|Democratic Republic of Sükhbaatar
Ардчилсан Бүгд Найрамдах Улс Сүхбаатар
ᠠᠷᠠᠳᠴᠢᠯᠠᠭᠰᠠᠨ ᠪᠦᠭᠦᠳᠡ ᠨᠠᠶᠢᠷᠠᠮᠳᠠᠬᠤ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠰᠦᠬᠡᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ
|Recognised regional languages||Transcandarian
|Ethnic groups||68.4% Sükhbaataryn
|Government||Multi-party Parliamentary Republic|
|-||Khan of the State Khural||Tsedenbal Dashiin|
|-||Upper house||Presidium of|
|-||Lower house||House of Representitives|
Sükhbaatar, officialaly the Democratic Republic of Sükhbaatar (Sükhbaataryn: Ардчилсан Бүгд Найрамдах Улс Сүхбаатар), or in official papers referred to as the Sükhbaataryn Democratic Republic is a sovereign state located within the continent of Catai. Sükhbaatar is bordered by Malban to the West, Transcandar in the Southeast, and Vynozhia. It lays with a large coastal area with access to the XXX Sea. Delgerkhangai is considered the official capital of Sükhbaatar, but the seat of the government is considered to be within an enclave of Delgerkhangai, denoted as the Federally Administrated Region of Delgerkhangai. Sükhbaatar is de-jure a multi-party Parliamentary Republic as per the 2006 Sükhbaataryn Constitution, however with the political system of the republic is relatively young. Before this, Sükhbaatar has been ruled a One-party Communist state until 2004, and has been considered a quasi-communist state even after the abolition of the People's Republic of Sükhbaatar.
Sükhbaatar is classified as a emerging power by international standards, and maintains a medium HDI with a deficit in the Gini Index and varying standards of living. The country is reliant on its coastal trade as the central and western areas are undeveloped and sparse in population. Sükhbaatar however, maintains a medium-income GDP and is slowly developing the central and western parts of the country. The country is also undergoing the Sükhbaataryn Sectional Split, amplified by current events and developments occurring within the central and western areas.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Pre-History and the Bronze Age
- 1.2 Ancient History
- 1.3 Negdel Sükhbaatar
- 1.4 First Sükhbaataryn Khaanate
- 1.5 Second Khaanate and Middle Ages
- 1.6 Darizavyn Khaanate
- 1.7 Modern History
- 2 Politics
- 3 Infrastructure
- 4 Demographics
- Main article: History of Sükhbaatar
Pre-History and the Bronze Age
Homo erectus inhabited Sükhbaatar from 850,000 years ago, with evidence of several stone tools that date back 800,000 years in the Erdene, and a neolithic farming settlement found within Dornod Sergelen. Modern humans reached Sükhbaatar around 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic Period. The Yolyn Am Valley, also known as the Valley of the Deer Stones contain several carvings and paintings that date back to at least 80,000 years and megalith structures of Deer Stones. The Mal Cave is another cave within Sergelen that contains several different paintings with similar Deer Stones. Markings and the elegance demonstrated with Deer Stones in Yolyn Am indicate that Yolyn Am and the Gobi was the origin of these Deer Stones.The Yolyn Am Valley, has also been the site of intricate and detailed Paleolithic cave drawings that span the walls of the valley's caves, as well as and several stone tools and human fossils that date back to the arrival of modern humans 40,000 years ago.
During the 5,000BC, several different agricultural settlements dotted Eastern Sükhbaatar. The Santmargats-iin Ulaan Agui (Red Cave of Santmargats), where more Paleolithic cave drawings were found, was determined as the point of origin for the people who created Santmargats-iin Olin Niit, the first agricultural settlement within Eastern Sükhbaatar. Santmargats-iin Olin Niit, now located within the Santmargats Dornod Torey Steppe. Several structures of an early shamanistic religion, and the beginning of horse-nomadism, documented by extensive archaeological evidence emerging with the Tüdevtei People, which was soon followed by the Gobi People and the Erdene People, known as the First Era Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization between 4,500 to 3,000 BC. During this time, both the Second Era (3,000 to 2,000 BC) and the Third Era (2,000 to 500 BC) passed through with influence from the Uriankhai Civilization, the easternmost Sergelen civilization originating from the Okunev Tree of Civilizations. During the end of the Second Era of the Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization, after 2,200, wheeled vehicles and culture of farming and animal husbandry under agriculture conflicted with the emergence of the Uriankhai within Santmargats.
