|People's Republic of Riro
Namorese: Риро Имингука
|Ethnic groups||Namorese, Minjianese, Katranjians|
|Government||Unitary non-partisan parliamentary republic|
|Independence (from Katranjiev)|
|-||Katranjian control||May 19, 1954|
|-||Independence (for Maritsa, Iztokov, Katran and Valariev)||April 30, 2014|
Riro is a small landlocked sovereign state in Velkia that is in free association with Namor. Situated in the Riro Valley between the Karpati Mountains and Xhinan Highlands, it is sandwiched between Namor in the east and Katranjiev in the west.
Although Riro changed hands between Katranjiev and Namor throughout much of its history, it has been populated by ethnic Namorese since the ninth century CE, when Vaclav III of Katranjiev expelled many Namorese to the region. A second wave of Namorese migration occurred in the 1600s as Akka loyalists sought refuge from the Hao dynasty. After a Hao invasion of Katranjiev in 1785 which ended in a stalemate, Namor and Katranjiev agreed to jointly administer Riro, establishing a condominium that effectively lasted until the 1900s, when Katranjiev regained total control of Riro as well as parts of Namor. The dispute over Riro ended in 1954 after the People's Republic of Namor agreed to recognize Liberationist Katranjiev's sovereignty over Riro in turn for Katranjian recognition of Namorese sovereignty over territory annexed by Katranjiev in 1914.
Riro remained contently a part of Katranjiev due to policies of the Liberationist government that favored ethnic Namorese. However, calls for independence grew after the Katranjian monarchy was restored and power shifted back to the Katranjian majority. In 2014, the majority Namorese duchies of Iztokov, Katran, Maritsa and Valariev voted to secede from Katranjiev, forming the People's Republic of Riro.
Since declaring independence, Riro has relied heavily on Namor for its economic needs, leading many to consider the state a de facto part of Namor. The Riroese and Namorese governments have entered talks on unification, but progress has stalled due to disagreements over Riro's status after unification with Namor.
When the Namorese first settled present-day Riro and Katranjiev, they considered the Karpati Mountains to be the "Western Mountains" - the mythological western edge of the world and the abode of the sun goddess Rishen. The valley between the Karpati and Xhinan Mountains thus became known as Riro (Namorese for sunset) reflecting the ancient Namorese belief that it is the "land of the sunset."
Riro was an integral part of successive Namorese dynasties up until the eighth century CE, when Katranjiev declared independence. In the centuries that followed the Katranjian rebellion against Namorese rule, Riro faced numerous Katranjian incursions and Namorese counter-incursions. During the reign of Queen Sofia II, Katranjiev conquered Riro, beginning a period of complete Katranjian rule that would last uninterrupted until the 18th century.
Thousands of Akka loyalists fled to Riro as the Hao dynasty took control of Minjian, which for years had served as a base for anti-Hao resistance. The migration caused a spike in Katranjiev's Namorese population; to this day, nearly 40% of Riroese can trace their ancestry back to the loyalist refugees. While Namorese in Namor were forced to adopt Tuhaoese customs, Namorese in Riro retained many customs from the Akka dynasty. As hopes for restoring the Akka faded, the immigrants developed a local identity.
In 1785, the Hao dynasty invaded Katranjiev with the hope of bringing it back into the Namorese sphere of influence. Despite inflicting heavy casualties on the Hao and halting their advance, the Katranjians agreed to enter talks in order to prevent a second Hao invasion. The following year, Katranjiev and Namor signed the Treaty of Licho, which mandated that taxes collected in five duchies (Iztokov, Katran, Maritsa, Trifonov and Valariev) be equally divided between the two countries, and allowed authorities from both countries to operate in the duchies. The treaty is famous for establishing the first known condominium in Esquarian history, although the treaty was not always enforced in its entirely.
Katranjiev exercised total control of Riro while the Hao dynasty turned inward to put down the Chen Minko Rebellion. After the rebellion, taxes returned to being divided between Katranjiev and Namor, but Namorese law lost all real influence in Riro. As the Hao dynasty neared its collapse, Katranjiev took full control of Riro again, this time incorporating territory beyond the Namorese border as well.
The Republic of Namor, which took power in 1910, inherited the Hao dynasty's claims over Riro, recognizing it as a prefecture of Xhipei Province. However, no actions were taken against Katranjiev because of the civil war.
