Sarpory and Vemnia

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Ecclesiastic Social Republic of Sarpory and Vemnia
Fkasa Ekles-Sozhlesee d'Cierpurrhoný e Veijemen
Fecass Ksaiin-Sozhalt Aun Sharporuny o Veijuny

Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "For Brotherhood and Prosperity"
Anthem: “Brushfire Hymn"
Sarpory and Vemnia (dark green) within the CDN (light green)
CapitalStatjathady
Largest Vef Ghauzo-Ahrvay
Official languages None on Federal Level
Recognised national languages Sarpor
Vemnian
Recognised regional languages Aquidish
Arabekhi
Arzvani
Bevene
Honhab
Mayawean
Religion Ksaiism
Demonym Sarporovemnian
Government Federal Ecclesiocratic de facto Dominant Party Socialist Republic with elements of Communalism
 -  Secretary-Executor Lons Mafrig
 -  Chancellor Adriana Cajuks
 -  Elector-Provost Lorens Raefen
 -  Grand Arbiter Bert Louhoi
Legislature Unified Conference of the Ordained Electorates
 -  Upper house Republican College of Kaevhas
 -  Lower house National Parishioners' Assembly
Establishment
 -  First Sedentary Veyene Communities in Western Asura 700s-900s CE 
 -  Migration to and Entrenchment in the Carcosse Late 1100s-1300s CE 
 -  Grand Duchy 1312-1520 CE 
 -  Pontifical Union 1520-1849 CE 
 -  Ksaiist Republic 1849-1918 CE 
 -  Revolutionary Carcossica 1918-1935 CE 
 -  Ecclesiocratic Social Republic 6 June 1935 
Area
 -  Total 314,864 km2Includes Babarane Sees (20,232 km2/7,812 sq. mi.)
121,570 sq mi
Population
 -  2017 estimate 44,431,713 (8.7% increase since 2011)
 -  2011 census 40,566,154
 -  Density 141.114/km2
365.482/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total 1.34 Trillion USD
125.4 Trillion SVO
 -  Per capita 31,506 USD
3.1 Million SVO
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
 -  Total 988.37 Billion USD
97.2 Trillion SVO
 -  Per capita 23,278 USD
2.3 Million SVO
Gini (2013)positive decrease 32.7
medium
HDI (2016)Increase 0.77
high
Currency Sarporovemnian Onýmark (SVO)
1 USD = 98.3 SVO
Time zone West Asura Time (WAS) (Mainland), West Arabekh Time (WAB) (Carcossican Babarania) (UTC-01:00 (WAS), -02:00 (WAB))
Date format dd/mm/yyyy, ER1
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code FSV
Internet TLD .sv
1. Era of Revelations, an astronomical calendar system utilized by Veyene Cultures, which begins on December 21st and starts in 1343, the "year of revelation" in Ksaiism. Current Year is 675.

Sarpory and Vemnia, officially known as the Ecclesiastic Social Republic of Sarpory and Vemnia, often abbreviated as S&V or S-V, sometimes called Sarpory-Vemnia or Sarporovemnia, and informally as Carcossica, referring to the Republic which preceded it. It is a country in southwest Asura, with its closest neighbors being the nation of Aquidneck and the Southern Alps to the West, its former constituents Arzvan and Bevenia to the North and West, respectively, and Vvarden to the Northwest. Its closest neighbors across the Opal Ocean are Aramas and Sephrane. The nation also holds the islands of Carcossican Babarania off the coast of Arabekh, as well as Ghagnusutha in the Jade Ocean, north of Mayawi, and Thadyrissen City, which it governs jointly with Ajerrin. Its capital is Statjathady, while its largest city, as well as its financial center of activity is Vef Ghauzo-Ahrvay. The nation is divided into two primary sub-federal zones known as Communes - Bescozebnia, Sarpory, South Arzvan, and Vemnia, further divided into Sees, and then to municipal units. The larger of the two, Sarpory, composes much of the Southern portions of the country, and exhibits a mostly Mediterranean Climate and rolling, smooth coastal plains, while Vemnia, which composes the bulk of the North, ranges from temperate to continental in climate, and has a much more dramatic and mountainous landscape.

A Federal Republic with an officially multi-party system, since opposition parties were allowed the ability to run in 1977 following the Lake Beale Reforms, it is a de facto dominant-party system ruled by the Ecclesiastic Socialist Party. The primary governing body in the nation is the Conference of the Electorate, composed of two houses, the College of Electors, its upper house, which is administered by the Provost, and is mandated to have exactly two representatives from each see, one a member of the khaevam and another from the general public. Its lower house is the National Assembly, which is overseen by the Chancellor, and is filled proportional to the population of individual sees, and can be composed of any number of khaevam or parishioners. The Secretary-Executor is the Chief Executive Officer for the nation and its Head of State, who oversees the Executive Offices. While officially, a khaeva can run for this office, it is tradition that a parishioner holds this office.

Contents

Etymology

The first known mention of the word Sarpory to describe the area of the modern Commune appeared in Libro dei Re Imperiale, a geopolitical guidebook utilized by the Aquidish Kings circa 1000 CE. This is a simplification of the Sarpor word Cierpurrhoný , defined as "the land at the moment of dawn", describing the area's border to the East by the Aquido-Sarporite Alps, presumed to be seen by the original settlers of the area as their furthest eastern extreme, a border of the world where the dawn emerges over the mountains.

The origin of the word Vemnia appears as a descriptor for its modern counterpart in the Boz chau'zohofeshateg Eith, the earliest known written text describing the Carcosse-Veyene Oral Traditions in the region, which is believed to have been created in conjunction between Alydian missionaries and converted Veyene peoples circa 950 CE. These early settlers of the region viewed the world along more tribal lines, denoting areas by who occupied them rather than the territory itself. As such, this record describes this place as "where the Veyes are", or Veijemenunie, which then filtered through Sarpor becomes Veijemnoný, and then to its modern Aquidishization.

Sarpory and Vemnia became the officially recognized common name for the country following the passage of the Biscengnano Treaty on 6 June 1935, which was then ratified as the accepted name utilized internally upon the defeat of the Carcosse Revolutionary Communist Government in the subsequent 1935 Carcosse Coup d'etat and adoption of the modern Sarporovemnian Constitution. At its inception, the new regime in the area was referred to by external powers as Allied Carcossica and then as the Sarporovemnian Socialist Republic, both of which were only used very briefly before the establishment of the Provisional Government which oversaw the drafting of the constitution.

