Republican State of Tolmakia

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Republican State of Tolmakia
Dhi Rifovlechan Shdadi Up Dulmnakea
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Error creating thumbnail: File missing
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Pur Fiachi, Harmuny and a Juud Chaushi" (Engekian)
"For Peace, Harmony and a Good Cause"
Anthem: Dhi Fredi En Homeledy
"The Pride In Humility"
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Tolmakia in Europe (green)
CapitalMeddli City
Largest city Menlani City
Official languages Tolmakian
English
Ethnic groups (2016) 77% British
14% European
5% Asian
Demonym Tolmakian
Aedan (historical)
Tommy (informal)
Government Unitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
 -  Prime Minister Laura Maruani
 -  Deputy Prime Minister Lorna Prabin
Legislature Republican Assembly
 -  Upper house Republican State's Council
 -  Lower house Republican People's Assembly
Independence of Tolmakia from the United Kingdom
 -  Finzilanian Revolution November 2, 1960 
 -  Declaration of Independence November 20, 1965 
 -  Tolmakian Civil War November 30, 1965 
 -  Split Treaty December 10, 1965 
 -  Reunification November 29, 1975 
Area
 -  Total 62,042 km2
23,955 sq mi
Population
 -  2016 estimate ~30,000,000
 -  Density 483/km2
1,200/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total ~$1.5 trillion
 -  Per capita ~$42,000
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $1.5 trillion
 -  Per capita $41,000
Gini (2015)Steady 37.6
medium
HDI (2015)Steady 0.910
very high
Currency Sheni (S$) (TRS)
Time zone (UTC+1) (GMT)
Date format yyyy/mm/dd (in Tolmakian script)
dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +442
Internet TLD .tm

Tolmakia (/tɔl.meɪk.jæ/ or /tɔʊl.meːk.jæ/; Tolmakian: 4IК4ИIՕꝉ; Engekian: Dulmnakea), officially known as the Republican State of Tolmakia or Republic of Tolmakia (Tolmakian: 4IК4ИIՕꝉ • lՕ • Lꝉ4ꝉ3 • Ӥ4ᶘIlbvꟼLꝚ; Engekian: Dhi Rifovlechan Shdadi Up Dulmnakea) is a small peninsular sovereign state located in Northern Europe, on the Island of Great Britain. It occupies the former Southern England region, and is the only country to share land borders with the United Kingdom (aside from the Republic of Ireland), and the only sovereign state to share borders with England. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the West, the North Sea to the East, and the British Channel to the South, which separates it from Northern France.

Tolmakia is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic. Since its reunification in 1975, the mainly centrist Republican Party has remained in power. Its capital is Meddli City, which was designated as the state's seat of power and commercial activity after its reunification. Even after independence, Tolmakia has kept the boundaries of former British ceremonial counties and their names, but has divided its land into five primary regions: Menlan, Norlan, Eslen, Weslan, and Haii. The republic is currently led by Prime Minister Laura Maruani (its first female prime minister) as the head of state and government, who has been in office since the year 2016. The current deputy prime minister is Lorna Prabin.

With a mostly shrouded past, the Ancient Aedans were believed to be a separate people which later merged with the Anglo-Saxons. Though they remained extant by establishing communities throughout the British Isles, Aedans would be part of the United Kingdom and the British Empire until 1965, at the conclusion of the Finzilanian Revolution. During this long period, Aedans were usually discriminated against or referred to as "Oddtongues" whenever they spoke their language or practiced their culture. Because of the pressure to fully integrate into British (mainly English) societies, Aedans underwent "extreme Anglicization": this led to the Ancient Aedan language evolving to Modern Tolmakian, a language heavily based on English. Aside from their language, not much remains of its indigenous culture.

At the start of the 21st century, Tolmakia entered the international stage as a major supporter of many multinational groups it was a part of, the UN and NATO included. Under the leadership of several nationalist Republican Party leaders, it attempted to assert itself as a world power. After the opposing Liberal Democrats influenced the passing of the short-lived 2014 Self-Defence Policy, Tolmakia resorted to having purely diplomatic ties with other nations, while its armed forces were restricted to solely aiding its allies with non-offensive support, otherwise in humanitarian missions only. In 2016, a referendum amended said treaty, removing the limit of forces that could be deployed worldwide, and allowing the military to resume taking more active roles.

The republic is a member of the United Nations, as well as the Commonwealth, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 2017, it applied to join the European Union, although later backed out under the administration of Prime Minister Laura Maruani. Today, it is considered a middle power in military and economic terms, and is one of the world's most developed nations (achieving this status by late 1989).

Etymology

Before the nation was called Tolmakia, its inhabitants were called the Aedans. The word "Aedan" is believed to have come from a heavily corrupted version of "Odd-tongue," due to the mispronunciation by the Aedans themselves. The word "Aedan" may still be used to describe a Tolmakian in literature or formal discussion.

The name "Tolmakia" is thought to have originated from Sir Thomakia's name, who served as a royal guard of Queen Elizabeth I. However, it is also thought that the name was derived from the name "Thomas," from Thomas Breshire, one of many citizens who led the Tolmakian Revolution. In addition, Breshire was a descendant of Sir Thomakia. Thomas Breshire himself was believed to have chosen the name over the state's initially proposed one, "Finzilan," which was named after Southern England's "Fin," or the tip of the island, where the Aedans were believed to have originated from. Even though "Tolmakia" was chosen over "Finzilan," the latter is still used as an archaic term for the nation, although rarely.

The standard way to refer to a citizen of Tolmakia is as a "Tolmakian." "Tolmakian" (plural: Tolmakians) is also the standard adjective. An informal way to refer to a Tolmakian is as a "Tommy" or "Tom-boy/Tom-girl."

History

Main article: History of Tolmakia

Before the 20th century

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Reenactment of the English Civil War in Tolmakia.

Settlement in what was to become Tolmakia by anatomically modern humans occurred around 40,000 years ago. These inhabitants were hunter-gatherers, who made their living from hunting prey and gathering edible plants. The last Ice Age, ending around 10,000 years ago marked the beginning of the Mesolithic era. Rising sea levels separated Tolmakia from continental European for the last time, in around 6,500 BCE. The population by this period were exclusively of the genus Homo, Homo sapiens sapiens, and more archeological evidence suggests that their societies became increasingly complex. The climate continued to improve, and it is likely the population was on the rise at this time.