Within Western Sükhbaataryn and Sergelen, evidence of the Okunev, a Northern Sergelen Civilization, existed around 6,000 to 4,000 BC. The Okunev Civilization subsisted on a mainly agricultural culture, subsisting mostly on meat. The Okunev were also noted as non-nomadic people, as opposed to the Eastern Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization. Conflicting with this civilization, it is believed the Okunev were more advanced, adopting the horse as a means of transport around 4,500 BC and creating wheeled vehicles in 4,200 BC. However these technologies remained mostly unused by the Okunev. The Okunev Civilization sometime between 4,100 to 4,000 BC, was split between three different civilizations around the millennium before the ushering in of the Bronze Age. The Proto-Nömrog Civilization, the Uriankhai Civilization, and the Neo-Okunev Confederation were the three remaining tribes of people that resulted after the split of the Okunev Civilization.
Okunev Tree of Civilizations
The Neo-Okunev Confederation existed between within the borders of modern-day Sergelen, and continued the majority of the Okunev Civilization's traditions. The re-introduction idea of nomadic-ism changed the Neo-Okunev Confederation from its originally agricultural roots. The Neo-Okunev Confederation began subsisting majorly on meat and game, and was much less organized as originally thought. The Neo-Okunev are credited for the existence of the Yuezhi and the Yuezhi Deer Stones within the Bayan-Ölgii Plains. The exact dates of existence are unclear, because the majority of written sources were either destroyed or are written in Yuezhi Language, which is undecipherable. It is hinted that during this time the Neo-Okunev appeared to be absorbed by the Proto-Nömrog Civilization and the Uriankhai Civilization. The majority of their culture had become uniform to the Proto-Nömrog and Uriankhai civilizations, and as such, they were slowly absorbed by these two civilizations. It is, however, known that the majority of the Ordos were either former Neo-Okunev or Yuezhi-speakers. Yue
Around the beginning of the 3,000 BC, the beginning of the Bronze Age, the Uriankhai became known as the Eastern and Northern Sergelens, or Dornod Sergelens. The Uriankhai originated from the Okunev Tree of Civilizations. The Uriankhai inhabited the modern-day borders of Dornod Sergelen, as nomadic people as opposed to the Neo-Okunev. The Uriankhai subsisted on primarily game as opposed to the agricultural Neo-Okunev, and eventually absorbed the Neo-Okunev. The organization structure of the Uriankhai was based off of an honor system, and the Uriankhai spoke and wrote in both Yuezhi Language and Uriankhai Language. Both languages remain undeciphered but recent archaeological research indicates that a tablet containing translations is located within the Santmargats Bend during the Third Era of the Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization. The Yuezhi Language became apart of the Uriankhai after the absorption of the Neo-Okunev and the inclusion of their language. The Uriankai Civilization, during this time, developed nomadic culture within the limited space between natural barriers in the north; with the inclusion of the antagonistic Tagar Ömnöduul Civilization and the Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization. Banditry outside of its steppe, especially the Santmargats Dornod Torey Steppe, became commonplace with archaeological evidence of small battles and burned/destroyed yurts and villages. Between 700 to 500, around the end of the Uriankai Civilization, no written records and sources of the Uriankai Civilization survived around this time. It is assumed at this point banditry within the Uriankai Civilization became a widespread problem, with the inclusion of the extinction of both the undeciphered Uriankhai Language and the extinct Yuezhi Language during this period, meant that writing sources are far and few. The only writing sources came from the Taiyuan, which did not include resources on deciphering either Uriankhai or Yuezhi. The Uriankhai however, were believed to be the predecessors of the Ordos and the remainder formed what is known as the Eastern Sergelen Confederation.
The Proto-Nömrog was another Okunev successor, focused on the modern-day borders of Nömrog and Dörvöjin. The Proto-Nömrog are a mostly unrecorded civilization, and no sources dating from that time period indicates who exactly the Proto-Nömrog. Their exact date of existence is unclear as writings about Nömrog don’t appear until the Third Era of the Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization and the emergence of the Mönkhiin. The Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization refer to Nömrog as “The Land of Holy Monks”. The land of Nömrog became Mönkhiin territory around this time as described in the Divine Declaration, but was only inhabited by the Mönkhiin during the 1200BC and did not become the dominant force over the Gobi people of the Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization until the rise of the Taiyuan Civilization in 462 BC. Archaeological evidence uncovered several cave painting, meaning the Proto-Nömrog may not have had a mutually intelligible language or any language at all. Most artifacts that existed around the time of the Proto-Nömrog were obscure in their meaning and are undetermined in creator. It has been hinted that the Gobi and Uriankhai have both at some point laid claims and created structures and monuments during the Proto Nömrog. The Proto-Nömrog people eventually faded into obscurity. Their history was vague and the remainder of their culture was absorbed by the growing Karasuka Civilization before being absorbed in the Tagar Ömnöduul Civilization around 1,000 BC.