Geography

Geology

Biodiversity

Climate

Political Geography

History

Main Article: History of Carcossica

Ancient and Pre-Veyene Times

The territories which compose the Carcosse Region, which shares its early history with the rest of Southwest Asura and the Gulf of Troping, first enter written record sometime around the 1000s BCE, a land populated primarily by Proto-Delfinian and Proto-Aquidish peoples, as well as the Paithwaidh and Ejicii to the north (near modern Arzvan), which marked the southernmost extent of their historic range, the precursors to the modern-day Vemnians and Sarporites. Troparcan peoples made numerous settlements along the southern coasts of modern Sarpory, most notably the cities of Panhacorem and Glazin near the mouth of the River Caracuj, which became vital trade centers prior to and during the time of the Fiorentine Empire, which became incorporated in the provinces of Delfinica, Glasinia, and parts of Shiressica and Ejicica.

This area was settled in prehistory by Neanderthals and later Homo Sapiens, who roamed the area, developing numerous small organized societies. Modern Carcossica also appears to have been a major center of activity among hominids, as evidence of H. Hiedelbergensis among others in the northern portions of the country suggest. These early peoples are believed to have been among the first fluvial and maritime cultures in Southwest Asura, laying the groundwork for the later seafaring commercial societies to come.

Early Veyene Settlement in the Carcosse

Delfinian Period

Fiorentine Carcosica

Early Middle Ages

Crusader Period

Early Ksaiist Period

Pontifical Golden Age

Late Pontifical Period

Republican Era (1847-1895)

Great War Years (1895-1901)

Early 20th Century (1901-1918)

Revolutionary Carcossica (1918-192X)

Second Great War (192X-1935)

1935 Coup and the Early Ecclesiastic Peoples' Republic (1935-1941)

Black November and the Conspiracy of 1941

Bessenist Period (1942-1973)

The Blossoming (1973-1983)

Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries (1983-2011)

Modern Carcossica (2011-Present)

Government and Politics

The National Assembly Houses, constructed in 1980 in the capital city of Statjathady, is the home of the Carcosse National Government.
Main article: Politics of Carcossica

Carcossica is a federal multi-party semi-ecclesiocratic semi-presidential republic with a de facto dominant-party system since 1942, the Ecclesiastic Socialist Party. Secretary-Executor Lons Mafrig is the head of state, chief executive governmental official, and leads the Executive Offices. There are two co-heads of government, Chancellor Adriana Cajuks, who represents the National Peoples' Assembly and the secular arm of government, and Provost Lorens Raefen, representing the College of Electors, and the religious-clerical arm of government. While in the form of the modern Ecclesiastic Socialist Republic since the close of the 1935 Carcosse Coup d'Etat, the federal government has been in its current form since 1972, following the resignation of Candide Bessna and the subsequent Lake Beale Reforms. It is limited by a constitution, which acts as supreme law of the Federation and its holdings abroad. The Constitution can be amended by a joint meeting of the Conference of the Electorate, requiring a supermajority to pass. A total of 17 Amendments have been made to the constitution since its adoption in 1935.

The Secretary-Executor and the Executive Offices

Secretary-Executor Lons Mafrig is the Head of State of Carcossica
Main articles: Secretary-Executor (Carcossica), Executive Offices (Carcossica)

The Executive Offices, headed by the Office of the Secretary-Executor, hosts power as the executive branch of government. The Secretary-Executor is elected every five years by direct popular vote with a secret ballot, and is limited at holding a maximum of two terms in office by the Constitution. The Secretary-Executor is tasked with the roles of chief executive officer of the Carcosse government, Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Ecclesiastic Peoples' Army, the management of the Executive Offices and the appointment of its Chief Secretaries, as well as the appointment of Territorial Secretaries. All appointments made by the Secretary-Executor must be approved by both houses of the Conference. As its traditional head of state, the Secretary-Executor is also the main diplomatic officer of the nation, and may sign treaties and other multilateral agreements with the approval and ratification of the Conference. The Executive Offices and their Secretaries work alongside the Sceretary-Executor to engage in foreign and domestic policy.

Conference of the Electorate

Main articles: Conference of the Electorate, List of National Political Parties in Carcossica

The Conference of the Ordained Electorate is Carcossica's combined National Legislative Body, currently organized in a bicameral structure, which also incorporates both the secular and ecclesiocratic elements of the national government. Since 1983, both houses of government meet at the National Assembly Houses in Statjathady. The Peoples' Assembly, or simply Assembly, is the government's lower house. Its upper house is the College of Khaevas, referred to in short as the College, and is made of officials from the Ksaiist clergy. The act of bringing the two parliaments under the same roof was of much significance in Carcosse political history, as it showed both the equal standing of the parishioners and clergy in national and civil discourse and the ongoing process of political modernization. Elections take place every five years, on years ending in 3 and 8, as with the Secretaryship. The last set of General Elections took place in 2018, with the next set to take place in 2023.

Interior of the Peoples' Assembly chambers.

The College of Electors, the nation's top religious governmental body and upper house of the Conference, is currently arranged as a First-Past-The-Post Electoral System, with every See being represented by three Kaevhas each, for a total of 50 representatives known as Electors, not including its leader, the Provost. Elections concerning the College are restricted to other members of the Clergy and the Templar Hierarchy at large, and the Provost is the leader of the Majority Coalition in the College. Only the C10 (top 10) political parties are permitted to hold seats in the College, though it has been almost exclusively dominated by the ESP since 1935, with mild surges in an opposition party occuring sporadically, such as the Liberal Union in the early 1980s. The role of Provost is limited at two five-year terms, though it can and has changed hands upon votes of no confidence within the Coalitions as they change. The overall role of the College of Electors in Sarporovemian Government is to ensure the constitutionality of legislation, enforcement of Ksaiist canon law in government activities, law, and legislation, and act as a reviewing, revising, and approving counter for legislation created by the Peoples' Assembly.

Adriana Cajuks is the Chancellor of the Peoples' Assembly since 2013.

