Coluim
 Yvilonia Very Good Positive relations are maintained between these two nations. Yes Yes TBD Eoghan Éibhir

Military

The Lhaeraidh military is collectively referred to as Rí-Fórsaí Armtha (His Majesty's Armed Forces) and consist of the Rí-Airm (Army) and Rí-Dúghorm (Navy) both of which maintain their own air corps. The Armed Forces are managed by the Defence Office and controlled by the General Staff, who are nominally led by the Secretary to the Defence Office (currently Syr Jory Hafan). The Commander-in-Chief is the Lhaeraidh monarch, Teyrn Bedwyr XVI to whom all servicemen and women swear an oath of allegiance, with the exception of the Swiftriver Regiment of the Army which ceremonially answers to the Heir Apparent. The Armed Forces are charged with protecting the Teyrnas and its overseas territories and aiding in the defence of fellow WACO members Arzoa, Crylante, and Navack. In addition the Armed Forces maintain garrisons and military facilities overseas in Huangjin and Crylante.

The Lhaeraidh Armed Forces have played a major role in Asuran and global military history. Tir Lhaeraidd was one of the first Asuran military powers to adopt a modern professional army, and later gunpowder weapons. From the 16th until the 19th century they were involved in armed occupations in modern day Crylante and Vrnallia. The Lhaeraidh Army Model, formulated in the 16th century helped to revolutionise the way in which land wars were fought, and how armies were trained and maintained. The Navy meanwhile would prove key from the 17th Century onwards for maintaining the trade lanes and outposts upon which the Lhaeraidh global trade network relied.

Army

The Lhaeraidh army, known as Rí-Airm (literally "Royal Army"), is the principle land warfare force of tir Lhaeraidd. As of 2016 the Army consists of approximately 400,000 trained regulars, and just over 150,000 part-time reservists. Rí-Airm is distinctive among Asuran armies in that it allows the full, equal, participation of women in all departments.

Rí-Airm was established in 1542 during the reign of Llewellyn III/I under the full name Rí-Airm tir Lhaeraidd. All members of Rí-Airm swear an oath of allegiance to the Teyrn; however as of the constitutional reforms of March and April 2017 command of the army and its maintenance falls to the elected government through the Ministry of Defence. Prior to the reforms of 2017 the army could be deployed on the orders of the Teyrn without the need for consultation, however now this power rests with the Taoiseach provided they receive permission from parliament.

Rí-Airm has seen action in every major armed conflict that tir Lhaeraidd has been involved in since its foundation in 1542, including the Crylantean and Vrnallian occupations, the Battle of Llangwfwy, and the Great War. The victories won throughout its history have allowed tir Lhaeraidd to maintain its global trade network and independence and Rí-Airm proudly makes the boast that "We may have lost battles, but we have never lost a war."

The current Chief-of-Staff for the army is General Syr Edoghan Caldwell, and the current Chief Field Commander is Field Marshal Syr Eada Kent.

History

A 20th century illustration of a 17th century Lhaeraidh cavalryman.
Rí-Airm was formed in 1542 on the orders of Teyrn Llewellyn III/I and was built around a core of veteran soldiers and Lhaeraidh mercenaries known as Gallóglaigh. Under the organizational control of a small force of bankers and financiers from Aurharbwr Rí-Airm was managed and maintains along very mathematical line with regiments of a fixed size being raised and maintained and uniformity in terms of equipment and strategy being a key factor in its growth.

The Gallóglaigh who were hired by the Crown to train and lead Rí-Airm were drawn from the mercenary clans and warrior classes who, due to the stripping of the clans' powers, had been forced to seek other means of making a living. These men were veteran soldiers, many of whom had fought in the wars of foreign powers as far afield as Catai and Arabekh and they had a reputation for competence in the field which had given them an almost mythic reputation.

A 17th Century manual printed for musketeers.
Rí-Airm was critical in the development and use of handheld firearms in Asura, as well as in the development of strategies for their use, and in 1624 under Teyrn Bedwyr VIII the first dedicated regiments of musket armed troops were formed. The Lhaeraidh Ceathrú (literally 'quarter') formation, which used a mix of pike or halberd infantry and musketmen, became an incredibly successful strategy and one which was emulated by other armies. The ceathrú would prove unbeatable in battle until the late 18th century as firearms, and in particular artillery, became more advanced. At the Battle of Llangwfwy in 1694 Rí-Airm faced a major challenge from a similarly armed and equipped force of soldiers and militias raised by rebellious merchants and gentry. Though the battle resulted in a stalemate strategically Rí-Airm demonstrated its ability to inflict massive casualties even in the face of equal opposition.

Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries Rí-Airm continued to protect Lhaeraidh interests around the world, with the small, but elite, Colonial Regiments being deployed with the navy and marines overseas to protect the trading posts and merchant enclaves established by the Lhaeraidh government and trading companies. The soldiers of the Colonial Regiments were selected from the most promising recruits in the regular army and given special training, superior equipment, and much increased pay (including a guaranteed pension). The Colonial Regiments were seen not only as a simple protection force but also as the ideal force to test new weapons, technologies, and strategies, the most notable breakthroughs which were adopted as a result of this being rifled weapons and eventually automatic firearms.

By the end of the 19th century confidence within the high command of Rí-Airm was at an all time low; tir Lhaeraidh had not engaged in a major land war with a large or modern power in decades and though the Colonial Regiments continued to prove highly effective in keeping the peace overseas the bulk of Rí-Airm was considered to be mediocre at best by their commanders. Despite the introduction of modern technologies such as repeating firearms and automatic weapons none of the army leadership felt confident in the force's ability to prosecute a major war. This crisis of confidence within Rí-Airm was what led to its mostly lacklustre performance during the Great War.