The Karasuka Civilization
The Uriankhai became the Eastern Sergelen Confederation in 512 BC, with archaeological evidence pointing to a potential bandit culture. At the same time in 462 BC, the Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization became the Taiyuan Confederation. These Taiyuan is the name that was given by the Tan Dynasty. In Yen characters it translates to 太原, or Tàiyuán.
Eastern Sergelen Confederation
The Eastern Sergelen Confederation emerged during 512 BC, as a subsequent organized country by the Uriankhai. The Eastern Sergelen Confederation was brought together as a confederation by Chanyu Jìnyáng [單于 晋阳]. Eastern Sergelen formation led to the a new political unity within the former Uriankhai as Sergelens, and was reinforced with the massive armies and newly introduced organized strategic coordination.
The Eastern Sergelen Confederation common language was Yuezhi Language, noted by the copious amount of tablets excavated within Sergelen that contained Yuezhi scripture. However, Uriankhai Language became obsolete as its transliteration with Template:WplProto-Mongolic language and became repurposed as a mostly bandit’s language. Uriankhai was used as a language for bandits to coordinate, and after the adoption of Yuezhi, Uriankhai’s transformation made the language no longer translatable with Yuezhi. This culture became known as Neo-Uriankhai language.
Neo-Uriankhai bandit culture was only pointed at with their relation to the Ordos, the eastern-most bandits that spanned from Sükhbaatar to Asura. Pastoral nomadism that remained as a vital part of Sergelen culture as influenced from both predecessors of the Eastern Sergelen Confederation, the Neo-Okunev and the Uriankhai.
The Taiyuan Confederation [太原 or Tàiyuán] emerged around 482 BC, and was a particularly strong Confederation. Taiyuan was noted as it had a strongly Mönkhiin base for politics and military training. The Taiyuan Confederation is considered the successor of the Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei Civilization, which ended at around 500 BC. The Taiyuan Confederation’s name derives from Yen, which came from neighboring Yunlin. The name translates to Great Plain [太原].
The Taiyuan Confederation’s most notable location was known as Lóngchéng [龙城], or literally Dragon City. Lóngchéng was noted as the center of the Taiyuan as its capital, and as a religious center for the Mönkhiin. Lóngchéng’s architecture has seen a very large borrowing of Mönkhiin Architecture as well as Karasuka and original Gobi-Erdene-Tüdevtei architecture. At this point, it is noted that Mönkhiin script, also called Taiyuan script, emerged around this point.
After the Battle of Gobi, cited as one of the most important battles of Sükhbaatar's history, a chieftain named Yerutömör unified the tribes of the Erdene, the Tüdevtei, and the Gobi amongst the Santmargats Plains and the Gobi Mountains. In 1212 Yerutömör took the title of Khagan, officiating his name as Khagan Yerutömör of Sükhbaatar.
Khagan Yerutömör was considered to be the father of the Sükhbaataryn State, creating the first Sükhbaataryn political system, basing it on a form of proto-meritocracy at the time. At the time, it was barely a political system, but it worked for the nomadic confederation. Khagan Yerutömör was the first Khan of the Sükhbaatar Steppe that had selected his horde of warlords and shamans without noting the nobility class. The common traditions of the steppe dictated that the Khan of a conquered clan sacrifice his life in exchange for the safe passage of clans people to the conquering clan.
Khagan Yerutömör however, was soon challenged in his rule by the Nömrog-Dörvöjin Tribe led by Tolui Khan and supported by the Sergelen Confederation.
First Sükhbaataryn Khaanate
Second Khaanate and Middle Ages
- Main article: Politics of Sükhbaatar'
Sükhbaatar is a unitary state under a semi-presidential representative democratic republic. The President is directly elected via a , from which point the head of government, the Khan of the State's Great Khural is appointed. Yumjaagiin Batmönkh is head of state since 2016. Sükhbaatar has a number of political parties from which speakers from the Presidium represent. The largest of these parties is the Sükhbaataryn People's Democratic Party.
The Sükhbaataryn People's Revolutionary Party formed the government of the People's Republic of Sükhbaatar in 1923 (in a one-party system) until 1952, during the reformations of the Byambasüren-Yanjmaan Period. Afterwards, Sükhbaatar had reformed into a Unitary Democratic Republic, in which communist and socialist government was effectively abolished. Several actions by the Sükhbaataryn Communist League led to the attempt to re-establish the communist dictatorship under Tsakhiagiin Altankhuyag, but failed to do so.
The Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional. The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative Branches. The Supreme Court has thirteen members appointed by the Chief Shüügch of the Supreme Court who serve for life. This decision is not subject to questioning or approval by the Khural. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Supreme Court and approved by the President.