The National Parishioners' Assembly was developed and constitutionally-enshrined in 1935 as a secular counter to the College of Electors. It is made up exclusively of representatives from outside of the Templar Hierarchy. Members of the Assembly, referred to colloquially as Assemblymen, is assigned at a ratio for 1:150,000 Citizens for a total of 270 Members. The population blocs which compose each representative constituency is known as a National District. Elections to the Assembly are elected in an preferential voting system. The leader of the Assembly is the Chancellor of the Sarporovemnian Peoples' Assembly, who is the leader of the majority coalition in the Assembly. Unlike the College, the C20 (top 20) parties, which are demarcated the year before every other election cycle based on membership numbers, are permitted to hold national office. While the ESP holds a clear majority, there is much wider representation of ideologies here. As with in the College, the role of Chancellor is limited at two five-year terms, though may change hands following a vote of no confidence. The Assembly is tasked with the approval and discussion of bills posted from among their constituents and representing the needs of the secular portions of the Sarporovemnian population.

Administrative Divisions

Main articles: Communes of Sarpory and Vemnia, Sees of Sarpory and Vemnia, Overseas Districts of Sarpory and Vemnia

The Ecclesiastic Socialist Federation of Sarpory and Vemnia is divided into four sub-federal regions (called Communes), one sub-federal municipality, four autonomous regions, and an international city, with each demarcation being the highest or first-order administrative divisions in Carcossica proper. These Regions are divided into Districts, which are then further divided into Communes, and lastly into Municipalities or Parishes. Municipalities and Parishes are differentiated officially by their status as either incorporated or unincorporated. Communes are granted legal existence through the constitution, and may issue their own laws and legislation, though they are still ultimately subject to the national governmental authority. The Communes may only be split into two or more new Communes following a sub-see level area reaching a population at or exceeding 1,200,000 Parishioners (or the development of at least eight National Districts following a Census Reappraisal), a vote for Commune status among the population of the See at large, including the area not attempting separation, and the development of a working Regional Constitution which meets nationally-recognized standards. Conversely, Communes cannot be absorbed into other Sees if they fall below a population level once divided. Each See follows a model of government akin to that of the combined religious-secular National Government, also known as Conferences. Secular officials are elected via a preferential voting system among the general public, while religious officials utilize a first-past-the-post method in elections conducted among the Clergy and members of the wider Templar Hierarchy. The Sees and Autonomous Regions are permitted to levy taxes from their constituents and tithes from Ksaiism institutions, and receive national budget allocations based on the population of the See and/or other developmental initiatives and partnerships developed by the National Government.

Seesmapsmol.png
Regions Capital Population (2011)
Babaran Isles A.D. Port Ricard 1,487,339*
Boikhekiu Vef-Afzsen 3,288,255
Cost Aun'Uogne Aerdoioeiken 5,410,122
Dhelfemeith Zh'aush 2,040,981
Eifanaasken Lifol-n'Eha 942,919
Ghagnusutha A.D. Vef-Sifaciu 1,402,300*
Ghauzignen Vef-Kadthijan 762,264
Gnischech Vef-Ghauzo-Aristede 582,319
Juffechif Igjethobua 683,264
Kiezhkuo Jisthajesen 1,352,463
Ki'ileros Rissenkeizhe 1,064,486
Ksaghkuth Vef-Fogin 1,167,614
Pinruth Gniceoa 850,545
Shevunie-Iegje Vef-Ghauzo-Arvay 12,874,340
Shevunie-Osse Port Rikhdin 6,128,983
Statjathady F.D. Statjathady 844,320
Veijunie Vef-Mattez 2,573,279

Non-Communal Autonomous Regions and Other Territories

The autonomous region of Ghagnusutha was given devolved governmental status in 1984, becoming elevated from Overseas Territory Status. While they rely on the National Government for Defense and direction in Foreign Affairs and must abide by national law, all other governmental services are provided directly by the regional government, though more intensive developmental and economic partnerships having been established and maintained between the Sarporovemnian and Ghagnusuthan governments in the years since their change in status. Ghagnusutha utilizes a model akin to the Communal system of the mainland, except for a combination of their Council of Kaevhas and Ksaiist Synod, which does not recognize the authority of the Carcosse Synod for Canon Law.

A number of Overseas Territories are administered by the Federation across the Jade Ocean and parts of Vestrim. These Regions are represented in the Mainland Carcosse Government by a single Observer in both the College of Kaevhas and Parishioners' Council. These representatives may speak in proceedings of each of these houses, but are not permitted voting rights. The Carcosse Government, conversely, is represented by a Governor, which is appointed by the Secretary-Executor and has duties equivalent to an Ambassador. The Federation jointly owns the city of Thadyrissen alongside the Kingdom of Ajerrin. Residents of the city may claim dual citizenship with either of the two nations which govern it. Like the other autonomous districts, Thadyrissen City is represented by a Governor appointed by the Sarporovemnian Secretary-Executor. Its municipal government follows the religious-secular model of the rest of Carcossica proper, and recognizes the authority of the Carcosse Synod for canon law, though it abides largely by Ajerri law since the partial handover of authority.

Law and Order

The Headquarters of the Federal Police in Statjathady

The ESF's law code is a Civil Law system, which is influenced by the Ksaiist canon law observed in the tradition of the Rite of Ghauzem, sometimes referred to as Orthodox Ksaiism. Law in Sarpory and Vemnia is therefore rooted in written statutes, and judges (called arbiters in the ESF) are expected to interpret law as opposed to outright composing it. Unlike the Midrasian system of law, with which Sarpory and Vemnia shares much of its originating points, cases are presented by the legal representatives of the plaintiff and defendant, and the arbiter acts as an impartial referee between the two parties, much more akin to a common law system. Legal authorities are separate from the Legislative Process and the Executive, but are given equal status in authority under the rule of law, and must be consulted for legality of government activities. The practices of judicial review and habeas corpus are of high importance in the Sarporovemnian legal system, and all plaintiffs are considered innocent until proven guilty. Legal matters concerning members of the Ksaiist Templar Hierarchy have a separate court from regular law, and are decided exclusively by the ruling of an Arbiter. If it concerns a member of the Hierarchy and a Parishioner, however, the case is presented under regular conditions, complete with a trial-by-jury.

The highest legal authority in Sarpory and Vemnia is that of the Supreme Arbitration, and has authority over some cases regarding violations of national law, usually those of high crimes and misdemeanors, and is the highest appellate court in the nation, typically dealing with controversial and high-profile cases. The Arbitration also ensures the Constitutionality of legislation passed by the Conference of the Electorate. The Arbitration is composed of nine individuals, which are appointed for a single twenty-year term by the Secretary-Executor on recommendation of the National Legal Board, but are vulnerable to impeachment if found guilty of misdemeanors or other greater offenses.