Great War era Lhaeraidh soldiers during training.
Despite being technically and numerically superior to the Oser forces against whom they would fight the majority of the war the overall performance of Rí-Airm was relatively poor; most historians now consider this to be due to the lack of confidence the Generals had in their own forces and the fear that if Rí-Airm were defeated in the field while attacking Oserland, that they would not be able to recover sufficiently to repel a counterattack. Hindsight has proven this to be untrue, but at the time the fear that a single major defeat could spell disaster for the entire war effort was pervasive at the time.

After the Great War a great many of Rí-Airm's highest ranking officers were sacked by Teyrn Bedwyr XII and his government; this shakeup led to the Modern Army Reforms in 1906 under Teyrn Bedwyr XIII, which were driven by a new generation of more driven meritocratically appointed senior officers and staff. The advent of Lhaeraidh neutrality in 1905 also had a significant impact on Rí-Airm at this time and as the 1906 reforms began the key influencing consideration was that Rí-Airm must be able to prosecute a land war against the country's powerful neighbours who might threaten their neutrality and sovereignty. The reforms on 190 would ultimately lead to the army as it is today.

Equipment

Item Status Description Type Designation
Brenner L1909 Limited Issue Reliable 11.5mm LBA semi-automatic pistol issued as an alternative to the L1975 at the request of the officer. Small Arms (Pistol) L1 115
Brenner L1975 Regular Issue The standard issue sidearm for all military personnel. Small Arms (Pistol) L4 9
Brenner AG2005 Regular Issue Standard issue automatic rifle for Army personnel, chambered in 5.56mm WACO. Small Arms (Assault Rifle) AG6 556
Brenner AG1958 Limited Issue Standard issue firearm for reserve forces and National Guard units. Small Arms (Assault Rifle) AG2 762
Brenner PL1996 Regular Issue Standard issue sub-machine gun for CQE operations. Small Arms (SMG) PL9 9
Brenner GP1960 Regular Issue Standard issue general purpose machine gun across all military branches. Small Arms (MG) GP9 762
Brenner R1995 Regular Issue Standard issue AMR for the Army, also used as a support weapon in marksman and sniper teams. Small Arms (AMR) R12 127
Brenner R1984 Regular Issue Standard issue marksman's rifle for the Army, also used as the primary weapon in sniper teams. Small Arms (TR) R10 762
Grendel MBT Mk1 Regular Issue The MBT of the Lhaeraidh Army, which currently owns and maintains approximately 500 of the newer A5 model. Main Battle Tank G MBT1
Grendel SSV Mk2 Regular Issue Steadily being phased into regular use so as to replace the ageing CVR (T). Armoured Fighting Vehicle G SSV2
Met Fabrikan Syrfelwyr Regular Issue A large number are maintained by the National Guard and Reserve units, they see only limited use by other branches of the military. Infantry Mobility Vehicle MF IMV1
Met Fabrikan Rhyfelwr Regular Issue The Army maintains just over a thousand of these vehicles while the National Guard and Reserves maintain a combined three hundred. Most were upgraded in 2010 with new turret and armour configurations. Armoured Fighting Vehicle MF AFV1
Grendel Citawr Being Phased Out Despite efforts to upgrade this line of vehicles Army funding for the project was withdrawn and the vehicles are now being replaced, principally with the Grendel SSV Mk2. Armoured Fighting Vehicle G AFV2
Met Fabrikan Bytheiad Regular Issue Approximately one and a half thousand of these vehicles are maintained throughout the armed forces with many variants in use including 4x4 and 6x6 models. Funding for continuing development of the design has been secured. Armoured Fighting Vehicle MF IMV2
Met Fabrikan Cynol Regular Issue As part of a continuing program of equipment assessment and development the Cynol is being retained for improvements in design. Armoured Fighting Vehicle MF AWV1

Economy

Overview

Tir Lhaeraidd has a very loosely regulated market economy. Based on international exchange rates the Lhaeraidh economy is either the second or third largest in the world, and the largest in Asura. The Treasury Office, led by the Secretary of State for the Treasury, is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Rí-óir is the Teyrnas' central bank and is responsible, through the Rí-bhrionnú, for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the Aurarian. The Aurarian is used as an international reserve currency in [{Arzoa]], Crylante, Navack, and Sagite. Since 1997 the Rí-óir Financial Control Board, headed by the Chief Executive of the Rí-óir, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Treasury each year.

The Lhaeraidh has a primarily tertiary economy focusing on trade, goods exchange, and financial services. Aurharbwr is a global financial centre, and the financial heart of WACO, and has the largest GDP of any city in Asura. Neuaddduwaiu is also a significant financial centre. Tourism, in particular eco-tourism, is very important to the Lhaeraidh economy with over 40 million tourists arriving in tir Lhaeraidh every year from all over the world. Aurharbwr, Neuaddduwaiu, and Caer Dunn are also consistently among the most visited cities in the world. creative industries account for approximately 11% of the nation's total GDP, and has been growing at a rate of approximately 5% per annum since 2005.

Tir Lhaeraidh was one of the flashpoints for the industrial revolution in Asura with an initial concentration on the textile industry, which later gave way large to the manufacture of refined metals such as steel. Ship and train manufacture became major industries in the 19th century, fuelled by the country's rich deposits of coal, iron, tin, and copper. Lhaeraidd merchants, shippers and bankers developed overwhelming advantage over those of other nations allowing the Teyrnas to dominate international trade in the 19th century.

Trade Resources

Demographics

Culture