Parties and Elections
Sükhbaatar, since the Byambasüren-Yanjmaan Period and the dissolution of the People's Republic of Sükhbaatar, has used a Dominant-party system in most of its elections. Before 2016, the People's Democratic Party of Sükhbaatar has held the majority control of Sükhbaatar, as the theoretical successor of the Second People's Revolutionary Party of Sükhbaatar. On 12 August, 2016, Yumjaagiin Batmönkh of the Eastern Liberal Party was inaugurated as the President of Sükhbaatar, in a stunning upset against Tsakhiagiin Tseren of the Sükhbaataryn People's Democratic Party. The Eastern Liberal Party currently hold the majority of the seats within the State's Great Khural after the election, as well as control over the Presidential Kurultai.
The elections of Sükhbaatar are all divided depending on position. Positions within the Presidential Kurultai are entirely appointed, as is the Khan of the State's Great Khural. All power is majorly derived from the President, as a Unitary government.
The Presidium of Representatives is the lower house of the State’s Great Khural. The Presidium of Representatives is composed of "delegates" from political parties elected via “single-transferable vote” from every region. The majority of the seats within the current Presidium are currently held by the Eastern Liberal Party. The regional administration is tasked with correct tallying and representation from these polls every two years. Several restrictions on electing delegates and incumbent are in place. The number of seats within the Presidium is currently 348.
The Presidium of the Khural is the higher house of the State's Great Khural. The Presidium of the Khural is composed of ten "district representatives" as delegated from every district. Similar to the Presidium of Representatives, the Presidium of the Khural is elected via single-transferable vote from every district. The Khan of the Presidium of the Khural is appointed by the President without any sort of interference from any party. The district administration is tasked with correct tallying and representation from these polls after every election cycle. The State's Great Khural roster of district representatives does not change in any manner unless an unavoidable absolvement of post occurs. The Presidium of the Khural is made up of 70 district representatives.
- Main article: Sükhbaataryn People's Armed Force
The Sükhbaataryn People’s Armed Force consists of five service branches. The Sükhbaataryn Army, Sükhbaataryn Naval Forces, Sükhbaataryn Air Forces, Sükhbaataryn People's Guard, and the Sükhbaataryn Cadet Corps. The President of Sükhbaatar hold the title of commander-in-chief, and appoints the Minister of Department of Defense and the Minister of the Department of the Interior. The Department of Defense is charged with maintaining the Army, Naval Forces, and Air Forces. The Department of the Interior is charged with maintaining the People's Guard and the Cadet Corps, as well as managing Conscription in Sükhbaatar and the Sükhbaataryn Office of Military Selective Services.
Conscription in the military is involuntary and is mandatory for both men and women, determined by which branch of the Sükhbaataryn Cadet Corps. The Sükhbaataryn Cadet Corps is divided into three different regiments, which are then subdivided into services. The Sükhbaataryn General Conscripts Services, Sükhbaataryn Special Conscript Services, and the Sükhbaataryn Officers Regimental Corps. The Department of the Interior maintains and directs all branches of the Cadet Corps. Military service, however, is voluntary after completing conscription. On March 29th, the People's Presidium of Representatives passed the law of drafting, which included drafting members who had already completed conscription.
Post-secondary academia is ran through the Department of the Interior, which has delegated that power to the Sükhbaataryn Officers Regimental Corps. The Sükhbaataryn Officers Regimental Corps is entirely academic with several physical beneficiary programs available. The Sükhbaataryn Officers Regimental Corps is divided into three different academic branches, each ranked lowest to highest respectively: Reserve Officer Academic Program, First Officer Academic Program, and the Prestigious Regimental Academia Program.
The Sükhbaataryn army has held a deep cultural root intertwined with Sükhbaataryn Shamanism and the Wars of Yerutömör. Service within Sükhbaatar has always been seen by both the Culture of Sükhbaatar and the Government as a means of elevating oneself to eligibility of adulthood. Within the 1200's, Khagan Yerutömör had transformed military from a ragtag clan of bandits and highwaymen to a fundamental role of society, and elevating it to such a position that destroyed the noble class's hold on the empire to either the Khagan's personnel or civilians. Khagan Yerutömör also introduced the idea of conscripting during his reign, making service within the army involuntary. To this day, Sükhbaatar continues its tradition through the use of conscription, which has been somewhat controversial during history, but since the passing of Resolution 762 has introduced countless reformations to the conscription system that has transformed it as one of the most academic conscription systems in Aeia.