The rise of Liberationist governments in Namor and Katranjiev gave both countries an opportunity to renegotiate the border. In 1940, Namor and Katranjiev and signed the Treaty of Namo-Katranjian Friendship, which officially ceded Riro to Katranjiev and restored Namorese sovereignty over all territory annexed by Katranjiev in 1914.
Riro enjoyed the highest standard of living in Katranjiev under Liberationist rule as a result of policies that benefited the ethnic Namorese and cross-border trade with Namor.
The restoration of the monarchy in Katranjiev spurred fears that the new government would enact anti-Namorese policies. An independence movement in the eastern duchies emerged while Katranjian identity among ethnic Namorese declined.
In 2013, a petition for an independence referendum was approved, and a referendum for the five duchies mentioned in the Treaty of Licho was announced for April 29, 2014. On the day of the referendum, four duchies - Iztokov, Katran, Maritsa and Valariev - voted for independence, while Trifonov voted to remain in Katranjiev. On May 30, the People's Republic of Riro was established.
Riro has three levels of administration divisions - prefectures, municipalities and townships. There are four prefectures, 12 cities and 43 townships.
|Tera (formerly Katran)||Diyacho||554,014|
|Mara (formerly Maritsa)||Chucho||330,105|
|Rungnei (formerly Valeriev)||Mingcho||503,207|
|Anxhi (formerly Iztokov)||Licho||1,954,201|
Riro is a unitary non-partisan parliamentary republic. It is one of the few states in Esquarium where political parties are not allowed to exist, although there are unofficial factions that are viewed as parties.
The political system of Riro is similar to that of Namor. The Riroese Central Council (CenCo), a 25-member body, is the nation's legislature and center of power. Elections for CenCo are held every five years, and the CenCo in turn elects the Chairperson, members of the cabinet, the Supreme People's Procuratorate (SPP) and Supreme People's Court (SPC). It also has the power to declare war, impeach officials and ratify treaties.
The Chairperson, who is the head of government, has the power to promulgate laws, sign treaties with foreign countries, appoint ambassadors to foreign countries and command the military. The Chairperson answers to the Central Council, and may be removed by the Central Council through a motion of no confidence.
The Supreme People's Court (SPC) is the highest court in Riro. Like its namesake in Namor, the SPC consists of five judges who are appointed by the Central Council. But unlike the Namorese SPC, the judges of the Riroese SPC have equal status and are not bound by term limits.
Riro does not officially have a military. Instead, it has a network of militias. It is estimated that the Rirorese militias have over 10,000 members, most of whom are either members of the former ducal militias, ethnic Namorese soldiers of the Katranjian military who lived in Riro prior to its independence, or volunteers.
Although Namor and Riro never signed a defense treaty, Namor is believed to have had considerable influence over Riro's defense since the two countries signed the Treaty of Free Association.
The issue of Riro's defense has been brought up in discussions about unification with Namor. Proponents of unification say joining Namor would transfer the burden of defending Riro to the Namorese Liberation Army, which is constitutionally prohibited from garrisoning troops beyond the territory of Namor or any other Cenba member state.
As a result of centuries of Katranjian influence, Riro follows the Katranjian practice of classifying all peoples of Namorese origin as ethnic Namorese, irrespective of cultural or linguistic differences. Thus, the first census conducted after independence reported that 99% of Riroese are ethnic Namorese. However, a study by Xiangmen University and the Royal University of Krasimir found that 61% of ethnic Namorese in Riro are Kannei Namorese while the remaining 38% are ethnic Minjianese.
The remaining 1% of the population mostly comprise of ethnic Katranjians who have decided to stay in Riro following its independence from Katranjiev, as well as more recent immigrants.
Surveys show a majority of Riroese practice some sort of Namorese folk religion, or Txoism. Because Riro is situated next to southwestern Namor, most Riroese Txoists belong to the southwestern sect of Txoism, which regards Vanho and Rishen as patron deities of the area.
There is also a sizable minority of Rirorese who adhere to Lutheran Catholicism, mostly either ethnic Namorese who converted to Lutheran Catholicism, or ethnic Katranjians who stayed in Riro following its independence.
However, for informal day-to-day purposes, the populace generally use Southwestern Namorese, which is part of the Nan dialect, which is a dialect continuum between Standard Namorese and Minjianese, albeit with heavy influences from Katranjian. While most works are published in the standard dialect, works directed to children will often use the local dialects and use the orthographies proposed by Grigor Zhelyaskov (usually for Shintzi writings), or Ivailo Zhai (for Ventzi writings).