Senria

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Republic of Senria
썬류우꾜우외꼬꾸
Senryuu Kyouwakoku
Flag Emblem
Motto: 꼬꾸민노이씨가쌔꼬우호우끼
Kokumin no Isi ga Saikou Houki

The People's Will Shall be the Supreme Law
Anthem: 꾜우외꼬꾸꼬우씬꾜꾸
Kyouwakoku Kousinkyoku
March of the Republic
Map of Senria
Map of Senria
Capital
and largest city
Keisi
Demonym Senrian
Government unitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
 -  Prime Minister Hayato Nisimura
Legislature National Assembly
History of Senria
 -  Unification 710 BCE 
 -  Current government 1926 
Area
 -  Total 282,402.28 km2
109,036 sq mi
Population
 -  2015 census 129,375,810
 -  Density 458.12/km2
1,186.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $2.245 trillion
 -  Per capita $17,350
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $1.465 trillion
 -  Per capita $11,328
Gini (2015)47.7
high
HDI (2015).761
high
Currency Senrian yen (圓, ¥) (SRY)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (CE)
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code SN
Internet TLD .sn

Senria (Senrian: 썬류우꼬꾸, Senryuukoku), known formally as the Republic of Senria (Senrian: 썬류우꾜우외꼬꾸, Senryuu Kyouwakoku), is an island country in Esquarium. Located in the eastern part of the Lahudic archipelago, it lies bordered nautically to Tuthina in the southeast and Xiaodong in the north.

Senria is a stratovolcanic archipelago of more than 3,500 islands and islets, part of the greater archipelago of Lahudica. The four largest islands are Sadaisuu, Kitasuu, Okasuu, and Hiyokusuu, which make up the vast majority of Senria's land area. These islands, divided into 45 prefectures, are largely dominated by mountains and ridges. Most of the archipelago has a subtropical climate.

According to traditional myths, Senria was founded in 710 BCE by the Emperor Kousuu; most historians, however, consider traditional records documenting Senria's history before 358 CE to be unreliable. The first written records of Senria from an external source appear in Tuthina in the 4th century; Senria's emperor became a tributary of the Tuthinan emperor shortly thereafter. In the medieval era, central authority began to decline as power fell into the hands of hereditary lords known as daimyou. The collapse of central authority resulted in several centuries of instability and conflict which were ultimately ended by the 1869 Keiou Restoration, in which the Emperor Kazuhito established himself as an absolute monarch. The monarchy was overthrown shortly thereafter, however, in the Senrian Revolution. Xiaodong invaded Senria in 1927, triggering the Senrian-Xiaodongese War and the Senrian Genocide; the invasion was ultimately repelled. Senria spent much of the remainder of the 20th century engaged in espionage and counterespionage campaigns against Xiaodong.

Senria is officially a unitary parliamentary republic. However, because the ruling People's Party has held power in some form since 1927, the country is also widely considered a dominant-party state. The current Prime Minister is Hayato Nisimura; the current Deputy Prime Minister is Keiko Umeda of the Justice Party, which is the junior partner in a coalition with the People's Party. Senria's economy is heavily industrial, though there are small agricultural and white-collar sectors, and is dominated by a group of financial cliques known as keiretu. The country's military, the Senrian Republican Armed Forces, is dominated by the Senrian Republican Navy and the Senrian Republican Air Force. It is generally considered a regional economic and military power within Borea and Lahudica.

Senria is demographically homogeneous, with 97.21% of the country's 129,375,810 inhabitants being ethnic Senrians. Roughly 30.5 million people live in Greater Metropolitan Keisi, which spans Keisi, Aoyama, and Kasuura prefectures and is one of the largest metropolitan areas in terms of population within Esquarium. The country has a moderate birth rate, and a moderate average lifespan. A majority of Senrians practice Tenkyou, widely considered a denomination of Kamism. There is also a rich artistic tradition within Senria, manifesting in the forms of art, architecture, calligraphy, poetry, literature, music, theater, and sport.

Etymology

The Senrian language term for Senria is Senryuukoku, written in Goimon as 썬류우꼬꾸 and in Syodongmun as 千龍國. The term literally translates to "thousand dragon country". Senrian traditional legends state that the Senrian people are descended from a dragon kami, Pairyuu, and a human woman named Toyomike. It is widely believed that this legend is the origin of the name, with the Senrian people thus being the "thousand dragons" in question. The first written reference to Senria appears in a Tuthinan document written in 372 CE, listing polities providing tribute to the Tuthinan emperor.

One of the clay pots found at Seidou.

While it is generally agreed that the English exonym Senria is derived from either the Literary Tuthinan Senryongkwok or the Senrian Senryuukoku, is unclear exactly how this occurred.

History

Prehistory and antiquity

Seidou period

The first archaeological evidence of human habitation in what is now Senria has been dated to 30,000 BCE, and is believed to have belonged to a Paleolithic culture. This was followed by the arrival of Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures, generally agreed to be proto-Lahudican and known as the Seidou culture, in the 15,000s BCE. This semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture was characterized by pit dwellings and burial mounds. Examples of cord-marked pottery and primitive lacquerware from this culture were discovered in the Senrian village of Seidou (Senrian: 쎄도우) in 1882, giving the Seidou period and the Seidou culture their names.