In recent years, Sükhbaatar has improved its training techniques, military command and political structures in order to become more self-reliant after recent proclamations and reformations passed by the People's Presidium of Representatives. Sükhbaatar has recently started manufacturing its own armaments, vehicles, heavy weaponry, defense systems, and controversially started a reformation to militarize local law enforcement after Resolution 782, however still remains as one of the least technologically advanced nations in Aeia.
On 24 September, 2018, the Sükhbaataryn Department of the Interior and Darkwater Irons struck a multi-million dollar deal. The deal was struck after an international contract worth A$1 billion, formulated by both the Department of the Interior and the Department of Defense was published and funded by the Sükhbaataryn People’s Armed Forces, was won by the DI Kinetics branch of Darkwater Irons. The contract included the purchase of 800 LSVs and 300 Terrex Systems between 2019 to 2020. Darkwater Irons has been extremely involved in the development of the army ever since 1972, and as also struck a deal 12 September, 2018 between Ömnöcore Mining Corporation. The deal with Ömnöcore Mining, a public/private corporation, included funding of A$250 million to Ömnöcore for the construction of increased Ömnöcore mining facilities in return for a A$150 million to construct Darkwater Irons facilities and A$100 million in Rare Earth Magnets, These two endeavors taken by both governments has been controversial as Sükhbaatar has somewhat opposed relations with Asuran nations, and with Ajerrin being a member of the interngovernmental organization of the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations, which is opposed to the Compact for Mutual Assistance and General Cooperation. The Chartist Bloc within Midrasia vocalized their concerns against the deal.
Sükhbaatar has attempted to establish foreign relations with many independent states. The most notable of which has been with Transcanadar, which has been at a standstill since the Reformation of Sükhbaatar. Sükhbaatar is considered a regional power within East Catai and has sought to create a international organization to bring East Catai together.
The foreign relations of Sükhbaatar are directed by the President of Sükhbaatar and are managed through the Department of State Affairs. The principles of the foreign policy are recognized as apart of the Constitution of Sükhbaatar. The policy is outlined by the Constitution as: "Respectful of international law and legal equality of states, their sovereignty and independence important to preserve, withholding states threatening Sükhbaataryn sovereignty, importance, or allied and states of importance."
Historically, Sükhbaatar has remained out of affairs outside of their sphere of influence and outside of Catai affairs, especially with an effort to remain out of Asuran politics. Sükhbaatar has however, funded the Sükhbaataryn Red Cross as a international organization apart of the Red Cross Organization. Several different political parties have proposed Resolutions within the People's Presidium of Representatives to allow the Sükhbaataryn Armed Forces to collaborate with international peacekeeping missions and to extend their sphere into Vestrim, as well as giving their international assistance in funds, armed forces and aid to nations that request it. Sükhbaatar has seen development with its Southern and Yidao neighbors, in particular Tangkuo and Qyred and increasing amounts of isolation from Asura.
During Yumjaagiin Batmönkh's administration, Cataian unity under Sükhbaatar and a creation of a Catai organization of sum sort has become a pursuit by the government, as well as opening ties with Majula and Arabekh countries while stressing less interaction from Asura nations and keeping Asuran interests out of Catai through any means necessary.
The development policy of Sükhbaatar is an independent area of foreign policy. The general amount of foreign policy and foreign actions as well as creating diplomatic missions to foreign countries is under the command of the Sükhbaataryn Department of Foreign Affairs. However the developmental policy is formulated by the Sükhbaataryn Department of Regional Economical Cooperation and Development, and also takes charge of Sükhbaataryn representation . The government has outlined the policy of foreign development as: "To be respectful of international law and legal equality of states, and to see forth that Cataian regional interests are government interests; and that the concerns of developmental policy and regional cooperation policy as a joint responsibility of Yidao nations and Sükhbaatar.
The Democratic Republic of Sükhbaatar is a unitary state that is divided into seven districts, and are subdivided into 30 different regions.
Each district is responsible for statistics, census and acts as an emergency government made up of a emergency council should regional administration determine they are unable to preform their functions due to an either internal or external threat to the administration. Each district also has a regional supreme court, known as the Sükhbaataryn Secondary Districts Court, which are all higher in authority than courts ran at a regional level.
Each region consists has their own unicameral congress as well as citizen that directly elect representatives and presidium members to eight year terms to the People's Presidium of Representatives an the Higher Presidium of the State Khural, respectively.
Personal transportation is dominated in several different districts by automobiles, while other districts rely on less on mechanical transportation. Mass transit accounts for 12% of all work trips with Sükhbaatar, the most common method by the [[Sükhbaataryn Railroad Transit System. Intercity rail constructions has began within Erdenedalai and Delgerkhangai.