The modern Sarporovemnian Constitution forbids the use of capital punishment in any case within the nation or its territories, which was expressly abolished in 1849 following the ratification of the Constitution, and was reinstated in 1935 following the Second Constitutional Convention. Despite this, the ESF was relatively slow to prohibit the practice of "honor killings", defined in Sarpory and Vemnia as "lethal acts of vengeance by a victim or members of a victim's immediate family who found themselves adversely affected by the recipient of said vengeance." These would usually be carried out in smaller communities by family members of a victim of violent crimes, usually murder or rape. This practice was formally abolished in 1962, but reports of these killings have continued into modern times. Pressure to enforce these crimes have continually increased over the years, and failure to investigate these cases results in heavy penalties for members of the parish/municipal police department.

Members of the Federal Police during an investigation in 2009.

Law Enforcement

Following legal reforms in 1943, the Sarporovemnian legal system utilizes a national police model, further subdivided into active and intelligence services. The nation's top police force is the Federal Police, which is host to regular patrol, highway patrol, and investigative units. Alongside the Republican Police is the Carabinieri, composed of armed units, riot control, and anti-terror operations. While historically part of the Border, Coast, and Civilian Guard branch of the Federal Ecclesiastic Peoples' Army, it became a separate entity of the FEPA as part of the Reorganizations of 1943. Completing the top three active police units is the Financial and Civil Police, which deals primarily in white-collar crimes and cybercrime.

While these groups are the chiefest of active policing forces in the nation, the management of individual units of the Republican Police are assigned to the See, Commune, and Municipality. Parishes and other unincorporated regions of the country are beneath the jurisdiction of their Commune, except for national parks and historic sites, which are directly administered by national authorities. The security of the national government and buildings utilized by its members are overseen by the Office of Executive and Governmental Security, which is separate from other governmental law enforcement authorities and is part of the Executive Offices.

The Peoples' Center for Investigations, which composes the legal intelligence services of the country, is responsible for crime-scene investigations, forensics, mortuary services, and other non-active investigative services in domestic legal proceedings. Unlike the active services, the Center for Investigations is directly managed by the Federal Government.

Military

Main article: Federal Ecclesiastic Peoples' Army
A member of the Eifshaeirem examines his equipment during a training exercise in 2017.

The Federal Ecclesiastic Peoples' Army (FEPA) is comprised of tour branches: the Eifshaeirem (Combined Land Forces), Qigthashaeirem (Navy), Ofafzishaeirem (Air Force), and Unieshofksem (Civilian, Coast, and Border Guard). The FEPA is currently organized to fulfill the missions of maintaining territorial integrity, serving in international peacekeeping operations, and ensuring the safe flow of commerce in the Gulf of Troping. The organization hosts a combined estimated manpower of 173,000 personnel, 26,000 of which are women. Peacetime conscription was abolished in 1963. The minimum age to volunteer in the FEPA is 17.

As part of the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations, Carcossica is host to the CDN West Asura Battle Group Headquarters (CDN-WAS) in Vef Mattez, near Statjathady, and is primary signatory of the Jisthaheva Treaty Organization alongside Onza, Belad, and Hipasia, which is based in Vef-Jisthaheva in the Babaran Isles. Outside of its relations with the JTO, the Navies of Aquidneck and Midrasia hold joint naval operations and training programs in the Gulf of Troping alongside the FEPN, while joint land training programs are held with Aquidneck, Bevenia, and Vvarden.

Foreign Relations

Main article: Foreign Relations of Carcossica

In January of 2018, Carles Zeoffajen, who served as Secretary of External Affairs of Carcossica from 2008 to 2013, was elected as Speaker of the Aeian Community, and is slated to serve the rest of the term of former speaker Mattieu Chaubon of Midrasia, who retired prior to the expiration of their term in December of 2017, citing health concerns. Prior to the taking of this post, Zeoffajen served as the Commissioner of the Aeian Immigration and Refugee Administration from 2015-18. Zeoffajen is also the first Speaker to have born after the foundation of the Aeian Community.

In addition to these organizations, Carcossica is a member of the Aquidish Heritage Community since 1999, citing the cultural significance of Carcossica in the union of the country and its significant Aquido-Carcosse population in modern times. Numerous countries have dual-citizenship programs with Carcossica due to the historical presence of the World Missionary Cities, most notably Thadyrissen in Ajerrin. The country maintains one of the oldest military alliances in Asura through the Ksaiist Exploration Accords with Aquidneck, which allowed Ksaiist missionaries free and uninhibited passage through Aquidish holdings in Vestrim since 1538.

Currently, there is ongoing territorial disputes which implicates Sarpory and Vemnia:

  • Thadyrissen (with  Ajerrin). Developed as a Special Economic Concession by the Kingdom of Ajerrin in 1683, the city was held as a sovereign territory of the Pontifical Union, and therefore being held by the Ksaiist Clerical Heirarchy. However, citing obscure language in the grant for the land which can be read as making Thadyrissen a holding of the now-defunct role of the Pontiff, many Ajerrinian nationalists argue that the claim lost its legitimacy following the formation of the Republic in 1849. Despite the city's designation as a joint territory between the ESF and Ajerrin following its unification in 2003, many right-wing movements in the nation continue to seek a complete transfer of authority to Ajerrin.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Carcossica
The Carcosse Commodity Market Building, pictured here in 1981 shortly after the first major liberalizations of heavy industry in the nation, is one of the key financial institutions in Carcossica, and is located in the city of Vef-Ghauzo-Arvay.

The Carcosse Economy is an example of a Mixed Economy, following an Export-Oriented Market Socialism-based model. A traditionally-mid level economic power, the Carcosse Economy is currently listed as the world's 20th-largest Economy by Nominal GDP, totaling at $988.37 Billion USD. It is the 25th-largest by Nominal GDP per Capita, at $23,278.

Its currency is the Ksykan, equivalent to 98.3 Ksykans to 1 USD as of March 2018. The word "Ksykan" is a Carcosse-Veyene term that roughly translates to "wage". The Ksykan is valuated based on a mixed basket of commodities, which replaced the Gold Standard in 1947 and has been subject to numerous reforms and revaluations since. This Commodity Valuation Model has been recently called into question, as it had historically relied on the trade of coal and timber resources as part of its baseline components, which increases the risk for externalities in the form of pollution and increased deforestation. As the country has listed the recognition and removal of environmental externalities tied to state-owned industry as a major economic priority during the Aaske and Mafrig Secretaryships, some Carcosse Economists, Legislators, and Environmental Activist Groups have advocated for altering the package to have a more even balance between raw materials and agricultural commodities, with some calling for the phasing out of coal entirely in favor of more renewable resources.