Over the following centuries, the Seidou culture became more sedentary, and began to practice rudimentary agriculture; evidence gathered from archaeological sites suggests that by 1,200 BCE the late Seidou culture cultivated large amounts of several crops including rice, barley, sorghum, millet, and soy.

Eikou period

The beginning of the Eikou period (Senrian: 에꼬우, lit. "glorious") is generally given as 710 BCE, the year in which the mythical Emperor Kousuu supposedly created the first unified Senrian state. Unlike the preceding Seidou period, which was not given a name until the late 1800s, the Eikou period is present in traditional Senrian historiography. Traditional Senrian histories, such as the Senryuugi and Senryuu Kouki, emphasize the supposed achievements of several mythical and semimythical emperors and empresses, including Kousuu, Reizei, Hiei, Reigen, and Kouken.

A depiction of the legendary emperor Kousuu.

Foremost among these is Kousuu, who is listed as a descendent of the Tenkyou deities Tenryuu and Pairyuu, and is credited with unifying Senria in the Touitu Wars. The last of these wars, according to traditional legends, was fought against a massive invading force "from the great land across the sea", led by a king named Kyoubun; the armies of Kyoubun and Kousuu fought at the Battle of Hakusukinoe, which supposedly ended in a Senrian victory after Pairyuu caused a great storm to destroy the invading army's camp. In the wake of the battle, Kyoubun swore fealty to Kousuu and gave his daughter, Takano, as a wife; in exchange, Kousuu would allow the invaders to settle in Senria.

While there is little if any evidence to suggest that these traditional tales have any historical veracity, and they are generally rejected by modern historians, some historians taking a euhermistic approach have argued that the legend surrounding the end of the Touitu Wars are heavily mythologized histories of several conflicts between the native proto-Lahudic population and an influx of Monic peoples from Borea, with the marriage of Kousuu and Takano representing the eventual intermixing of the two populations.

An Eikou period bronze mirror.

Regardless, there is significant archaeological evidence that Monic peoples began to move to Senria in the 700s and 600s BCE, who brought wet field agriculture, bronzemaking, silkmaking, glassmaking, and several improved techniques for making pottery, lacquerware, and textiles. There is also evidence of a population boom that might be related to food surpluses created by agriculture. Genetic evidence further suggests that the modern Senrian people are indeed descended from both Lahudic and Monic peoples.

Surutou period

The Surutou (Senrian: 쑤루또우, lit. "sharp sword") is generally considered to be the first period of Senrian history with reliable primary sources, and the first period whose history is properly history rather than deductions based on a mixture of archaeology and mythology. Its beginning is generally given as 358 CE, the beginning of the reign of the Emperor Entou. The first written reference to Senria appears in 372 CE, during what would have been Entou's reign, in a Tuthinan document listing nations participating in the Tengkong system; the document names Entou as the ruler of Senria, identifies his capital as a city named Heikyou, and details a tribute mission sent by Entou to Sakan.

The five-story pagoda at Sekigawa-zinza, built in 594.

During this period, power in Senria was gradually centralized under the emperor, who ruled the nation from the imperial capital of Heikyou. The emperor, in turn, appointed officials to govern other regions of the realm under what was known as the sugo system. Bronze was gradually replaced by iron and steel, and efforts were made to establish infrastructure for administrative purposes.

In spite of improvements in agricultural technology, the Houei Famine broke out in 480. The famine, which affected the majority of the Senrian archipelago, likely began with an outbreak of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae during the particularly wet year of 480, but was quickly compounded with the beginning of a drought in 482. While the drought largely halted the blight, the dry conditions caused the rice crop to fail regardless, and also resulted in the failures of other crops- such as soy, barley, and sorghum- that could have served as alternative food sources. The return of normal weather conditions in 488, and ensuing success of that year's crops, is generally considered the end of the famine. The famine was followed in 491 by a large-scale outbreak of smallpox.

Senria saw increasing contact with its neighbors during this period. Some of this contact was peaceful; Senrian trade with its neighbors, including Min, Tinzhan, and Tuthina, expanded greatly during this period. Increased contact with Tuthina in particular proved immensely fruitful technologically, economically, and culturally.

The Battle of Ogasawara, a major Senrian victory during the Kyoukou War.

Not all contact with its neighbors was peaceful, however; the Kyoukou War began in 496 with the invasion of Kitasuu by the Xiang dynasty. Xiaodong scored several initial victories, including major victories over Senrian forces at Masakado and Subuse, and established control over some areas of northern Kitasuu before Senria successfully turned the tide of the war with the battles of Ogasawara and Kanegasaki in 499. Senrian troops under the Emperor Koumei successfully forced the Xiang dynasty's forces out of Senria with the Battle of Siogawara in 501, and launched their own invasion of Xiaodong shortly thereafter. Senrian forces were successful on Xiaodongese soil, scoring victories in the battles of Zhonghe and Yinbaolei. The capture of Zhonghe and Yinbaolei led to the Zhengzhi Emperor formally offering Xiaodong's surrender; Emperor Koumei demanded that Xiaodong abandon all claims to authority over Senria in perpetuity. The Zhengzhi Emperor accepted the demand in 503, formally ending the conflict.