The Neolithic era began with the introduction of farming and cultivation. Monumental collective tombs were built to house the dead, in the form of chambered cairns and long barrows, and towards the end of the period, other kinds of monumental stone alignments begin to appear, such as Stonehenge. Flint technology also developed, producing a number of highly artistic or down-to-earth artifacts. Fields and pastures were then created in the clearance of widespread woodlands. The Sweet Track in the Somerset Levels is one of the oldest timber trackways discovered in Tolmakia and Northern Europe, and is among the oldest roads in the world.

Sometime during the late Bronze Age, the first Aedans began to appear. While they are claimed to be of Belgic or Celtic origin, their language and most of their known original culture were neither Celtic or Belgic in nature. Today, Ancient Tolmakian itself is widely accepted as a Language isolate. While late-Iron Age Aedans had effectively adopted Celtic languages, Ancient Tolmakian was spoken until the early years of the Aedan's assimilation. Aedan communities, while emphasizing on the individual, were mostly communal and close-knit; though they had tribal leaders, power was equally distributed and the concept of "elite" members was mostly alien to them.

In the Iron Age, it is suggested from archeological evidence that the Aedans who lived near what is now Fin Point Bay had a sophisticated trade network. This network may have been part of the Atlantic trade system. Within time, Gaulic and Belgic invasions totally assimilated the smaller easter Aedan communities. With this, the Aedans who lived in Fin Point Bay and around western Britain thrived until the Romans came. Julius Caesar, however, was not able to establish a province in the land, and only the easternmost Aedan tribes were disturbed. They were finally conquered by the Romans in around 43 BC. The last Aedan tribe, the Zutolipretans fell in 45 AD. The Britons and some 20,000 irate Aedans under Queen Boudica later revolted against the Romans.

After the Romans departed from the Island of Britannia in the 4th century, the subsequent Anglo-Saxon invasion led the remaining Aedan tribes to fade into obscurity. While some tribes continued asserting their cultural identity, they were always supplanted by other dominant ones. It is thought that they were voluntarily assimilated, partly because of the strong influence of the Anglo-Saxon or other British peoples, or for survival. Thus began their "Anglicization" with the English people, for more than one millennium. Because of this period, not much today is known about indigenous Aedan culture.

The following centuries would have the Aedans extensively share their history with the British, from the Norman Invasion of 1066 to the post-World War II era. Notable events that the Aedans are involved in are: the wars against William Wallace, the Hundred Years War, the Crusades, the Reformation, the War of the Roses, the defeat of the Spanish Armada, the Renaissance, the exploration of the New World, the English Civil War, the British conquests of the 18th century, the War of 1812, the Napoleonic Wars, the Industrial Revolution, and the Boxer Rebellion. There were also events that centered on them, such as the Fifteen Years War, the War Without Blood, the Battle of Oddton, Aedan Feudal Clashes, and the Aedan Restoration/Renaissance.

Along these events, the Aedans became Protestants, were equivocally included with the Acts of Union in the 1700s, and had their language evolve to one based heavily on English. Though they were virtually assimilated, purely hereditary Aedan communities continued existing, and their existence was acknowledged by the British. The Aedans were given the distinctive label "Oddtongues," and were commonly treated like second-class citizens. Discrimination was not uncommon: they were rarely able to access posts of high rank, but were able to join the level of intellectuals; some became popular explorers, professors, and scientists. Most notably, they served in the armies of the British Empire.

By the late 19th century, this assimilation period would begin its end with the introduction of liberal ideas and nationalism to some disgruntled Aedan factions. These would eventually lead to progressive Aedans ascending to power in the British government, a series of unsuccessful peaceful petitions and hostile revolts for independence, and ultimately the Finzilanian Revolution in the next century.

20th century

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The Battle of Britain, in which Tolmakia (then Southern England) suffered devastating damage.

During World War I, some 20,000 – 30,000 Aedans were conscripted in the British military. Over 10,000 – 15,000 of them died from combat-related causes and disease. The Aedans chiefly served as scouts, submarine-detecting crews aboard airships or naval vessels, and had some of their own infantry units.

After the Great War, the first Tolmakian party, the Aedan National Party was established. The party's members and its outside supporters were perfectly aware of the UK's national debt and the effects of the war on its economy. Seizing this as an opportunity for independence, they sponsored many small-scale revolutions and campaigns for independence around the British Empire, when diplomatic efforts for freedom failed. They executed most of these during the Irish Nationalism disputes, and participated in the General Strike of 1926. These efforts would unfortunately and ultimately fail, and the Aedan National Party subsequently split into the Aedan Revolutionary Party and the Aedan Independence Party as a result of internal conflict in the party related to these failures.

With the outbreak of World War II, the Aedan political parties temporarily halted their campaigns for Aedan independence, and offered their support to the British government and its allies. In response to the 1939 invasion of Poland and Czechoslovakia by Germany, British forces with incorporated Aedan combat units were sent to fight the Nazi forces. Some Tolmakians saw service in Asia (specifically British India, Burma, and Singapore), in the Battle of the Atlantic, and the North African Campaign. The Battle of Britain marked the only time when the mainland of pre-independent Tolmakia was ever bombed. During preparations for the D-Day landings, tens of thousands of Aedans joined the allied invasion force. As soldiers of the British armed forces, they participated in the D-Day landings. Over 12,000 soldiers and 300 Aedan civilians died in the war.

After the end of World War II, the temporary truce between the British government and pro-Aedan independence parties was broken when disruptive campaigns for independence continued and flared up spontaneously to political violence. Taking advantage of the British Empire's diminished economic position, the rise of nationalism in its other colonies, and its later disintegration, Aedan nationalist factions boldly resumed sponsoring pro-independence activists and their uprisings. Despite these actions, the Aedan calls for independence were still not recognized, even after India and Pakistan became independent. In 1950, Thomas Breshire became the leader of the renamed Tolmakian Revolutionary Party, and restarted peaceful independence campaigns. Conversely, the Tolmakian Independence Party kept harassing the British, and took advantage of their issues, external (like the Suez Canal Crisis) and internal (its shortage of workers).

Establishment

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Republican forces in Cornwall, during the Aedan Civil War.

In 1960, Thomas Breshire's painstakingly crafted plans for a peaceful and smooth independence were derailed by the Tolmakian Independence Party's insurgency movement that plagued Southern England. The latter party was instrumental to the creation of an Aedan armed force, which conducted guerrilla warfare and tactical operations against the British. There were a few gun battles and bombings between the Tolmakian militants and local authorities. Ronald Provens, the leader of the Tolmakian Independence Party, attempted to persuade Breshire to cooperate with his party's own plans, but instead strained their relations. The independence and revolutionary parties were later branded as sponsors of terrorism (and even as terrorists themselves, by some individuals in the British government). This led to the two parties dissolving.