Clothing manufacturing, especially for workwear and shoes, is enshrined in the traditional Carcosse Economy.
A labor demonstration in the Northern Carcosse city of Sazajapdromol, protesting mass layoffs which took place following the closure of numerous factories there during the depth of the Recession of 2007.

The Carcosse Economy today is a generally even split between the service and manufacturing sectors. The consumer-end retail, financial, insurance, shipping and logistics, entertainment, publishing, and tourism industries control much of the service end of the economy. The Service Sector overall is fairly liberalized. The resource base of Carcossica is dominated by agriculture, timber production, and fishing, while hydropower, iron and aluminium ore, petroleum extraction (largely centered in Carcossican Babarania), and uranium mining constitute the remaining base. Major primary and secondary manufacturing industries in the country are composed of food processing, refined metals, paper, pulp, and timber products, petroleum products, as well as aerospace, medical equipment, automotive, computers, and industrial robotics industries. The manufacturing sector, primarily its agricultural and timber products accounts for roughly 65% of its exports, while exported services are largely composed of shipping and logistics, entertainment, and tourism, though Carcosse retailers have seen an expanding presence in South Asura, North Arabekh, and Savai.

Property is entirely held in the public trust through parish, diocese, and see-level authorities, with all properties being rented out through contracts between the renter and the governmental authority which holds the land. While entirely private property is not a legally-recognized concept in the Republic, personal property (including home structures, personal belongings, personal financial resources, etc.) is to be respected by state authorities. The properties where residences are placed are set on lifetime leases to the main signatory, usually the chief breadwinner of the household, and are only revaluated when the property changes hands. Roughly 70% of all Carcossicans live in flats and other community living arrangements, with the rest living on personal household properties. Roughly 35% of flat-dwellers have lifetime or long-term (10+ years) contract arrangements for their homes. This trend is continuing to tend towards flats, due to increasing urbanization on the mainland, while the inverse is true in Carcossican Babarania and Ghagnusutha. Internal migration towards the southern coastal sees have been on the rise in recent decades, alongsize increasing immigration to the country.

2017 estimates place the total working population of Carcossica at just under 18 million, which is 40% of the total Carcosse Population. Nearly all members of the workforce employed in heavy industries and of the skilled trades are employed in labor unions, while that number is significantly lower among those in the service industries, which is substantially more liberalized than its opposing sectors. 95% of all Citizens have completed their secondary education, and 39% hold a degree in tertiary education. The country ranks highly in terms of labor rights, as many rights, as the Core Labor Standards of freedom of association, right to collective bargaining, prohibition of all forced labor, abolition of most forms of child labor (excluding work performed in family-owned and some agricultural settings), and non-discrimination in employment practices in both private and public settings, are guaranteed by the Constitution. Income Inequality is extremely low in Carcossica in comparison to other nations in Asura and the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations, as well as among Developed Countries in general. Contractual enforcement is of extreme importance in the culture and governmental policy of Carcossica, and many employees of a given firm will remain with that organization for long periods of time, usually for life. For much of the nation's history, non-essential businesses were required to close down for religious observations on Voirksi (the 9th Day in the Carcosse Calendar), but that restriction was lifted following the first waves of liberalizing reforms in the early 1970s as the nation moved towards partial secularization. Many private businesses still observe this voluntarily, including a number of notable retail grocery chains.

Unemployment rates in Carcossica currently sit at 12.6% of the working population, but have been gradually improving since 2011. The economy reached its highest point of unemployment (17.8%) in 2009, at the Depth of the 2007 Aeaian Recession. Unemployment benefits are largely administered through either the person's trade union or See which they reside in. The Temporary Public Employment Division of the National Office of Public Works, developed from the Veterans' Care Programs and the Total Peace Initiatives of the post-Great War years, offers jobs for those who have been unemployed for longer than 30 days, usually in infrastructural maintenance, construction, and other tasks in public resources and facilities, which offers different tasks depending on the prior employment and skills of the applicant. More advanced temporary positions, mostly white-collar secretarial and clerical tasks, were added to the jobs offered by this program following the 1989 Carcosse Recession, with more yet added in 2009, with the goal of providing work to otherwise overqualified persons and those seeking to improve their personal resumes for prospective new employers. Nepotism is a recurring cultural issue in Carcosse firms, and employment in certain firms, especially in smaller communities and in high-level positions require substantial connections within the firm or the industry at large.

Compared to other Asuran countries, the tax burden is near or above average, and displays an economy which is a 40-60 split between public and private sectors, with the bulk of the state-share of the national economy being contained within heavy industry, manufacturing, mining, and timber. The primary forms of income for the Carcosse Government come from its state-owned companies, value-added tax, national and see-level income tax, and corporate tax, including tithes and taxes placed on religious organizations. Its chief expenditures come in the form of the national and see-level health services, public universities and education at large, the operation of state industries, social welfare programs, and defense.

Agriculture

The agricultural industry in Carcossica has historically been one of the main pillars of the nation's economy overall. From there, there are two historical zones of production, the unirrigated (Carcosse-Veyene: Jifhem-Gishadetem) and irrigated (Carcosse-Veyene: Jifhem-Feszadetem). Roughly 70% of the nation's agriculture is produced in the nation's unirrigated cultivated ground and rely on natural rainfall and soil moisture for its water sources, which are centered in the cooler, more humid regions of the nation to the north and northwest, as well as numerous acres in the north-central highlands of the country. The irrigated cultivated land of the nation, accounting for 30% of the nation's agriculture, however, are more productive on average due to numerous factors, largely thanks to geography. These areas are constructed around the River Valleys of the Carcoja and its tributaries and the southern coasts, which, thanks to the regulating force of the trade winds, allows for a fairly mild climate year round, allowing for two harvesting seasons in a single year among some crops.