The death of Emperor Ninkou in 608 triggered a succession dispute between his brother, Imagawa no Koremasa, and his daughter, Imagawa no Aiko; Koremasa declared himself the Emperor Rokuzou and Aiko declared herself the Empress Genmei. The Satake, Hatakeyama, Ueno, and Yamana clans all sided with Koremasa; only the Arisugawa clan and Arai clan supported Aiko. Koremasa won initial victories at Nawate and Ousuu; however, he angered many of his allies, and Aiko quickly gained the upper hand in what was later named the Genmei War. Aided by the defection of the Ueno, Satake, and Yamana clans, Aiko scored major victories at Iimori and Nakasendai. In 613, Koremasa ordered his forces to march on Heikyou, hoping to end the war; he was killed after his army was attacked by enemy forces led by Aiko at Sakanoue, ending the conflict.

Senrian culture also began to arise during this period. The Senryuugi, an elaborate history of Senria detailing Tenkyou creation myths and the reigns and genealogy of Senria's emperors through the then-reigning Emperor Konoe, was published in 558 and is considered the oldest book of Senrian classical history. The Senryuu Kouki, another historical chronicle, was released in 643 and covered the history of Senria through the reign of the Empress Genmei. The most prominent Senrian literary work of the era, the Suumugon ("collection of countless words"), is an anthology of poetry and the oldest extant collection of Senrian poetry, most of it in the senka format. Senrian art also began to appear during this period; notable artists from this era include Yosida no Tokiwa and Suiko no Mitunaga. Some examples of Senrian architecture from the period, including the famous temple complex at Sekigawa-zinza, have survived into the present.

Feudal era

The Yakusi-zinza shrine, built in 774.

Yowai period

The accession of Emperor Murakami in 712 is generally considered the beginning of the Yowai (Senrian: 요와이, lit. "weak") period of Senrian history. This period, which lasted until 1339, is named for the near-total collapse of centralized imperial power and the increasing prominence and power of local nobility. In contrast to the Surutou period, which was lionized by later historians as an era of prestige and power for Senria, the Yowai period is recorded very negatively as an era of incompetence, decadence, and general mismanagement.

While it had been common practice for the emperor to grant control of a territory to a close relative of the previous ruler under the sugo system, and an overwhelming majority of these titles were passed down through hereditary lines in practice, the Yowai period saw all pretense of imperial appointment dropped in favor of explicit agnatic primogeniture. This change, and the increasing power of local lords as central power weakened, is generally considered to have marked the change from the previous sugo system into the daimyou system, which Senria would continue to utilize until the Senrian Revolution. The ten daimyous of Senria's ten traditional regions beyond the imperial demesne gradually became the main power in the country, holding most of the country's lesser nobles in their vassalage. In order to defend their increasing wealth and power, daimyou began raising their own armies, causing the rise of the military nobility commonly known as samurai. The emperor, meanwhile, was stripped of almost all power- political, military, and commercial- beyond his traditional demesne of Kinaidou.

A woodblock print of the 802 eruption of Mount Senzou.

A major volcanic eruption, generally considered to have been a VEI 5 event, occurred at Mount Senzou in 802. The eruption released more than 800 million cubic meters (28×109 cubic feet) of volcanic ash and triggered a four-year famine, known as the Seiwa Famine, that affected much of southern Senria.

The increasing weakness of the Senrian monarchy was made apparent during the 800s and 900s, when several emperors failed to prevent several noble houses- including the Mitiyasu clan, Satake clan, Amakusa clan, Okakura clan, and Sugimori clan- from engaging in open warfare with each other. A particularly destabilizing incident was the deposition of the Arisugawa clan from their lordship over Saikaidou by the Ouuti clan, in spite of explicit orders by the emperors Tuusei and Dunzi that the Ouuti clan end the war. While the Arisugawa did ultimately defeat the Ouuti clan, the incident was an utter humiliation to the imperial court and a sign of how weak central authority had grown. It quickly became clear that the loyalty of the daimyou lords to the empire was largely nominal, to be obeyed or ignored at their will.

Hoping to capitalize on this weakness, the Xiaodongese Tao dynasty launched an invasion of Senria in 1104, triggering the Toukou War. Emperor Bunsei called upon all ten of the major daimyou lords to raise their levies; only Amakusa no Yousuke of Ongokudou, Kitabatake no Morinaga of Tinhokudou, Kikuti no Tameyosi of Saisandou, and Arisugawa no Masahiro of Saikaidou complied. The armies of the different daimyou rarely coordinated with one each other on strategy, or during combat, resulting in a string of defeats for Senrian forces and effectively crippling the Senrian war effort. Senrian forces under Arisugawa did score a pyrrhic victory at Sizugatake, and a stalemate at Fuzigawa, but most of the battles during the conflict- including the Siege of Gosigawara, Battle of Utidehama, Battle of Tamuramaro, and Battle of Koromogawa- were Xiaodongese victories.

A painting of the Siege of Gosigawara during the Toukou War.

Senria surrendered in 1112, formally conceding the domains of Ongokudou and Tinhokudou- composing the entirety of Kitasuu- to the Tao dynasty. However, the Tao dynasty proved wholly unable to exert any actual control over its newfound territories in Senria; the Kitabatake openly abandoned their allegiance to Xiaodong in 1164, and the Toki clan- which had replaced the Amakusa as the daimyous of Ongokudou- swore fealty to the Senrian emperor in 1198. In spite of the comparatively quick reversion of the lost territories to Senrian hands, the war had serious effects on Senrian society and culture; the power of the samurai greatly increased, and the "last stands" at battles such as Gosigawara and Tamuramaro inspired the creation of a formalized code of honor known as busidou, which emphasized the value of dying an honorable death.