In 1964, the British government offered to grant autonomy to the Aedans, and cede parts of Southern England that were officially sanctioned as their ancestral lands. When this offer was not taken and the insurgency continued, full independence was subsequently rewarded to them in the Anglo-Aedan Treaty. Southern England (except London, and other places that were culturally and politically significant to the UK) were given to the Aedans. As most of the region's inhabitants were Aedan or of Aedan descent, only a few migration episodes took place. Independence did not go without friction, however: the loss of English land and the bloody revolt created a deep resentment amongst the English populace against the Tolmakians. British relations were better with the remnants of Breshire's party, than with the former members of the Tolmakian Independence Party.

After independence was granted, the Aedans started creating many other political parties, but none were able to compete with the remnants of the Tolmakian Revolutionary Party and Tolmakian Independence Party. The Anglo-Aedan Treaty, awarding authority of the new state to them, made them the dominant political entities in the new state. Eventually, the Conservative Monarchist Party evolved from what was left of the Independence Party, and the Republican Party from the leftovers of the Revolutionary Party. Thomas Breshire led the latter, and Princess Anna Marina (a claimed distant relative/ancestor of British/European royalty) headed the former. Their relations soured when their ideologies began clashing; the Monarchists wanted an authoritarian state that resembled the UK, while the more liberal Republicans wanted to create a republic similar to the Republic of Ireland.

To avoid unnecessary conflict, the parties vowed to settle their disputes peacefully. They came to meet in Bristol, which was the previously agreed location for what would have been Tolmakia's capital city. The meeting proceeded peacefully, until it was interrupted by gunmen entering through meeting building, attacking the Republicans, and mortally wounding Thomas Breshire, as well as other important members of the Republican delegation. According to Mavil Szuperk (the aide of Breshire then), "[the gunmen] escaped virtually uninjured, and after that, the atmosphere in the room was just unruly." The princess repeatedly denied having anything to do with the attack, amidst the furious accusations and rants of surviving Republican officials. Prior to leaving, the Republicans were alleged to make a statement, equivalent to an official declaration of war.

After the gravely wounded Breshire died three days later, a large crowd in Western Tolmakia attended his funeral. Many of his supporters rallied to prepare for retaliatory measures against the Monarchists. Pro-Republican members of the newly formed armed forces carried out attacks on Monarchist key locations, and their highest-ranking members. After they continued denying their involvement in the attack that led to Breshire's death, Republican troops stormed a Monarchist shelter and arrested every Monarchist in it, including one of Marina's right-hand men, Ronald Provens. This prompted the monarchists to mobilize their own forces. Princess Anna Marina gathered her supporters in what is now Pralina, and ordered the deployment of pro-Monarchist militants to fight against the Republicans.

On 30 November 1965, the Aedan Civil War broke out. An assassination attempt on the Republican's new leader, Konan Danishwire caused Republican troops to march towards the Monarchist capital in Eastern Tolmakia. Coincidentally, pro-Monarchist forces were heading towards the Republican capital. The first units from both sides encountered each other in what is now Meddli Square. The war's first battle, the Battle of Oxford, was won by the Republicans. Their commander, Captain Ronald Webbers, pushed the Monarchists back to Northampton.

Intense fighting in northern and middle Tolmakia led to the collapse of both sides' military structures; just within days, the Monarchist and Republican armies were reduced to scattered and disorganized units. The war rapidly boiled down to a stalemate; the Republicans only managed to occupy middle and southern Tolmakia, while the Monarchists were triumphant in the north.

Two days before the end of the war, both sides hastily regrouped, and attempted to break the stalemate by staging a surprise attack on each other's capitals. Before the Republicans could carry out their assault, word was received that the Monarchists were also planning the same thing on them. As Bristol was besieged moments later, the Republican forces carried out their attack on the Monarchist's capital. Monarchist commandos snuck through the English border, and staged their assault from the English side. In anticipation of Bristol's successful invasion, the Republican Party fled to Ireland.

Disturbed by the intrusion of Monarchists forces in their territory and the state of chaos beyond its border, the United Kingdom (with the backing of the international community) intervened, by deploying a detachment of peacekeepers and the Royal Air Force to Tolmakia. The Royal Navy itself was deployed around the Tolmakian coastline. British diplomats were sent to the leaders of both factions, in an attempt bring the war to an end, and them to the negotiating table. After a ceasefire and a meeting with both sides' heads, the civil war officially ended, and political talks began with the Truce of Oxfordshire.

Split era

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Soldiers of the republicans in 1965.

On 9 December 1965, in the city of London, Konan Danishwire and Princess Anna Marina came to agreements concerning the battered nation. With the help of neutral parties and negotiators, they agreed that: the nation would be divided with a vertical boundary, with the western portion under Republican authority, and the eastern portion under Monarchist sovereignty; each party would respect each other's ideologies and policies; each party will conduct their own politics free from each other's influence, but cooperate together on reaching a peaceful agreement that would benefit both sides, in the event of a future dispute; and that no hostile measures will be taken by either side, as long as they respect the mentioned terms.

These agreements were drafted into what is known as the Split Treaty (officially known as the Tolmakian Partition Treaty). The treaty was signed on 10 December, 1965. With this, Eastern Tolmakia would include Eslen, Eastern Menlan, Eastern Haii and Eastern Norlan, while Western Tolmakia would include Western Haii, Weslan, Western Menlan and Western Norlan. In Western Tolmakia, democratic elections were held. Though he offered a chance to be replaced, Konan Danishwire was reelected as the Republicans' leader, and as Western Tolmakia's first prime minister. Eastern Tolmakia was immediately put under the authority of Princess Anna Marina.

In 1966, Konan Danishwire started prioritizing the nation's economy. Threats from the east, and the poor standard of living promptly led him to add defence and social welfare to his priorities. The republic's economy was in a negligible state, and its national defense and social welfare system were in very bad shape. The nation had a water supply network which was left damaged after the civil war, and water had to be exported by other nations in some cases. Eastern Tolmakia in comparison had a burgeoning economy, a progressive defence structure, and a slightly better welfare system.