Though Jifhem-Feszadetem ground accounts for only 30% of the country's total agricultural land usage, it produces roughly 55-60% of the total value of all crops produced in Carcossica, with around 65% of the value of agricultural exports. Over half of that irrigated land was in maize, fruit trees, notably citrusfruits, and vegetables, primarily in leafy greens and lettuces, with herbs composing a smaller, yet traditionally significant segment of overall production. Other major crops in these zones include grapes, sugar beet, potatoes, legumes, olives, tomatoes, strawberries, and fodder grasses. Grape production is largely utilized for wine production, and is lead only by Midrasia in overall production of wine on Aeia at large.

Energy

Tourism

Transportation

Water Supply and Sanitation

Education, Science and Technology

Demographics

The most recent National Census in Sarpory and Vemnia, conducted by the Federal Bureau of Demographics in 2011, noted the population at 43,395,212 persons. The country is estimated to currently have a population of around 47,530,353 persons, an 8.7% increase from the 2011 figures. Its population density sits at 138.3/km2. The nation has experienced an estimated Net Migration of 220,000 over the past five years, up from an estimated 190,000 from 2008-13. The average male in Carcossica lives 79 years old, up from 70 in 1991, and the average female lives 84 years old, up from 76 in 1991. The average fertility rate among Carcossicans is 2.4, a relatively high number in Asura but moderate-to-low on global terms.

While often defined by the Sarporite and Vemnian cultures, the nation has a number of nationally and historically-recognized and protected minority groups throughout the nation. These protections and recognition are primarily engaged on the See level. The most notable of these minority groups include the Babaranites, Bescozebs, Bevenians, Honhabs (Ghagnusuthan Mixed-Ancestry Peoples), Ralsonians, Remes (Carcosse Aquidneck), and Sevnites. A number of Carcosse nationals live abroad in the nation's Overseas Territories, as well as among other states within the Jisthaheva Treaty Organization and Aquidish Heritage Community, alongside other nations in Asura. It is estimated that among the global Veyene diaspora, which totals at nearly 60 million around the world (excluding Carcossica proper), 12 million of them are of Carcosse or Sarporovemnian origin.

Largest Cities

A highly modernized nation, the ESF hosts a number of large cities, which are predominantly developed along the major river systems of the nation and the Southern Coast, with notable outliers among the major lakes on the Northern borders of the nation. Sarpory and Vemnia's largest city is Gazo-Arvay, which hosts a population of 3,419,200 persons within its limits. The next most populous are Rikdin (1,133,900), Statjathady (844,320), and Mattes (683,418).

Urban/Rural Divide

The National Register lists the total urban population of Sarpory and Vemnia at 33,190,490 persons (74.7% of the Population), including the residents of core metropolitan areas and suburban parishes around the country. 11,052,005 persons reside in the top 20 cities of the country (24.8% of the Population), while 8,741,576 reside in the top 10 (19.6% of the Population). The remaining 11,241,223 persons reside in rural locales and communities outside the nation's metropolitan areas. The rate of urbanization has been on the rise over the course of the past century, going from a level of 46.2% Urban Residents in 1951, 61.8% in 1981, to the 74.7% in 2011. Rates of urbanization within the country is generally higher in the Southern Sees and Districts, while the northernmost Sees and Districts are generally more rural overall.

Ethnic Groups

Modern Sarporovemnians generally have some degree of mixed heritage from ethnic groups within and outside the country.

Modern Sarporovemnians are largely the descendants of the ancient Veyene diaspora, which migrated to the region from North Asura, who interbred with the local Proto-Sevnite cultures in late antiquity and the early middle ages. Those cultures themselves, which preceded the entry of the modern Veyene peoples, were of North Arabekhi heritage, many of them having entered the region during the periods of the Troparcan and Glazinian Empires prior to the rise of the Fiorentine Empire. Many in southern Asura still identify as ethnically Sevnite into modern times, though in smaller pockets within the larger Carcosse-Veyene culture. As reported in the 2011 Census, 68.9% of Carcossicans identify as Carcosse-Veyene or one of its subgroups. Other South Asuran groups, primarily those of Aquidish, Lhaeraidd, and Midrasian descent, make up the next largest bloc at 8.3%. Other Asurans, notably those of Crylantian, Navish, and Newreyan heritage, compose an estimated 5.1% of the population. Of all Asuran populations from outside of Asura in Carcossica, 3.4% reported Veyene Heritage from outside the country. Members of the Hipasian diaspora compose an approximate 1.1% of citizens.

Persons of non-Asuran heritage make up the remaining 16.6% of the Carcosse population, many of which arrived in the nation as part of the Birthright Acts of 1893 and 1900, which permits those of a Ksaiist background accredited through a Statjathady Grand Synod-recognized organization a significantly streamlined path to citizenship, a move which drastically began to diversify the nation's ethnic and racial makeup, as persons migrating from the Free Missionary Cities, Ksaiist populations in Vestrim and Yidao, and the nation's holdings in the Southern Jade Ocean and Savai began flocking to the mainland in search of stable jobs and freedom from persecution abroad. Citizens of Arabekhi descent, largely Aramasian and Onzian, make up 5.9% of the population, 1.8% being of Babarane (Mixed Carcosse-Arabekhi) ancestry. Yidaoans, Jade Ocean Islanders, and Savaiians, primarily those of Ajerri, Cheonsamean, and Indragirian parentage compose 5.2% of the population, with a reported 0.8% being of Honhab (mixed Carcosse-Cheonsamean) ancestry. A further 3.3% reported Vestric ancestry of some kind, with Isolaprugnan being the chief representative of that population bloc. 2.1% reported as having ancestry from ethnic backgrounds elsewhere in the world, 1.6% were of mixed-ancestry parentage outside of the Recognized Historic Groups, and the remaining 0.3% chose not to respond.

Immigration

Aramasian Immigrants, like this woman, took up numerous manufacturing jobs in the early 20th Century.

According to 2017 estimates from the Office of Immigration, roughly 2.8 million foreign nationals and immigrants reside in Carcossica, representing around 6.3% of the current estimates. The largest portions of the modern Carcosse immigrant population come from North Arabekh, primarily composed of groups from Aramas and Torroso. Immigrants from Tangkuo, Cheonsam, and Indragiri compose the next largest group present, while Asuran and West Cataiian populations, often of Aquidish, Dreyvisevichan, Newreyan, Veleazan and Wallaise origin following the breakup of the Aeian Socialist Union and wider Eastern Bloc, compose the third largest subset of the national immigrant population.