The decision to cede Kitasuu to the Tao dynasty provoked a widespread loss of faith in the emperor among the daimyou. Almost immediately after the end of the Toukou War, a coalition of nobles- led by Satake no Nakamaro, Takeda no Tadamiti, Okakura no Nagaya, and Mitiyasu no Ieyosi- declared open revolt against Emperor Bunsei, demanding the formalization of the autonomy accumulated by the daimyou and triggering what became known as the Bunsei War. Arisugawa no Masahiro joined the war in support of the emperor, but imperial forces were nevertheless significantly outnumbered. After suffering major defeats at Kimamasa, Kurahara, and Saeki, Bunsei conceded defeat in 1119 and signed a document known as the Golden Oath, which stripped him of much of his authority and formalized the power of the daimyou and their hereditary succession. Bunsei committed suicide the following year.

Samurai under Satake no Nakamaro on horseback during the Bunsei War.

Aside from intermittent wars between the daimyou and the various lesser lords, Senria remained at peace until the outbreak of the Kouei War in 1339. Upon ascending to the Senrian throne in 1334, Emperor Kouei refused to renew the Golden Oath and stated that he would refuse to recognize the autonomy of the daimyou. Tensions came to a head in 1335, when Kouei attempted to appoint Kozima no Tomemori as the successor to Satake no Mituharu, lord of Kingokudou. Satake's son, Satake no Yosiharu, refused to concede his father's title; Kouei responded with a declaration of war.

In spite of being opposed by eight of the ten daimyou lords- Arisugawa no Tokihiro threw his support behind the emperor, while Toki no Kanbei elected to remain neutral- Kouei managed to secure several victories, many against significantly larger forces, by using terrain and misdirection to his advantage. The largest and most shocking of these victories was at Kageharu, where an army under Kouei successfully routed a force three times its size under Satake no Yosiharu and Uesugi no Gonnohyoue. In spite of these victories, however, the war was ultimately unwinnable for Kouei, whose enemies had more men, more equipment, more ships, more money, and more resources. Kouei was captured at Kawagoe and forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Ieyasu. Kouei's abdication in 1339 is generally considered the end of the Yowai period.

Tigoku period

The Tigoku (Senrian: 띠고꾸, lit. "bloody country") period began in 1339 with the ascension of Imagawa no Ieyasu to the Senrian throne as Emperor Kannin. The period's name was given in 1665 by Senrian chronicler Yasumaro Amemiya, who dubbed the era "the most sickly and blood-stained in Great Senria's history" in his history Saikin no Rekisi. As with the preceding Yowai period, the Tigoku period was marked by deep internal division and both domestic and international conflict; Senria also severely stagnated technologically during this period.

The Siege of Nakatu, which ended the Kansei War.

The first major war of the Tigoku period began in 1366, less than thirty years after the era's start. After the death of the Emperor Kannin, his sons Imagawa no Hiroyasu and Imagawa no Mikiyasu both laid claim to the throne. Mikiyasu seized Heikyou and declared himself the Genkou Emperor; Hiroyasu fled to the stronghold of the Arisugawa clan, which had declared its support for his claim, and proclaimed himself the Kansei Emperor. The war was largely a stalemate, but slowly began to tip in Hiroyasu's favor as time passed. A defeat at Odaihara forced Mikiyasu to flee Heikyou for the Satake stronghold of Nakatu. After a six-month siege, Hiroyasu's forces breached the castle walls and assaulted the keep; Mikiyasu committed suicide rather than face capture.

Continuing warring amongst the daimyou and other noble families, rising food prices, and anger at the privileges of the samurai triggered a massive peasant rebellion, known as the Kyoutoku Rebellion. The rebellion began in 1425 with the murder of several samurai, minor nobles, and tax collectors in Hurosawa, but quickly spread across the country. Coalescing around charismatic leaders such as Sirou Yamada, Kaneyosi Takenaka, and Yukinaga Yamamoto, and gaining the support of rounin such as Hyouzaemon Nabesima and Katutosi Itakura, the rebels were able to seize control of much of the country; peasant rebels even seized Senria's capital, by this point commonly referred to as Keisi, from imperial forces. The rebel army was crushed and most of the rebellion's leaders killed by an army under Sasaoka no Ryuuzaburou, a vassal of Takeda no Yosiaki, at the Battle of Ginzankawa in 1431; while this is considered the formal end of the rebellion, scattered unrest persisted for several years.

Tensions with Senria and Xiaodong, now under the Jiao dynasty, flared again in the mid-1600s. The Jiao considered Kitasuu- won by the Tao dynasty 400 years earlier, during the Toukou War- to be rightfully theirs, and demanded that the local lords pay tribute to the Jiao. Yosiharu Minamoto and Sukeyosi Wakayama, the daimyous of Ongokudou and Tinhokudou, refused; Wakayama, according to traditional histories, cut out the tongues and eyes of the Jiao emissaries before sending them back to Xiaodong. The Changzhi Emperor, outraged, declared war in 1651, starting the Soukou War.