On 20 July 1965, a large scale reformation of the social welfare system and the economy began in Western Tolmakia. With spare funds and donations, the national industry was given a boost, and new jobs were created; as citizens entered employment, the pace of war reparations was sped up. This reformation partially succeeded, but its scale of success was enough to allow the republic to surpass its eastern counterpart. In 1969, Konan made his first attempts to reach out, and create amiable ties with the international community. This led to the amendment of Anglo-Aedan relations, and the more positive perception of Western Tolmakia in the United Kingdom.

In 1970, another reformation program was undertaken with great success, this time for reorganizing the armed forces and local law enforcement. The nation now had accessible clean water as well, and blackouts were eliminated by late 1974. Furthermore, by this time, the Eastern Tolmakian economy became stagnant, and started deteriorating. The kingdom started its woeful decline, and discontentment with the monarch was high. Unlike Western Tolmakia, it did not have any beneficial ties to the international community.

In 1972, the Western Tolmakian Military Forces became capable of obtaining equipment with their own funds, and ordered their first batch of modern equipment, which included attack aircraft and armoured vehicles. In 1974, Western Tolmakia had a more superior military force and economy than Eastern Tolmakia. The republic's successes over its Monarchist rival state led to the extension of Konan Danishwire's single 6-year term into two terms. He set about signing an economic and trade agreement with the UK, and other nations that took note of the republic's improving condition.

As Eastern Tolmakia suffered and became more and more isolated, Western Tolmakia was presented with more favourable support from the international community. In 1975, the final blow that would send Eastern Tolmakia collapsing would be the National Military Parade and the UK–Tolmakian Summit, which sealed a mutual defense pact and an extended trade agreement. The latter completely cut off Eastern Tolmakia from the international community, and prompted massive protests to break out in the kingdom.

Post-reunification

Harriers being flown by Tolmakian pilots.

In 1975, Tolmakia reunited under peaceful terms. The Monarchists were ousted, and a hegemonic period began for the Republican Party. With growing pressure from her people and coup attempts, Princess Anna Marina abdicated peacefully and left her position "for the sake of Tolmakia." In memory of the reunification of the two states, an elaborate 10-foot high granite memorial with a silver plaque commemorating the event was established in what is now Meddli Square, near Middle Park. Many ex-Monarchist organisations were merged with their western counterparts. The Eastern Tolmakian Defence Industry would be reformed to become one of the nation's popular defence contractors, the DDE, which later played key roles in the creation of the modern military. The TAAS was also established, and would launch its first satellite not too long in the future.

Thus, the present government of Tolmakia was formed, during the first Green Month of 1975. The modern Republican Party was formed in the same year, with Gam Dovuel as its head. After Konan stepped down, Devin Kashlevin was elected by the Unified Tolmakian Assembly. He declared Tolmakia a "Republican State," and Meddli City, the site where the official reunion of the two sides took place, was established in Oxfordshire and designated as the national capital. Months after the union, Tolmakia abruptly found itself in the midst of the Cold War. It formally aligned itself with the countries of NATO, against the USSR and the eastern bloc countries. Tolmakia later became part of the Commonwealth.

The decade that came next brought with it the most memorable golden period of the country. The national economy started its rapid growth, prices were low, and Tolmakian businesses prospered. Foreign investors were attracted by this economic boom, and skyscrapers quickly occupied Oxfordshire. The military was far better than it was 10 years ago, and there was an efficient police force. Along with this, modern Aedan culture was born; some old customs began returning through reinterpretation, and both domestic cinema and media took off. By 1982, all traces of the civil war were virtually gone. During the Falklands War, Tolmakia gave some military support to the United Kingdom. The fairly young Tolmakian Navy dispatched 2 frigates to assist the Royal Navy. With this, UK–Tolmakian ties started flourishing. During this period, Prime Minister Fred Leathes was in office.

In 1990, Tolmakia joined NATO. By this time, the morale of its leaders was boosted by the final years of the golden period. When the 21st century came, the republic aimed to assert itself as a new major power in the international stage. Because of this, the century opened with the Tolmakian Military Forces participating in many overseas conflicts, like the Persian Gulf War, the Invasion of Afghanistan, and the Libyan Civil War. Though the golden ages were over, the economy continued to take off until the 1998 economic recession. Though the crisis ended in roughly 2003, the economy was never as prosperous as it was in the 1980s.

From 2004 to 2010, the Tolmakian economy began thriving again. Many Aedan business ventures established footholds around the world, and through this, Tolmakia's private sector started investing heavily in other foreign markets. In 2005, US President George W. Bush visited, and strengthened US–Tolmakian relations, especially their economic ties. After the visit, Tolmakia agreed to send some more troops to the Middle East to support US–led coalitions. This led to both public discontentment, and the formal creation of the PLOT, Tolmakia's second overseas territory until 2015. The country was mildly affected by the 2008 Global Financial Crisis, but was able to recover completely by 2014.

In the 2010 Elections, Madd Daneili became the 8th Prime Minister of Tolmakia. At the start of his term, the Second Pejite War broke out and the PLOT was invaded, causing him to begin his incumbency by leading the nation in the conflict. After the war, the country's economic growth was counterbalanced by substantial external debt, thanks to the government's increased expenditures abroad. The Liberal Democratic Party influenced the passing of the 2014 Self-Defence Policy as an attempt to curb spending overseas. However, said policy was amended two years later, as it severely affected the military and caused controversy within parliament. Though the policy was overturned, it successfully led to the reformation of the military, making it a smaller force that emphasized on force multipliers. The government also ceased its efforts in making Tolmakia a power, and switched to more pacifist political methods to settle the bulk of its conflicts.

In 2015, Xi Jinping visited Tolmakia to strengthen Chinese–Tolmakian ties. In the same year, Tolmakia took in 5,000 war refugees from the Middle East a month, until it barred immigrants from entering the next year. It also renounced the ownership of the PLOT after the dissolution of the Kingdom of Free Pejite. In mid-2016, the government allowed the execution of Operation Red Sunset, its own contribution to fighting against terrorism abroad.

In 2017, Tolmakia was on the brink of being accepted into the EU. It had met the criteria for applying for a membership in 1999, but indecision on part of the national government and the economic recession that lasted from 1998 to 2003 led it to withhold its application. In 2015, it renewed its interest in joining the organization, and after two years of processing was nearly integrated into the EU until Prime Minister Laura Maruani derailed the process due to multiple reasons (mainly Brexit-related issues, and the Euro debate in Tolmakia).

Geography

Main article: Geography of Tolmakia
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The Plains of Norlan, near Cambridgeshire.

