State governments of the Christian States
State governments of the Christian States are those republics formed by citizens in the jurisdiction thereof as provided by the Christian States Constitution. Within the U.C.S. Constitution are provisions as to the formation of new states within the Union.
Structured in accordance with state law (including state constitutions and state statutes), state governments share the same structural model as the federal system, with three branches of government-executive, legislative, and judicial.
The legislative branch of the U.C.S. states consists of state legislatures. Every state has a bicameral legislature, meaning it comprises two chambers.
In half of states (7), the state legislature is simply called "Legislature." The other 7 states call their legislature "General Assembly".
In the 14 legislatures, the upper house is called the "Senate".
The executive branch of every state is headed by an elected Governor. Most states have a plural executive, in which several key members of the executive branch are directly elected by the people and serve alongside the governor. These include the offices of lieutenant governor (often on a joint ticket with the governor) and attorney general, secretary of state, auditors (or comptrollers or controllers), treasurer, commissioner of agriculture, commissioner (or superintendent) of education, and commissioner of insurance.
Each state government is free to organize its executive departments and agencies in any way it likes. This has resulted in substantial diversity among the states with regard to every aspect of how their governments are organized.
Most state governments traditionally use the department as the standard highest-level component of the executive branch, in that the secretary of a department is normally considered to be a member of the governor's cabinet and serves as the main interface between the governor and all agencies in his or her assigned portfolio. A department in turn usually consists of several divisions, offices, and/or agencies. A state government may also include various boards, commissions, councils, corporations, offices, or authorities, which may either be subordinate to an existing department or division, or independent altogether.
The judicial branch in most states has a court of last resort usually called a supreme court that hears appeals from lower state courts. Texas and Oklahoma each separate courts of last resort for civil and criminal appeals. Each state's court has the last word on issues of state law and can only be overruled by federal courts on issues of Constitutional law.
The structure of courts and the methods of selecting judges is determined by each state's constitution or legislature. Most states have at least one trial-level court and an intermediate appeals court from which only some cases are appealed to the highest court.
Common government components
Although the exact position of each component may vary, there are certain components common to most state governments:
- Office of the Governor
- Office of the Lieutenant Governor
- Office of the State Attorney General
- Arts council
- Banking/Financial institutions
- Civil service
- Consumer protection
- Corrections and parole supervision
- Economic development
- Emergency management
- Fire protection
- Health care]
- Highway patrol
- Law revision
- Department of Motor Vehicles
- Military affairs (National Guard)
- Occupational safety and health
- Pensions (for public employees)
- Public health
- Secretary of state
- State parks
- State police
- State university system
- Department of Transportation
- Unemployment insurance
- Veterans' affairs
- Workers' compensation