Senrian naval forces, led by famed admirals Naosige Kobayakawa and Hidekane Hatisuka, won a string of naval victories against Xiaodongese forces on several occasions, including the battles of Akamagaseki, Isibasiyama, and Minatohama. In spite of this, Jiao troops were able to establish a foothold in Senria with the Battle of Tousokabe, where Senrian forces under Minamoto were defeated when Toki Sinzou defected to the Jiao. Senrian forces frequently struggled in land battles; Jiao forces were able to defeat Senrian armies at Tikukogawa, Tatigawara, and Okehazama. Senrian forces under Harunobu Nomura scored Senria's first major victory on land at Surigawara in 1653; Senria won another naval victory at Onikiribe shortly thereafter. Senrian forces continued to struggle on land, however, with Jiao forces killing daimyou Yositada Okakura and capturing Sukeyosi Wakayama at Hiragata. The war ended abruptly in 1655, though, when the Red Orchid Rebellion forced the Jiao dynasty to recall its troops to Xiaodong. Emperor Ninpei declared the war a Senrian victory shortly thereafter.

The Battle of Sibahara, which occurred during the Ninpei War.

Hoping to capitalize on his success in the Soukou War, Ninpei revoked the Golden Oath in 1657. Nakayosi Wakayama, Terumoto Arisugawa, and Masanori Nomura all complied with the revocation, but Yasuharu Kumamoto, Toyotomi Uesugi, Yositugu Matumae, Kiyomasa Hurukawa, and Yosiaki Mori refused to accept the revocation and declared open revolt against the emperor shortly thereafter, starting the Ninpei War. Forces under Ninpei and his allies were able to score victories at Kanbyou, Momoyama, and Okazaki, but losses at Okudaira, Kokubu, Sibahara, and Sigaraki ultimately led to his defeat. Ninpei was forced to reinstate the Golden Oath and abdicate in favor of his brother in 1663, ending the conflict.

A brief period of peace followed the Ninpei War, but rivalries between and within Senria's most powerful daimyou houses led to an increasingly tangled web of alliances between the various domains. Tensions came to a head with the death of Nobuyuki Arisugawa in 1771; Nobuyuki's son Nobutaku and his brother Nobutosi both laid claim to the lordship of Saikaidou. Nobutaku obtained the backing of Tokimasa Mori, Sigeyosi Hosokawa, Taisuke Uesugi, and Narasige Wakayama; Nobutosi obtained the backing of Masayosi Nomura, Akiyasu Minamoto, Takamasa Hurukawa, Ryuunosuke Kumamoto, and Yosiharu Matumae. The Emperor Taihou attempted to keep the peace, but the Taihou War broke out shortly thereafter. Major battles of the Taihou War included Iwamura, Kinomi, Kyoroku, Nagamorihara, and Uedahara. The war ended in 1777, with the installation of Nobutosi Arisugawa as the daimyou of Saikaidou.

An ukiyo'e print made by Kuniyosi Kanou in 1833, during the late Tigoku period.

In spite of the widespread violence and division associated with the era, Senrian culture flourished during the Tigoku era. The soin-zukuri and sukiya-zukuri architectural styles, widely associated with Senria, were developed during the period. Senrian styles of theater- including kabuki, nou, and kyougen- also flourished during the Tigoku era. Driven by prominent painters and printmakers such as Tensou Takauzi, Harunobu Kanazawa, Tarou Murata, Kuniyosi Kanou, and Masayosi Osanai, the ukiyo'e and nansuuga styles of painting and woodblock printing flourished; while nansuuga focused almost exclusively on natural scenes and frequently used ink wash painting to produce austere and monochromatic scenes, ukiyo'e dealt both with landscapes and with scenes of everyday life and became known for its use of vivid color. Senrian literature and poetry also flourished during this era; famous authors and poets of the era include Saburou Kuroda, Takizi Yamagata, Sigenobu Utida, and Hideo Kiyoura.

The final monarch of the Tigoku era, Emperor Youzei, ascended to the throne in 1826. During his reign, he made efforts to begin modernizing Senria, which had fallen severely behind technologically. He ordered the purchasing of large numbers of Nordanian and Conitian books and treatises on science, technology, and military strategy, creating what became known as gaigaku ("foreign studies") in an attempt to reverse Senria's technological stagnation; he also began to slowly modernize the imperial army by adopting modern training regiments and technology. He also attempted to renegotiate the Golden Oath in 1844 to restore certain powers to the emperor; these negotiations ultimately fell apart three years later. Youzei died in 1869 and was succeeded by his son Kazuhito, who declared himself the Emperor Keiou.

Modern era

Gendai period

The Gendai (Senrian: 건대, lit. "modern") period began in 1869 with the ascension of Kazuhito Imagawa to the Senrian throne as Emperor Keiou. Using the gaigaku programs created by his father as a foundation, Kazuhito moved to drastically expand his father's programs of military modernization, hoping to rapidly turn the Imperial Senrian Army into a comparatively modern fighting force. In July 1871, Kazuhito decided that imperial forces had been sufficiently modernized in comparison to the armies of the daimyou, and demanded that the ten main daimyou lords travel to Keisi, abrogate the Golden Oath, and swear their loyalty to him. While four of the ten complied, the remaining six- Masasige Nomura, Ienobu Uesugi, Nobunaga Arisugawa, Hiromasa Hurukawa, Hideyori Kumamoto, and Yosiyasu Matumae- refused. Kazuhito responded by branding the six as traitors and declaring war on them.