Tolmakia is a peninsula that juts out of the southern part of Britain, and shares a 200 mile border with England. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the United Kingdom, the Bristol Channel, and the British Channel. One of the most notable places, Fin Point bay is located in the southern tip of Weslan, Tolmakia. It is notable for its burgeoning fish populations and marine life, its underwater terrain, and has been named one of the country's most popular hotspots for fishermen and marine biologists.

Tolmakia has a fairly temperate climate. Plains mainly dominate the southern counties, while lush forest-covered mountains can be found bordering with the UK in the northwestern areas. The nation's total area is 62,042 square kilometers (23,955 square miles), not including water. The nation's largest region is Menlan, the main region, which is 18,000 square kilometers. The smallest region is Eslen, the eastern province, which is just over 6,000 kilometers. Tolmakia is located between the latitudes 49° and 52° North, and longitudes 7° West and 2° East.

The River Thames (which is the republic's longest river) flows through New Oxford, Oxfordshire through the Menlan Province, and the nation's only major lake, Lake Mary near Norlan, the north province. It eventually flows into England, where it reaches the sea through Greater London. The River Severn empties out into Norlanian Bristol.

Climate

The average temperatures in Tolmakia are 0 °C (32 °F) in winter, and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. The typical coldest months are January until March, and the warmest months are June until late October. Snowfall usually begins in late December, and ends in the middle of April. While snow is existent in Tolmakia, it frequently comes in small amounts. Atlantic currents warmed by the Gulf Stream bring relatively mild winters overall.

According to the National Weather Group, rainstorms occur four to seventeen times a year. When they occur, rainfalls are usually more heavier in Weslan. The main region is also prone to torrential downpours. While rains may be lighter in Eslen and Norlan, these regions experience more humidity, usually accompanied by light showers or fog, for most of the cooler seasons. Hail is a common occurrence in western Norlan during the cold months.

Climate of Tolmakia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average maximum temperature
°C (°F)
6.9
(44.4)
7.2
(45.0)
9.8
(49.6)
12.4
(54.3)
15.8
(60.4)
18.6
(65.5)
20.9
(69.6)
20.7
(69.3)
17.9
(64.2)
13.9
(57.0)
9.9
(49.8)
7.2
(45.0)
13.5
(56.3)
Average minimum temperature
°C (°F)
1.3
(34.4)
1.1
(34.0)
2.6
(36.7)
3.9
(39.0)
6.7
(44.1)
9.5
(49.1)
11.7
(53,1)
11.5
(52.7)
9.6
(49.3)
6.9
(44.4)
3.8
(38.8)
1.6
(34.9)
5.9
(42.6)
Sunshine
hours
54.2 74.3 107.6 155.2 190.6 182.6 193.5 182.5 137.2 103.1 64.5 47.3 1492.7
Rainfall
mm (inches)
82.9
(3.3)
60.3
(2.4)
64.0
(2.5)
58.7
(2.3)
58.4
(2.3)
61.8
(2.4)
62.6
(2.5)
69.3
(2.7)
69.7
(2.7)
91.7
(3.6)
88.2
(3.5)
87.2
(3.4)
854.8
(33.7)
Rainfall ≥ 1 mm
days
13.2 10.4 11.5 10.4 9.9 9.6 9.5 9.9 9.9 12.6 13.1 12.7 132.8
Source: Tolmakian Broadcasting Channel Weather (2014 averages)

Environment

Tolmakia's national animal, the Tolmakian Osprey.

About 30% of Tolmakia is "more than 50%" urbanized, while 31% of the countryside remains a mix of suburban towns, villages and farms. The rest is untouched or preserved natural landscape. Tolmakian Ospreys, the national animal, thrives mainly in forests and mountains in Weslan and Norlan, and occasionally feeds on fish off coasts of Eslen and Haii. Other animals and plant life also flourish in Norlan and Weslan.

Menlan is where most of the republic's important cities are located. During the industrial revolution, its natural environment was cleared for the development of large towns and cities. Today, a majority of the population live in the mainland. Despite its urbanization, Menlan's cities usually incorporate large parks or natural spaces within their boundaries. The night sky over the region is also noticeably more obscure than in the other provinces, due to the amount of city lights.

Weslan is a region notable for its iconic green moors and rolling grasslands. In Cornwall and Devon, farms and small suburban communities are common. The region accounts for roughly 50% of the nation's agricultural products, which include corn, potatoes, carrots, cabbages, and others like dairy, meat, and poultry. The flat nature of southern Weslan also makes it ideal for most military activities, especially air force training. Because of this, the region hosts many military bases, making it the most militarized in Tolmakia. To the north of Keg Point resides Tolmakia's highest point, and the Leddli Mountain Range and the Pennines that stretch from Weslan to Western Norlan. These mountains are a protected sanctuary for natural life, and are a part of the Norlan Ecommunity's Reserve Zone (NERZ). The region also has the longest coastline out of the other four. Near the western coastline, some unusual underwater terrain features can be observed. Marine life is also known to flourish here.

In contrast to the other provinces, most of Norlan's common landscape is forests and tall grasslands. Manmade structures are the fewest here, and those that are present use green technology and eco-friendly energy. Notable manmade structures or settlements include a series of wind turbine power grids (one of which is the Northampton Air Power Station (NORAPS)), the Cambridge Greenhouses, Shire Gardens, and the prominent Peaceton Town. Most of Norlan was protected from industrialization since the late 1980s, and is now a large sanctuary for local wildlife. Norlan is also home to the nation's green communities, which are governed by the Norlan community (an NGO). This community also has its own park, which hosts a wide array of plant species and birds, including the Tolmakian Osprey. To the west of the province are highlands, where the rare Wavy Oak can be found.

Eslen is a relatively flat region, making it a common region for urban expansion. It is the second most urbanized province, after the main region, and holds a large amount of the nation's population. The region's capital has two major districts: Easton City; and Easton Town. Easton City is similar to Menlani and Meddli City, except much smaller. Easton Town is a complex of British era towns, which comprise of suburban homes, small office buildings, factories, and warehouses. Easton accounts for 45% of the nation's local manufactured and processed goods.

Haii is similar to Eslen: it is a lower-lying region, noteworthy for having the second-longest coastline than the other four. This coastline also includes the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage site, and Tolmakia's prominent beaches. The coastline that converges with that of the west region's also has some strange underwater terrain features. While the Norlan coral reefs are protected, the southern coast (dubbed Ruch Coast) is a common site for legal fishing. It is here, where fishermen and corporations obtain their source of fresh raw seafood.