Carcossica ranks below only Glanodel and Midrasia in levels of net immigration in Asura and the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations, up from 480,000 in 1991, but slightly lower than the nation's all-time high of 3.2 million in 2007. The rate of high immigration to the country can be attributed to several factors, including a generally open border policy, its cultural and religious ties with states on the Jade Ocean Rim, Savai, and North Arabekh, ease of movement within JTO states, its geographical and political position, a relatively active gray economy, and a vacuum of jobs in skilled and unskilled tasks, mainly in the nation's agricultural, timber, and manufacturing sectors, in which domestic labor is either too expensive or in low supply.

Another factor to consider in Carcosse immigration is the presence of aging professionals and retirees from around Asura and the greater CDN sphere relocating to the nation's Southern Coasts. Prior to the 2007 Financial Crisis, it was ranked Second in Asura (behind Midrasia) for retirees and those seeking to find work elsewhere on the continent.

The country's immigration is also deeply affected by the ongoing Refugee Crisis in North Arabekh, where the Babaran Isles, since 2011, has been utilized as a temporary resettlement site for those fleeing the conflicts there. While an agreement is currently in place with the Democratic Federation to utilze the territory as a midway point for resettlement in Vestrim, many are choosing instead to remain in the Isles or move to Mainland Carcossica for long-term settlement due to a number of progressive policies regarding their entry into the country, which has provided the most significant boost to the Babarane economy and population overall since the establishment of the first offshore oil platforms there in the 1960s. The current refugee population represents a massive range of backgrounds, age ranges, and professions, with nearly a fifth of refugees being children and many more being of a highly-educated background. The presence of these refugees, especially in the mainland, has sparked some degree of social tension, as some in the northern and more traditionalist portions of the country believe that the introduction of more fundamentalist Alydianist and Irsadi communities into the nation may weaken the authority of the Ksaiist Faith and other traditional establishments in the nation.

Languages

Carcosse Veyene and Aquidish are the two official languages of Carcossica according to the Constitution. Numerous dialects of the language exist throughout the country, which are generally organized into the Delfine, Eastern, Eithen, Ghauzign, Peninsular, and Sheven subgroups. Ghauzign Carcosse is the national grammatical standard which is taught in all educational institutions of Carcossica. Eithen Veyene is also utilized on a semi-official capacity, primarily in academia, due to its historical value as the "original" written iteration of Carcosse Veyene, and is linguistically closer to versions of the language in Northern Asura. While Carcosse Veyene and its subgroups are among the most spoken languages in Carcossica, Aquidish is spoken more commonly in Eastern Sees, especially in population centers near the Aquidish border. Many residents of the country opt to take up Lhedwinic, Midrasian, or Newreyan as a third language, with Midrasian especially being offered by more and more educational institutions as it becomes a more commonly accepted lingua franca in Asura and around the world. As such, the average Carcossican generally speaks at least two languages.

The co-official languages of Carcossica, observed only in certain Sees and Districts, include:

Health

The All-Republic National Hospital in Statjathady

Carcossica's healthcare systems operate under a banner of nationally-assured universal healthcare known as the All-Republic Health and Wellness Services (HWS), set up during the latter half of the Adouard Ksaiin administration in the early 20th Century. The system is funded through a combination of taxation, government-mandated health insurance, and private insurance plans by companies partnered with the government. Originally developed as a national health insurance fund in 1901, as part of Veterans' Care Programs and the Total Peace following the Great War, it eventually became a network of publicly-funded hospitals and clinics following reorganization in the mid-1930s. In reaction to a disdain among the general public for increasingly centralized governmental authority, this national model of healthcare was broken down into a network which placed the Sees as the primary administrators of public hospitals, while the national service established standards for quality of care and practices utilized. While seeking to ensure a health socialized healthcare system, the government has engaged in a number of liberalizing reforms to the HWS in the name of improving the quality and efficiency of care. The Services continue to be rated well in reviews by the Aeian Public Health Organization, though it has been known to lag somewhat behind in terms of the distribution of medical technology due to the trend towards nationalization. However, this system generally ranks higher among patients using the system than some other systems in the Developed World, as medical professionals within the HWS are known to be consistently high-skilled and well-versed in issues surrounding mental, social, and spiritual wellness, and is the heart of social medicine development in Asura. Private hospitals and services not attached to the HWS were reintroduced in Carcossica during the Rissen and Sazajap Administrations in the 1980s, though all citizens and permanent residents of the Ksaiist Republic must still be insured through either the National or HWS-accredited programs. Presently, the National Health Services are 79% government-funded. Healthcare spending accounts for roughly 9.5% of the national GDP, which equates to $2,993.07 USD (K294,218.78 CAK) per capita.

The All-Republic Health and Wellness Services are unique among many nations in that it has established a number of facilities and programs for the holistic treatment of mental health issues. While a number of See and nationally-owned Asylums exist, the bulk of dedicated facilities are centered in localized wellness programs, usually run through public schools, Ksaiist temples, and other community centers. Mental health especially is often considered a matter of community concern, choosing to take a vested interest in the general psychological wellness of residents. A government-sponsored approach to this style of medicine across the nation came to the fore after a spike in incidents of {[wpl|clinical depression}} and general anxiety disorder in the late 20th Century, and has resoundingly improved the psychological health among Carcossicans alongside advances in therapeutic and medicinal treatment techniques. While Anxiety Disorders remain a major concern of the HWS, especially among young Carcossicans and those most affected by the recent financial crises, new diagnoses of the disorder have generally been on the decline in recent years as techniques improve.

The principal cause of death in the nation is ischemic heart disease, followed closely by colorectal cancer. Incidents of colorectal, prostate, and liver cancers are on average higher than in many other parts of Asura, though lung cancer and lung disease in general has been in decline. While still an issue in some downtrodden communities across the country, illicit and hazardous drug use, alcoholism, and habit smoking has also been in decline since their peak in the early 1990s.