Emperor Kazuhito overseeing the royal court in 1874.

While the rebel daimyou had larger forces, they proved unable to defeat better-armed and better-trained imperial troops; by 1872, all six had surrendered. Kazuhito confiscated the domains of the rebellious daimyou and granted them to political allies and supporters. With all significant opposition effectively destroyed, Kazuhito formally abolished the Golden Oath and established Senria as a absolute monarchy with the Keiou Constitution, in what became known as the Keiou Restoration.

Having modernized the military and re-established imperial rule, Kazuhito next moved to modernize Senria economically by improving farming techniques and building up the country's industry. Buoyed by food surpluses, Senria's population increased dramatically during this period, rising from roughly 34 million in 1870 to roughly 47 million in 1900. In 1897, however, Kazuhito died without issue, and the Senrian throne passed to his brother, Atuhito. Atuhito slowed many of the modernization programs his brother had begun, and Senrian progress towards industrialization slowed. Atuhito himself died in 1902, and was succeeded by his son, Hisahito; while Hisahito made some efforts to modernize the military, he drastically slowed industrialization campaigns and Senria once again began to stagnate technologically. In 1905, Hisahito created a body known as the Consultative Assembly, whose membership could be elected by sufficiently wealthy male Senrians; while this body had no executive or legislative power, and could serve only as an advisory body, it was the first elected body in the country. He also formed a political party known as the Constitutional Association, or Kenseikai, a monarchist political party aimed at preserving the imperial order.

Senria's neighbor and longtime rival Xiaodong- which had engaged in its own more successful industrialization campaign under the Xiyong Emperor- once again grew belligerent towards Senria in the early 1900s. In 1909, the Xiaodongese navy began harassing Senrian civilian ships within Senrian territorial waters, taking advantage of the smaller and older Senrian navy. While the Xiaodongese navy was deep in Senrian waters near Keisi, the Xiaodongese government demanded that Senria cede the port city of Sakata to Xiaodong. Senria, unable to respond, conceded the territory, provoking widespread rioting across Senria. In the wake of the cession, a Senrian lawyer named Ryuunosuke Miyamoto founded a political group known as the Senrian Republican Association that would stand in opposition to the Kenseikai. The Senrian Republican Association rebranded itself as the Senrian Republican Party in 1914.

Republican troops in Simada during the Senrian Revolution.

Tensions between the republicans and the government escalated into the Senrian Revolution in April 1918. Following a series of nationwide riots, republican leaders including Miyamoto were able to establish an interim regime in the city of Ukyou, forming an interim directorial government known as the Council of the Senrian State. The republicans also obtained the allegiance of a defecting imperial general, Souzirou Okada.

Imperial forces were better-trained and better-equipped than republican forces, and won initial victories at First Koriyama, Yosigahara, First Kaziwara, and Susaka. In 1919, however, Hisahito was assassinated and succeeded by his son Katuhito. Katuhito proved to be an incompetent commander, and quickly squandered the Imperial Senrian Army's advantages. Republican forces- now under Miyamoto's successor, Isao Isiyama- scored victories at Second Koriyama, Hagiwara, Sibakoya, Simada, and Ueda. The imperial war effort suffered a further setback with the 1925 Great Sansuu Earthquake, which devastated Keisi and the large imperial army stationed there.

In January 1926, a group of imperial generals and admirals- consisting of Katurou Imahara, Sintarou Miyu, Itigo Nakagawa, Nobuyuki Youiti, Isoroku Nomura, and Ienobu Miyazawa, and known retroactively as the First Gang of Six- simultaneously moved to overthrow Katuhito and defect to the republic. Forces under Imahara captured Katuhito and forced him to abdicate, ending the Senrian Empire, the Senrian Revolution, and the Gendai period.

Kyouwa period

After the end of the Senrian Revolution, power within Senria was divided between the Council of the Senrian State in Ukyou and the First Gang of Six in Keisi. The de facto leaders of these two groups, republican leader Isao Isiyama and general Katurou Imahara, agreed to a bilateral cessation of all hostilities; shortly thereafter, Isiyama proposed expanding the Council of Senrian State to eight members, four of whom would be from Isiyama's Republican Party and four of whom would be members of the Gang of Six. Imahara accepted, and shortly thereafter formed the People's Party as a more nationalist opponent to the populist Republican Party.

This new Council was firmly divided between Isiyama's allies and Imahara's allies, and largely ineffective as a result. This paralysis, coupled with the devastation of the revolution and the Sansuu earthquake, resulted in the loss of public faith in this government. Seeking to restore public confidence, the council approved a secret plan to reclaim the city of Sakata from Xiaodongese rule. The plan was carried out in November 1926 by troops under Imahara's command; the city was lightly garrisoned and surrendered quickly. The Xiaodongese government, furious, demanded the return of the city and the effective cessation of Senrian sovereignty; the Senrian government rejected the demands.

The remains of Senrians killed by Xiaodongese troops during the Senrian Genocide.