Usage of the railroad systems with Sükhbaatar is almost vital to the lifeline of the Sergelen District, which sees the least amount of automobile or public works projects with Sükhbaatar, excluding the Federally Administered Tribal Territory. The most common method of commute within Sergelen is either through bicycle or through the railroad. In a resolution passed by the People's Presidium of Representatives, the slated target of the Sükhbaataryn government is to construct at least 7,000 km of roads by 2024 within Sergelen, as well as reduce costs of transportation and improve infrastructure projects within Sergelen. However thus far, the President Yumjaagiin Batmönkh and the Ministry of Transportation has stopped the funding of this project in an effort to improve infrastructure in Erdenedalai.
The civil airline industry is semi-privately owned, and has mostly been deregulated by Sükhbaatar since 1976. All major airports are publicly owned within the country, and Sükhbaatar has relegated itself to only operating a singular public airline. Of Aeia's 50 busiest passenger airports, one of the busiest is in Sükhbaatar, called Erdenedalai International Airport, and is the hub for Airsükhbaatar and Magentair. In 1982, the Ministry of Transportation and the Ministry of the Interior created the Office of Transportation and Security with approval from the President, XXXX, and the People's Presidium of Representatives.
During the 20th century, the population of geographic Sükhbaatar nearly tripled in size, jumping from an estimated 12 million to over 36 million people. The trend seems to be continuing with the Investment of the SAED. However, most of the growth within the 21st century is focused directly into the easternmost districts, with the western districts seeing a drop of inhabitants.
According to estimations made by the Sükhbaatar Institute of Statistics and Demographics, as of 2018 census, Sükhbaatar has 42.1 million inhabitants, making it bigger than Transcandar, however it remains smaller than its neighbor, Malban. Between 2000 and 2018, the Sükhbaataryn population grew over 6.2 million inhabitants.
Ethnic Sükhbaataryn account for around 86% of the population, and consist of four major groups-Eastern Khümüüs, Western Khümüüs, Sergelen, Khürmani, and Uuguul. The remaining 12% of the population is constituted of Türük people, mainly Transcandarians in the Ömnöduul District; and foreign nationalities, mainly Asuran.
Sükhbaatar has remained steadfast in its denial of Malbanian peoples and has blocked transit of ethnic Malbanians, Malbanian citizens, and people transferring from Malban without exceptions since the Sükhbaataryn-Malbanian Split in 1960.
Main Article: Education in Sükhbaatar
During the People's Republic of Sükhbaatar, education was one of the areas of significant improvement and has since then been the goal of the government of Sükhbaatar, especially during the Byambasüren-Yanjmaan Period. By the end of the Byambasüren-Yanjmaan Period, illiteracy has been practically eliminated from Sükhbaatar, and education within both the Eastern and Western Districts flourished. Funding to Sergelen District public schools has begun being cut by the Sergelen local government in favor of improving infrastructure and health.
The Sükhbaataryn education system is organized into four age-based and skill-based tiers, regarded as primary, secondary, post-secondary academia, and tertiary education. Primary, secondary and tertiary education is administered by the Department of National Education, however post-secondary academia is administered by the Office of Selective Services and the Office of Military Academics, both of which are apart of the Department of the Interior. Education within the Federally Administrated Tribal Territories is not administered on a federal level, rather on a state level. National Education law dictates that children are required to attend school at the age of 6 until they turn 16, either leaving school or completing their secondary education by 18 and afterward being conscripted.
Post-secondary academia extends from 18 to 20, where certain students are picked and selected to join the Sükhbaataryn Officers Regimental Corps, one of the most prestigious and rigorous academic programs in the world, which can never be applied for or re-entered if not selected.
The secondary tier within the Sükhbaatar education system was revamped following the Byambasüren-Yanjmaan Period, following the educational guidelines that Yanjmaa Nemedeyen instituted that is enforced by the Department of National Education. Levels of secondary education are divided into 6 different school categories: Regulated, Regulated Technological, Integrated Regulated, Specialized, Specialized Independent, and Institutional. All inhabitants that have completed their primary tier education with the Secondary School Qualification are mandated to attend a secondary tier school until the age of 16. Students who choose to drop out are forfeited out of the degree that the school and their category would have given them.
Regulated schools, also known as public schools, are non-selective and are required to follow the curriculum that the Office of Educational Curriculum has outlined for Regulated schools. Regulated schools are also required to take in students that Regional Administration determines is unqualified for other school categories. Regulated Technological and Integrated Regulated are both selective in, with students selected based on qualified merit points based on previous educational examinations. However, like Regulated Schools, they do not have a tuition fee.