Religion

Religion in Carcossica (2011)

  Ksaiism (71.7%)
  Irreligious (9.1%)
  Alydianism (7.5%)
  Irsad (4.4%)
  Trúathi (2.1%)
  Derwyedd (2.0%)
  Other religions (2.2%)
  Not stated (1.1%)

Ksaiism, specifically in the tradition of the Rite of Ghauzem, is the established church of Carcossica, and is regulated closely by the Carcosse Government. While the Grand Synod of Statjathady is located in Carcossica, the Carcosse Government and its College of Khaevas is not the leadership of the faith worldwide. The Synod, and its leader Gandolf Dolan is in charge of canon law across the autocephalous Ksaiist Temples and Synods worldwide, while the Republican College of Khaevas and its companion assembly, the Carcosse Synod, is charged with enforcing the canon law and ensuring its sanctity within secular law and governmental proceedings at home and abroad. While steps towards partial secularization were engaged and continue to take place in and since 1977, Ksaiism still plays a preeminent role in civil society and the Carcosse culture at large, especially among less urban and older populations. While the position of Chief Secretary for all levels of government, including the Secretary-Executorship, have been opened up to persons outside of the Ksaiist Templar Hierarchy, the Khaevam still remain the primary political force in the nation, occupying roughly 67% of all executive governmental positions in the country. The Secular Arm of Government thus introduced does not affect or seek to affect religious law, and the Religious Arm of Government is not permitted to place restrictions on non-Ksaiist thought, persons, and institutions, though non-Ksaiist religious institutions within the country are required to pay taxes in place of the tithes which are paid by Ksaiist Temples.

According to the 2011 Census, 31,857,538 persons identified as Ksaiist (71.7% of the Population). The Second most represented orientation was irreligious, with 4,043,286 persons identifying (9.1% of the Population). Alydianism is at third, at 3,332,378 persons (7.5% of the Population). 1,954,995 persons identified as following Irsad (4.4% of the Population). 933,066 persons identified with Trúathi (2.1% of the Population), and 888,634 with Derwyedd (2.0% of the Population). 1,466,246 persons responded as following other religions, or chose not to respond (2.2% and 1.1%, respectively). Irsad and irreligious responses have increased over the past three censuses, while Ksaiist responses have remained fairly constant in comparison to other faiths. The Derwyedd population especially has been in decline, finally being outpaced by Trúathi in the 2011 census. The census also indicates that across all religions, roughly 12.8% of respondents indicated participation in religious activities more than two or more times a week, 31.1% participated once a week, 19.2% engaged at least once monthly, 22.1% participated infrequently throughout the year, and 14.8% did not participate in religious activities regularly. The numbers of attendance are generally higher amongst Ksaiist, Irsadi, and Alydianist populations.

While Rite of Ghauzem (Orthodox) Ksaiism remains a majority among adherents within Carcossica, Ksaiist Humanism is a considerable presence within the faith in modern times, having taken root in the nation during the latter years of the Pontifical Union and growing in popularity following the success of the Carcossican Revolution. Spiritualist Ksaiism, a variation of the faith which entertains more occult and paranormal ideas beyond the Rite, as well as an emphasis on the Animistic traditions of Ksaiism predating the Pontificate, still maintains a minority presence within the country, though it has continually fallen out of popularity since the late 1970s.

Arts and Culture

Calendar

Main article: Gaetha Calendar

The Gaetha (Solar) Calendar is the historical calendar system utilized by the Veye peoples in Asura as well as in modern Carcossica, alongside the Aeian Standard Calendar. While rooted primarily in Ksaiism and the centrality of the Winter Solstice to its liturgical history, records suggest that early iterations of this particular timekeeping system had been passed down through Veyene oral traditions going back to at least their arrival in Lhedwin in the 8th Century. It is unique among most calendars in Aeia in that it instead has months of equal date, and is based entirely through astronomical movements as opposed to an arbitrary start date for the year. The calendar, from the largest denomination of time down, is as follows: Year (365 Days), Season (4 per year, excluding Festival), Month (2 per season, excluding Festival), Week (5 per month), and Day (9 per week). A Leap Day is inserted every four years at the close of Festival, a 5-day week which is considered a season and month unto itself. Dates recorded in the Gaethan style follow the ascending time value method seen in most Asuran records (dd/mm/yyyy). As such, a Gaethan date is recorded as dd/mm/s/yy - effectively similar, though with the added element of the season. The origin date is 21 December 1531 (or 01/01/1/00), the "Moment of Revelation" in Ksaiist Lore. The current year is 486, which will subsequently end on the eve of the Winter Solstice.

Dress

Architecture

Literature and Philosophy

Music

Cinema

Sport

Association Football League of Carcossica

Babaran Isles National Football Team

Cuisine

Public Holidays and Observances

The national government of Carcossica recognizes and mandates a total of twenty-five holidays, seventeen national holidays and eight bank holidays, though a number of holidays are observed on the See and Parish level, usually revolving around Ksaiist Observances of local importance.

National Holidays

All of the below holidays are nationally-recognized observances which permit the closure of public offices and facilities (except for those related to national defense and public utilities). Private businesses are not mandated to close down on national holidays, though it is required for all employees to be permitted reduced hours on these days, and all but vital services are mandated to close on Election Day.

Holiday Date Observed
New Year's Day 21 December / 1 Firstwinter
Giving Day/Christmas 25 December / 5 Firstwinter
Frederic R. Fagan Day 23 February / 20 Secondwinter
Remembrance Day 18 March / 43 Secondwinter
Carcossica Day 15 April / 26 Firstspring
Makers' Day 7 May / 3 Secondspring
Constitution Day 27 June / 9 Firstsummer
Shauzenune
Workers' Day
Elders' Day
Womens' Day
Youth Day
Family Day
3-7 August / 1-5 Festival
Saints' Day Leap Day / 6 Festival
Summerswane 31 August / 24 Secondsummer
Fairharvest 22 September / 1 Firstautumn
Election Day 15 November / 10 Secondautumn
New Year's Eve 20 December / 45 Secondautumn

Bank Holidays

Bank Holidays, which were originally rooted in lesser Ksaiist Holy Days observed in the Carcossican Tradition, were first instituted through the Observances Act of 1840 by the Pontifical Union to legally legitimize a number of regional celebrations observed throughout the country and in the Babaranes. The holidays were suspended first in 1848 during the Revolution, and again in 1895 following the outbreak of the Great War, and reinstated in 1910 following the conclusion of Economic Recovery Measures instated in the wake of the conflict. The Modern Bank Holiday scheme, which was adopted in 1961, has a holiday fall on the 27th of each month in the Gaethan year, and is not rooted in the Ksaiist tradition, following the adoption of Summerswane and Fairharvest into the national holidays. In total, there are eight Bank Holidays in each year. Unlike National Holidays, no guarantee is made of time off employees, though it is a commonly-accepted practice for employers to grant reduced hours or extra pay for work done on these dates. ẽ