The Senrian-Xiaodongese War began in May 1927 with a series of Xiaodongese amphibious assaults on the island of Kitasuu. Senrian forces were unprepared for the scale of the invasion and quickly lost control of much of the island. The Xiaodongese established a collaborationist government under Senrian Yosito Otuzi and Xiaodongese Qiu Hanjie in occupied territories shortly thereafter. The inability of the Senrian Republican Army to effectively slow the invasion caused widespread public panic; in desperation, the Council of Senrian State agreed to name Imahara the head of a "government of national preservation", giving him total executive authority for the duration of the war on the condition that he relinquish it back to the Council afterwards. As the head of this interim government, Imahara announced a three-point plan of "mass production, mass industrialization, and mass mobilization", aimed at directing all sectors of Senrian society towards the war effort.

Meanwhile, in Xiaodongese-occupied territories, military forces under Qiu Hanjie began a systematic campaign aimed at exterminating Senria's native population, now known as the Senrian Genocide. Troops under Qiu's command began the construction of concentration camps known as "extermination zones", in which Senrian civilians and POWs were used for forced labor, subjected to rape, torture, and medical experimentation, and executed en masse. Xiaodongese troops also used death marches to kill large numbers of Senrian civilians. Most independent scholars estimate that somewhere between 3.8 and 4.5 million Senrians died in the Senrian Genocide, though the Senrian government maintains that the number is closer to 7.5 million.

As the war continued, however, the war began to turn in Senria's favor. Imahara's "three point plan" proved highly successful, greatly increasing Senria's industrial base and the size of its military. Meanwhile, guerrilla activity by Senrian partisans within occupied territories hampered Xiaodong's ability to move supplies and troops, an issue that was further exacerbated when Tuthina entered the war on Senria's side. Late in the conflict, partisan forces led a revolt in the city of Ukyou, known as the Ukyou Uprising; while the revolt ultimately failed, Xiaodong lost large numbers of men and materiel, further damaging the Xiaodongese war effort. Shortly thereafter, the Battle of Hurasima Strait led to Senria establishing naval superiority, severing Xiaodong's supply lines once and for all. Xiaodongese forces lost ground quickly thereafter, and once again controlled only Sakata by 1932. A last-ditch attempt to slow the Senrian advance by razing the city failed. Xiaodong- subjected to a naval blockade and near-constant aerial bombing by Senria- surrendered in 1933. In the ensuing treaty, Xiaodong agreed to pay severe reparations to Senria; however, only one reparations payment was made before the treaty was unilaterally abrogated by a new Xiaodongese regime under Lu Keqian.

After the war, Imahara and Isiyama agreed to the establishment of a unitary parliamentary republic in Senria. Imahara won the country's first elections under suspicious circumstances shortly thereafter. As Prime Minister, Imahara continued industrialization and reconstruction programs with the aim of turning Senria into an industrial power; he also emphasized the growth of the Senrian Republican Navy enacted strict controls on freedom of thought and on dissent. He left office in 1948 due to failing health and was succeeded by Hatirou Nakayama; Nakayama was paranoid and unstable, and quickly began quashing down on all dissent and purging suspected personal enemies from the Senrian government. Fearing that Nakayama would severely destabilize Senria, a group known as the Second Gang of Six overthrew Nakayama and replaced him with bureaucrat Tokiyasu Kitamura.

Takesi Takahata inspecting coastal defense plans during the Coastal Crisis.

Kitamura loosened or repealed most of Nakayama's restrictions on freedom of speech and of the press, though Senria continued to function as a dominant-party state under his rule. He attempted to increase the power of Senria's civilian government in relation to the armed forces and to expand the reach of Senrian industry across Esquarium. He was assassinated by Xiaodong in 1964 and succeeded by General Takesi Takahata. Takahata was primarily concerned with opposing Xiaodong and stifling opposition, particularly communist and syndicalist opposition, domestically. He ordered the kidnapping and trial of Xiaodongese Second Minister Shen Jinping for his role in the Senrian Genocide, and brought Senria and Xiaodong to the brink of war over Xiaodong's refusal to pay reparations in the 1975 Coastal Crisis.

Takahata was assassinated by a Senrian syndicalist in 1979 and succeeded by Katurou Imahara's adopted son Kitirou; Imahara was forced out of power in 1983, though, after an oversupply crisis collapsed the Senrian economy. He was succeeded by Kiyosi Haruka, who is credited with solving the economic crisis and with effectively restoring freedom of speech, of protest, and of the press within Senria. Haruka's opponents, however, have alleged that Haruka offered bribes and favors to Senrian corporations and media sources in order to guarantee their support for the People's Party. Haruka left office in 2003 and was succeeded by the reforming Sigesato Izumi, who served only one term before being succeeded by Senria's current prime minister, Hayato Nisimura, in 2008.

Politics

Governance

Senria's Constitution establishes it as a unitary parliamentary republic. (describe prime minister, cabinet, national assembly, supreme court)

The Kantei, official residence of the Prime Minister.

In practice, Senria is frequently described as a dominant-party state. (describe workings of gov't in practice)

(stuff on corruption and repression)

Administrative divisions

(briefly explain how the modern prefectures descended from traditional regions)

Largest cities

(table will go here)

Foreign relations

(tengkong alliance with Tuthina; f*ck Xiaodong now and forever; if you don't like xiaodong we like you)

Military

(senria dominated by navy; green water, aimed mainly at opposing xiaodong; doctrine of not letting anyone ever land on senrian soil again)

(second up is air force, for similar reasons)

(army is the smallest and worst-funded)

Geography

Mount Senzou, the tallest mountain in Senria.