Specialized Schools are selective in that they require students to pass the Advanced Curriculum Test in order to be eligible for entrance, as well as be selected through qualified merit points. Specialized Schools are privately held after the Byambasüren-Yanjmaan Period and its reforms on education, and require a tuition in order to enroll. Specialized Schools are required to follow the Basic Curriculum Standards that apply to any school level above Regulated. Specialized Schools are normally divided into four different types: Physical/Mathematical, Theocratic Studies, Historical, and Foreign Language. Specialized Independent schools are identical in structure but divide in the curriculum. They act on focusing on technical skills and arts rather than on studies. Specialized Independent schools are normally divided into several different types: Industrial Trade, Service and Health Trade, Construction Trade, Visual and Cinematic Trade.
Tertiary Education requires a tuition with different selective levels based on the educational institution itself. Sükhbaatar offers public community institutes or community colleges that charge less and give up to an associate's degree in general education & a selection of a student's choice. Sükhbaatar, however, has a large public institution that runs as a normal tertiary level institute, however, has a small but very prestigious amount of private institutes. The Gobi Association is the informal term to describe the seven most prestigious colleges located within the Gobi District and the Specially Administrated Eastern District: the Yolyn Am Institute of Technology, Erdenedalai University, the College of Yerutömör, Tsagaanders College, Delgerkhangai Institute, Central Gurvansaikhany College, and the Altai University. Sükhbaatar is considered to be one of the most competitive countries in terms of private schools, however with one of the most funded public school sectors in Central Catai.
Sükhbaatar has, since the religious reforms of Byambasüren, remained a practitioner of not interfering in religious affairs, after the 1920 Sükhbaataryn Religious Purge, targeting practitioners of Göktanrism and Monkhiinism. Within the Federally Administrated Tribal Territory, Mönkhiinism reigns as the most practiced religion with the Mönkhiin Society administrating the religion. The Western Districts of Sergelen and Ömnöduul, as well as the minority of Gobi have a Göktranist majority population, however, Sükhbaataryn shamanism and religious culture, as well as ancient religious structures still remain in place. The Eastern Districts of Specially Administrated Eastern District, Dornod Sergelen, and Darkhan-Uul adhere to a mixture of either agnosticism or Göktranism.
Modern Sükhbaataryn culture has been shaped by the ancient Sükhbaataryn Khaanate and the years following with the Mönkhiin Khaanate of Sükhbaatar. Sükhbaataryn culture is split between Eastern Sükhbaataryn culture, Western Sergelen culture, and small influences from Yunlin in the southernmost region of Choibalsan. Sükhbaataryn culture has since ancient times, absorbed certain cultural traits within their own culture while retaining their core values. Ancient Sükhbaataryn culture is believed to have stemmed from the Erdene People, Tüdevtei and tribes within the Gobi region during Khagan Yerutömör's reign.
During the time of Khagan Yerutömör, the Nömrog-Dörvöjin Tribe and the Sergelen Confederation were absorbed within Yerutömör's Sükhbaatar, where he subsequently absorbed the Nömrog-Dörvöjin Tribe and the Sergelen culture, to which the Nömrog-Dörvöjin Tribe's controlling faction, the Mönkhiin Society controlled the Khaanate under Yerutömör. The Sergelen Steppe on the other hand, flourished with Göktanrism around the same time period after the wars of the neighboring country of Malban.
Despite foreign influence and the communist regime, traditionalist music, Eastern Sükhbaataryn literature, art, cuisine, and cinematography have all been preserved and are still seen as important parts of Sükhbaataryn culture. Sükhbaataryn music has played an integral role within Sükhbaataryn cultures as the main support of it, with Sükhbaataryn Overtone singing, the Morin khuur, and preservation of the tradition of Falconry.
Socially speaking, Sükhbaataryn is one of the most liberal in terms of status quo, with social policies on issues like homosexuality and Template:Recreational drug use never being illegalized neither looked upon as taboo. Adversely, racism against Sergelens and the Sergelen Honor Killing System are not seen as taboo by the population and has contributed to the Sükhbaataryn Sectional Split.
Music and Art
Sükhbaatar official language is Sükhbaataryn language written in Cyrillic. Sükhbaataryn is also written in [[Wikipedia: Mongolian script|Native Sükhaataryn Script]] and is particularly observed in the District of Sergelen. The scripture of Sükhbaataryn in Cyrillic is enforced as apart of the curriculum of Sükhbaatar. Native Sükhbaataryn Script, as well as Mönkhiin Script, is normally offered as an elective during Secondary school, while Sükhbaataryn Braille is a required class within post-secondary academia within the Sükhbaataryn Regimental Officer Corps.