Regions and divisions

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Map of Tolmakia, showing regions and major locations.

Tolmakia has five main regions, each with its capital city/town: Norlan (Perthon Town); Haii (Tomson City), Weslan (Wescourt City), Eslen (Easton City), and Menlan (Meddli City). Each county has its own mayor, and each region and large city its own representative local government and parliament. These are considered parts of the governing branches of the executive central republican government.

While Tolmakia occupies former Southern England, some counties and several major sites (such as the University of Oxford, Kent, and Greater London) as well as the Isle of Wight remain under English sovereignty. Most former British counties still retain their names, although some are modified. Overall, Tolmakia has 21 counties: Cornwall, Devon, Somersete, Dorset, Bristol, Wiltshire, Hampshire, Berkshire, South Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, Surrey, Berksheri, West Sussex, East Sussex, West Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Northamptonshire, Cambridgeshire, Suffolk and Norfolk.

There are 126 districts in Tolmakia.

Flag Region Capital Largest city Counties Population
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Menlan Meddli Menlani 9 8,300,000
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Haii Tomson Winchester 3 7,600,000
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Weslan Wescourt Plymouth 2 7,800,000
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Eslen Easton Norwich 2 5,000,000
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Norlan Perthon Peaceton 5 1,390,000
Total 21 ~30,000,000

Overseas territories

A STATE research facility.

From 2005 until October 2015, Tolmakia claimed ownership over two overseas territories: the Promiya Land of Tolmakia; and the STATE, an Antarctic scientific establishment. As of present, it claims only the latter as its sole overseas territory.

The STATE is host to a centre of research centers in Marie Byrd Land, manned by government personnel, scientists, and a few guests from the private sector or academia. The land that would be the STATE was first claimed in 1960, by the Tolmakian Revolutionary Party. After ten years of negotiations and talks with the Antarctic Treaty nations which involved the International Court of Justice, unified Tolmakia was allowed to make its claim in Antarctica. It wasn't until the year 2005 that its first facilities were completed.

The claimed reasons for the STATE's existence are: to remedy the costs and hassles frequently faced by Tolmakian scientists and their crews, when operating in the continent without any accessible shelter; for peaceful research purposes; to expand the territory of the republic; and for economic reasons. Since 2014, the STATE has not had any local governing body. Instead, the head of the crew stationed there for the moment may act as "de facto" leader, before the next crew rotation. The crew answers to the Department of Overseas Territorial Affairs, the primary administrator of the territory. In the past, a small council was actually formed to manage the STATE.

Politics

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This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Tolmakia
A Tolmakian politician during a debate.

The nation is a unitary bicameral sovereign state, in the form of a parliamentary constitutional republic. It presently follows centrist ideologies, and some progressive egalitarian ideals. The government's two main priorities are: to protect and ensure the welfare, safety, and happiness of its citizens; and to maintain a strong economy to keep the nation afloat in financial terms. Major decisions of the country are made collectively by the Cabinet of Tolmakia, and bills are processed by the parliament.

The Prime Minister of Tolmakia is normally elected by the legislature, whose decisions are affected by the populace (through methods such as polls, which the parliament uses to determine who to elect). While this makes elections practically democratic, the parliament is not inclined to always be swayed by the populace, and also accepts and rejects candidates for the prime minister based on their merit. In earlier cases, the prime minister was elected directly, by popular vote. The prime minister serves for a single six-year term, and may not be reelected after this term is over.

The deputy prime minister is elected in a similar way. The deputy may be elected from the old cabinet, or from the upper chamber of the parliament. Once the prime minister retires, the deputy prime minister automatically becomes a candidate for the position. If there are no other candidates by the time elections are over, then the deputy gets to be the next prime minister without further question.

The prime minister is always the head of state and government, and there have only been a few rare occurrences when the head of state and government were separate. The minister is the head of the cabinet, which is the executive organ of the government's executive branch. The government's executive branch maintains many ministries, offices, and agencies, each responsible for a specific subject or matter. There are about 25 main ministries, many of which have their own smaller departments. The government also has administrative branches for each main region.

The republic has three dominant parties: the Republican Party, which is the oldest and most prevalent party; the Conservative Party, formed in 1999; and the opposing Liberal Party, formed in the 1990s. All prime ministers since 1975 were members of the Republican Party. More than half of the legislature's members are also from said party.

The highest judicial power is held by the judicial branch, the Supreme Court of Tolmakia, which deals with high treason and crimes against the country or its constitution. The judiciary is represented in the executive branch of the government by the Ministry of Justice, and in the cabinet by the Minister of Justice, both of which share its power, but only to serve the supreme court itself. The law it enforces, the Tolmakian Constitution is actually composed of many constitutions, the prevalent being the old 1965 Western Tolmakian constitution, and the constitution passed after the reunification.

Tolmakia has been politically stable ever since the split period's end. It has maintained strong diplomatic relations by means of trade, equitable bilateral agreements, and cooperative treaties with other countries. Corruption is rare, although notorious when it occurs (such as the Quakey Incident and the Reeve Scandals).

Legislature

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The House of Assemblies. It was made the new legislative building in 2014, after the old building became the Meddli administrative building.

Tolmakia's parliament, the Republican Assembly is divided into two chambers: the Republican State Council (also called the Republican State's Council), and the Free People's Assembly (also the Tolmakian People's Assembly, or the Republican People's Assembly). Candidates can be nominated by the legislature or a cabinet member, and accepted either by privilege or passing qualifications. Members from the upper house are elected in closed elections, while members in the lower house are democratically elected, albeit not directly.

There are currently 610 seat in the national legislature, 380 of which are occupied by the Republican Party. The Liberal Democratic Party holds 110 seats, while the Conservative Party holds 67. The Green Party of Tolmakia held 2 seats until 2010. In 2013, it regained its seats, and had 16 members in the parliament in 2014. In the same year, the 4P Party gained a total of 10 seats.

Foreign relations

After the FRIEND Act was passed, it has been one of Tolmakia's goals to maintain healthy or stable diplomatic ties between as many countries as it can reach, no matter the ideology of the state, and remain fervently neutral and amiable at the same time. While this proved a bit controversial and challenging, it has also benefitted the republic. Iran, for example, was virtually in regular contact with Tolmakia during the time of the Insurgency in Pejite. Iran was willing to provide assistance to Tolmakian humanitarian groups at irregular intervals, albeit indirectly.