(volcanic archipelago; four main islands)

Climate

Keisi, Senria
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
14
 
31
22
 
 
20
 
33
23
 
 
33
 
34
25
 
 
70
 
35
26
 
 
192
 
36
27
 
 
246
 
37
26
 
 
312
 
38
26
 
 
291
 
36
25
 
 
327
 
33
23
 
 
263
 
32
23
 
 
116
 
31
22
 
 
42
 
31
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

(iunno warm and stuff)

A bay on Taketomi Island, in Nobeoka Prefecture.

Economy

<basic economic statistics; traditionally an industrial power, but economy has slowed recently>

(mention push for white collar?)

Agriculture

<traditionally hiyokusuu and sadaisuu had best agricultural yields, but mostly in okasuu nowadays>

Industry

Senria is known within Esquarium as an industrial powerhouse. <more stuff on grr rarrr industry stronk>

An automobile factory in Aoyama.

<talk about the keiretu>

<talk also a bit about resource extraction as a side note>

Industrial pollution in Senria is frequently blamed for thick smogs, such as this 2014 smog in Keisi.

<as a result of industry senria does not have an environment>

Finance and technology

<senria's white collar sector is small but growing>

Media

<major newspapers and tv stations; note ties to keiretu>

Infrastructure

Energy

<coal, coal, coal, and more coal>

A coal-burning power plant near Tosei.

(also token non-coal, but mostly coal)

Communications

(i don't know what stuff will go here, but stuff will definitely go here)

Transportation

<highways, railroads, harbors>

A Keisi Metro station during rush hour.

Demographics

Ethnicity

Ethnic Demographics of Senria
  Senrian (97.21%)
  Ama (.85%)
  Hwa (.64%)
  Duljunese (.56%)
  Xiaodongese (.53%)
  Other (.21%)

<senria is mostly homogeneous; theories that they're a centuries-old mix of non-monic natives and monic immigrants>

An ethnic Senrian couple wearing traditional dress at a wedding.

(most non-senrians are refugees fleeing the fact that xiaodong and duljun are terrible, or tuthinans there because centuries of trade)

Religion

Religious Demographics of Senria
  Tenkyou (87.41%)
  Khaturvism (9.80%)
  Kamism (1.49%)
  Taojiao (.53%)
  Other (.21%)

<talk mostly about tenkyou>

<senrian khaturvism and its earth god cult.

<kamism, taojiao, duljunese stuff brought over by minorities; small but technically extant populations of tastanism and whatnot>

Education

<senrian education system>

Healthcare

<why you no become doctor and treat own lung cancer>

Culture

Architecture

Keisi Castle, constructed in 1583 in the soin-zukuri style.

(pretty architecture; pagodas and stuff and whatnot)

Art

<painting and similar art; unique style developed, and in 1800s and 1900s moves to blend w/ western style>

An ink wash painting of a landscape, painted by Tensou Takauzi in 1453.

<lacquerware and jewelry>

<calligraphy in syodongmun and goimon>

A Senrian calligraphist writing in the Goimon script.

<if i decide to do anything on senrian *shudders* manga/anime it'd go here>

Cuisine

<noodles, rice as staple crops; poultry, pork, and sometimes fish as prominent meats; shittons of spices because it's at thai latitudes; seasonality is big; list several prominent dishes>

Two bentou. Bentou are single-portion meals common in Senrian cuisine.

<desserts; also beverages- teas, sake, beer>

Holidays

<describe some prominent senrian holidays>

Hanami- enjoying the transient beauty of plum and cherry blossoms- is a popular Senrian spring custom.

<probably make a holiday chart showing which ones are more official? list both traditional and more modern>

Music

<minyou folk music and instrumentation>

A Senrian woman with a samisen in 1905. Samisens are commonly used in Senrian folk music, known as minyou.

<pop music - presumably s-pop and karaoke (karagaku?) and all that>

Literature

<ancient senrian literature- a couple histories of senria, retellings of tenkyou stories, and fiction works>

A page from a Yowai-era anthology of Senrian poetry.

<discuss senrian poetry- waka (senka), haiku, etc.?>

<anything more contemporary>

Sports

Martial arts are a popular sport, both in terms of participation and spectation, within Senria. Aikidou is generally considered Senria's national sport, though other martial arts such as zuudou, karate, and zuuzutu are also commonplace. While many Senrian martial art events involve unarmed combat, some- such as kendou and kyuudou- involve weaponry. Some other traditional sports, such as sumou, have also survived and retained followings into the present.

Martial arts, such as aikidou, are widely practiced and enjoyed within Senria.

Soccer is the most popular spectator sport in Senria. The country's top league, the Senrian Football League, was formed in 1955 and has 24 teams. The Senrian national soccer team has appeared in four editions of the Coupe d'Esquarium, and reached the semifinals in three. Also popular is baseball; the Senria Professional Baseball League, formed in 1947, currently has 16 teams. Several other sports have significantly smaller followings; among these are boxing, motorsports, tennis, skiing, basketball, fencing, and rugby.

Theater

<nou, kabuki, traditional theater>

An 1854 woodblock print of a kabuki performance in Tosei.

<contemporary stuff>