Within South Sükhbaatar, especially in the city of Delgerkhangai, the usage of Yen Character for daily transactions and Template:Hawaiian language as business talks is prevalent. Kawanaka is considered the unofficial language of the market due to the profitable market that exists with Sükhbaatar and Ajerrin. The use of Yen characters is mainly through a modified Goulongese dialect known as Gobine. The use of Kawanaka is recognized as an official language within the region of Santmargats and the region of Altai as alternative business languages, while Gobine is officially recognized as an official language within Darkhan-Uul and is used prevalently when describing Eastern Sükhbaataryn food such as Zagas and Övliin Nuntag, typed out as 魚生 and 冬粉, respectively.
Historically Sükhbaataryn cuisine has been referred to as unorthodox mix between Central Catai and Yidao and independent Sükhbaataryn cuisine. Contemporary Sükhbaataryn cuisine, even with diversity in including cuisine from both Central Catai and Yidao, it is still considered unorthodox. The contemporary Sükhbaataryn cuisine is divided into six different regional categories. Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine, Gobi cuisine, Nömrog cuisine, Sergelen-Ordos cuisine, Ömnöduul cuisine, and Karasuka-Tagar Ömnöduul cuisine are all different regional cuisine categories within Sükhbaatar. Eastern Sükhbaataryn is considered the most modernist and influenced cuisine while Karasuka-Tagar Ömnöduul is considered the most traditionalist cuisine without any area of influence.
Eastern Sükhbaataryn Cuisine
The most notable characteristic of Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine is its influence from Yidao cuisine. Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine saw its most radical and diversified change during the Byambasüren Cultural Revolution during the Byambasüren-Yanjmaan Period, where several other Yidaoan cuisines were introduced, including the concept of fast food, where it was introduced and is centralized within Delgerkhangai. The most notable corporation which controls the fast food industry within Eastern Sükhbaatar is Khaan ni Khair, or normally shortened to Khan no Kair. Buuz is the primary meal while on occasion Bansh is sold alongside.
Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine has seen a considerable introduction of the seafood cuisine and the facilitation of the seafood industry with Bansh [餃子 or Jiǎozi] and Zagas [魚生 or Yusheng]. These two foods have seen considerable popularity within Eastern Sükhbaatar and apart of the modernist scene and slowly absorbed into the Sükhbaataryn culture as a whole. Bansh is a dumpling filled with vegetables or noodles or a substitute filling while Buuk, the normal dumpling universal to nearly all Sükhbaataryn cuisines that is filled with meat, normally Khurga. Zagas has began to take a more expensive role as a more luxurious food while Bansh has become popular common food that is readily sold with Buuz. Eastern Sükhbaataryn has adopted a vegetable and seafood orientated cuisine in more contemporary times since the turn of the decade. Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine is the only cuisine within Sükhbaatar that is not considered a primarily meat or agricultural cuisine.
Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine traditionally dictates that breakfast consists of a bowl of Budaatai huurga or a small plate of wheat noodles mixed with stewed meat and vegetables. Khurga [羊肉 or Yángròu] meat is the most popular variation of meat within Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine. Recently, Övliin Nuntag [冬粉 or Dōngfěn] has become popular due to its fiber-glass texture and modernist appeal to the eye. Övliin Nuntag is usually cooked with native grown and prepared Zügeer Buurtsagny Nuntag [绿豆粉皮 or Lǜdòu fěnpí]. The newly introduced Zaluu Tsarai [幼面 or Yòumiàn] and the traditionalist Khörgökh Aris [凉皮 or Liángpí] still maintain their popularity within the cuisine as a large industry. Övliin Nuntag, Zaluu Tsarai, and Khörgökh Aris have all seen mixture with Bansh being used as a substitute filling. In recent years, Budaatai huurga has seen replacement within vegetarian diets with the introduced Gazryn Tosny Tofu Nuntag Shöl [油豆腐線粉湯 or Yóu Dòufu-Xiàn Fěn Tāng], which consists of Övliin Nuntag and fried Seitan [豆腐 or Dòufu] to act like a vegetarian replacement from Övliin Nuntag and Khurga.
Eastern Sükhbaataryn has also recently incorporated Alcopop as a genre of alcoholic beverages that differ from the traditionalist Narkhi and Airag. The most popular brand that has popped up within Sükhbaatar has been Batbayar's Amttai Arkhi [Батбаяр Aмттай Aрхи]. Batbayar's Amttai Arkhi translates to Batbayar's Tasty Alcohol, and has gained traction within the modernist scene in Delgerkhangai and the rest of the area generally covered by Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine. While Narkhi and Airag have still seen mediocre popularity, its stagnation within the market compared to Batbayat's Amttai Arkhi, Narkhi and Airag have seen continued success within every other regional cuisine, including the traditionalist Gobi cuisine.
Karasuka-Tagar Ömnöduul Cuisine
Gobi cuisine is considered uninfluenced Eastern Sükhbaataryn cuisine