Since its reunification, the republic has had good relationships with countries all over the world's continents. It specifically maintains and values its ties with Brazil, Canada, the United States of America, Japan, China, Turkey, all ASEAN countries, Korea, Australia, New Zealand, the Scandinavian countries, and most European Union countries. Though having healthy ties, these are mostly diplomatic and economic in nature. The republic has only signed two mutual defence treaties: one with the United kingdom, and one with the Kingdom of Free Pejite.

Tolmakia is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the European Union (EU). It joined the latter in 2017, after a full decade of political issues. Additionally, while the Tolmakian Military Forces are bound by the 2014 Self-Defence Policy, the country continues to be part of NATO, fulfilling non-combat or non direct offensive positions. The country considered leaving the organization, but reconsidered after the change of its prime minister, and the situation in the Middle East.

The United Kingdom has worked extensively with Tolmakia, since its reunification. It has helped the republic in its endeavors that include technological, political, or economic matters. Her Royal Majesty's Armed Forces also cooperates with the Tolmakian Military Forces in both exercises and actual operations. The republic also holds a common travel area with the UK like Ireland.

Law enforcement

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Police officers on duty.

The Ministry of Justice is in charge of enforcing the law and the Constitution of Tolmakia, which includes the rights of the republic's citizens. After 2014, the death penalty was abolished, and since then, capital punishment in Tolmakia has been life imprisonment. Depending on the severity of their punishment, criminals may serve their sentence in community service, or be confined in solitary isolation, indefinitely. Due to social values and customs, most criminals are inclined to undergo rehabilitation and opt for community service.

Tolmakia's primary law enforcement force is the DHF, a "distant" child agency of the Ministry of Police and Emergency Response. As a child agency of said ministry, it is governed by the Department of Law Enforcement. Its main goal is maintaining law and order, while protecting the civilian population. The DHF has its own aerial, aquatic, and training branches, the latter of which forms the police's National Training Academy.

The DHF relies on another government agency, the Republican Investigation Department (also known as the RED) for intelligence-related activities within the country's borders. The RED was formally a part of the DHF until it was put under the authority of the Ministry of Justice, following a series of decisions made in the 1970s. The department's present duties include gathering information for the DHF to help crack down on the common troublemaker, and dealing with major criminals, particularly ones that could potentially threaten Tolmakia's internal security. Unlike the TAIL (Tolmakia's external intelligence agency), the RED is not semi-autonomous, though it retains a certain degree of "freedom" from the Ministry of Justice.

After suffering from severe underfunding, the police budget was finally supplemented on 15 July 2013. The DHF experienced serious funding problems after the turn of the 21st century, due to the 1998 Economic Crisis. On the other hand, the RED did not face any financial problems since it received funds from the Ministry of Intelligence, along with the TAIL. The funds that were diverted to supplement the police force in 2013 helped reinstate Tolmakia's nearly absent crime levels. The police funding also helped eliminate the republic's largest illegal syndicates and many vigilante groups operating unlawfully (although some of these former vigilante groups were later given commendations, since they helped in keeping crime low in certain areas).

Military

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Tolmakian Air Force fighters in formation.
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Tolmakian Army soldiers.
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A Tolmakian Navy corvette.

The Tolmakian Military Forces is a child agency of the TMoD. It is composed of four branches:

  • The Tolmakian Army, which is the principal ground force of the Tolmakian Military Forces. It specializes in conventional warfare, specifically in defence, counter-terrorism, and in humanitarian assistance. The army includes the national guard and border patrol, and some units of the national police. Since the 2015 military reforms, the army has 34,000 active troops and 40,000 personnel in reserve (totaling a population of 74,000).
  • The Tolmakian Navy, which handles all sea-based operations, which include search and rescue, ship escorts, and the defence of the Tolmakian coastline. It includes the coast guard, the Tolmakian Marines Corps, as well as the maritime search and rescue emergency response group. It has 55,000 personnel in total, with 27,000 of these in reserve. As of 2015, the navy has 200 ships (including coastal patrol craft, logistics boats, and 40+ commissioned vessels) in its inventory, and more than 50 aircraft.
  • The Tolmakian Air Force, which is in charge of aerial duties, such air transport, support for surface forces, and defending the national airspace. It is a vital component in the military forces, effectively assisting both the army and navy in their operations. The force has a total of 21,000 personnel, including technicians and the Air Defence Corps.
  • The Tolmakian Special Forces (also known by their ceremonial name, the Royal Knights of Tolmakia) which is a semi-dependent branch of the Tolmakian Army. The special forces are actually made up of many sub-branches that each specialize in different roles, and these units reside in the structures of the other uniformed branches. These units and branches collectively form the special forces, which in 2014 had the size equal to one Tolmakian Army division.

The armed forces currently has 85,000 active personnel, and a further 75,000 in reserve. It is required for men and women over 18 years old to have at least half a year of military training and experience. As the military continues relying on force multipliers, training and high-technology, the military population may shrink further.

The modern Tolmakian armed forces first saw service in the Falklands War. It contributed to NATO in its involvement in the Middle East, and to the UN on peacekeeping operations and combat missions in Africa and Asia. In 2014, a policy was passed that severely limited the military's ability to be deployed and employ offensive force. A referendum had this policy amended, which allowed it to continue serving with international coalitions.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Tolmakia
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Sheni Banknotes that are currently in circulation.
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A 10 Sheni Banknote.

Tolmakia's highly globalized economy is officially recognized as a mixed system, that is very similar to (or even claimed to be exactly) Welfare Capitalism. The economy is one of the government's primary priorities, emphasizing this during the late 1980s, when it started subsidizing domestic corporations and industries. The Ministry of Economic Commerce and Trade is responsible for the nation's economical interests, and oversees the operations of foreign firms in the country. While the economy is partially regulated by the Ministry of Economic Commerce and Trade, markets are usually free in most aspects. The private sector dominates much of the Tolmakian economy (making up approximately 75% of it), but is "kept in check" by the public sector.

The currency of the republic is the Sheni (S$), although Euros and British pounds have been accepted in some rare cases. Banknotes are printed in S$10, S$20, S$50, S$100 and S$500 denominations. Coins are denominated into S$0.5, S$1 and S$5. The Republican Treasury, a department of the Ministry of Business and Finance is in charge of monitoring the country's currency and managing finances, particularly in loaning and investing money. An affiliate, the Thomakian Bank, is Tolmakia's central bank.

The average age for a Tolmakian to enter employment is at 22, although 15 to 17 year-olds are also eligible for small part-time jobs, such as newspaper distribution or being assistants. However, they can only work for 5 hours a day until they turn 18. Tolmakia's accepted minimum wage is $8.5 per hour, median salaries amount to ~$40,000, and mean working hours total 54 to 63 hours per week. Average tax rates for citizens range from 15% to 20%, depending on their wealth and status. Likewise, the standard company tax depends on the corporation's industry and size, and averages between 15% for small firms, or 20% and higher for larger franchises. The constitution and worker's unions and rights (child labour laws included) protect employees from being abused or taken advantage of, and uphold strict regulations on their working conditions. Unemployment rates are usually retained down at low levels.

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Shrimp, one of the most demanded products in the local food market.

The republic enjoys lucrative trade with other countries, especially its neighbor, the United Kingdom (which is one of its largest trading partners). Most of its imports (exotic goods, natural resources and hardware) come from continental Europe, the UK, the Scandinavia, North America, Australia, South Africa, the Middle East and East Asia. It exports electronics, commercial products, and some raw resources like lumber, coal, minerals, and seafood to most of Asia, South America, South Africa, Oceania, and Europe. Even before it reapplied joined the EU, Tolmakia had access to the EU Single Market.

Tolmakia is primarily a post-industrial nation, with large service sectors. Its commercial service industries include advertising, banking, construction, delivery, education, finance managing, information, and transport. The country also has a sizable manufacturing industry, and used to have a substantial agricultural sector.

Agriculture was the largest industry during Tolmakia's early post-independence years. Products include corn, potatoes, carrots, cabbages, and others such as beef and chicken. The nation's main crops are barley, wheat, and rye. The Ministry of Agriculture presides over agricultural affairs, and transfers authority over checked and harvested/packaged commodities over to the Ministry of Economic Commerce and Trade. One of Tolmakia's salient industries is fishing. It has large sectors that deal with both raw and processed seafood commodities, particularly shellfish such as shrimp. Notable products of this industry are shrimp chips, seafood crackers, fish cakes, raw salmon, smoked trout, crab sticks, and fresh seaweed.

The nation's second-largest industry is manufacturing. It manufactures a wide range of products that span from military equipment to office items. The bulk of Tolmakia's manufactured items are bottles, arms, electronics, tools, utensils, and aircraft technology. A huge part of its bottle manufacturing sector is part of the beverage industry. The most produced beverages are shrimp beer, wine, lemonade, carbonated water, and fruit soda. Aircraft technology may seldom also come in the form of complete aircraft in flying condition, such as airships. Most of these manufactured items constitute a great percentage of exports. Most arms produced are solely for local distribution only, although some military-grade hardware have been sold to other countries in the past.

Transport

Easton City on 14 July 2014. It is host of one of Tolmakia's largest and busiest airports.

Tolmakia has approximately 18 million registered vehicles. There are an estimated 90,000 miles of paved road. It also has 10,000 miles of railroad, and 100 more miles outside of its borders, within the United Kingdom and northern France. The country has four major airports: Menlani International Airport, Wescourt Airport, Luni Airport, and Easton International Airport.

The nation's public transportation system is composed of the National Road Network Services (NRNS), the Tolmakian Mass Rapid Transport System (ToMaRTS), several bus liners, and the Rural Train Service (RuTS). The NRNS operates within the NRN, which stems from the heart of the main province. It is comprised of a nationwide cab service, bus service, and a small tramline. The ToMaRTS stretches over the whole state, and is made of five lines, one for each of the country's regions. It has a smaller shuttle service that brings passengers to its stations regularly. The Tolmakian National Railway Network (an older line that connects to the ToMaRTS) has access through the Channel Tunnel that links Britain with continental Europe. The RuTS is considered Tolmakia's Light Rail Transport, and caters to locations in western Eslen, Norlan, Weslan, and northwestern Haii. Some of Tolmakia's dominant airlines are Tolmakian Air International Liner (TAIL), Tolmakian Airlines, Dhi Fleir, and Tolmakia International. Except for some of the mentioned airlines, these are mostly managed by the Ministry of Transport and Travel. In 2005, it privatized the ToMaRTS and the Rural Train Service. The ministry has plans to have a monorail system by the mid-2020s.

Buses are a prime component of motor transport. There are 1.5 billion bus passenger journeys every year, half of which occur in Menlani. Additionally, the iconic double-decker bus can also be found in Tolmakia. Trains are the most popular form of public transport, estimated to transport around 4 million people per day. The rest of the population depends on their own private vehicles. Around 30% of drivers constantly travel with battery-powered motor vehicles, or use ecologically friendly fuels. 25% of the population occasionally travels by bike or scooter, with biking being the common method of transport in Norlan. A unique method of transportation is by airship or balloon, which is currently only permitted in Weslan. A few offices around the region even offer spaces for deflating and parking private balloons.

Energy

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North Cornwall Nuclear Power Station, Tolmakia's only operational nuclear plant.

Tolmakia gets its power from renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectric dams, geothermal pumps, and non-renewable sources such as gas and coal plants. Renewable energy power stations account for at least 7% to 11% of Tolmakia's power (not including hydroelectricity), 45% (counting hydroelectricity), and non-renewable energy accounted for more than 50%. Nuclear power accounts for less than 10%. Since 2015, there have been ongoing plans to create a region-wide hydroelectric power system in Haii, comprised of underwater turbines, dams, and tide barrages. Large windmill farms in Norlan and Haii, rubbish plants in Weslan, geothermal pumps, and solar panel farms are employed for the purpose of being ecologically friendly.

Uranium mining also powers its only nuclear plant, the North Cornwall Nuclear Power Station. In September 2015, the Ministry of Energy considered building more nuclear plants. In the next year, this consideration eventually developed into a plan for one more nuclear power plant, the Devon Nuclear Power Plant, to be built. The new nuclear plant is projected to be in service by 2020, if work starts in 2015. Despite the majority of the public's views against nuclear power, the Ministry of Energy proceeded with the development of the new nuclear plant anyway due to worries about the future of the nation's power.

The republic owns its own ensemble of onshore and offshore oil platforms, most of which can be found in the eastern region. These structures harness crude oil, LPG and other gas from the North Sea. Many private Tolmakian companies also operate oil platforms abroad, whose revenues go to the national economy. Tolmakia produces roughly 800,000 to 1,000,000 barrels of oil per day. On the other hand, it consumes almost an eighth more. The country also exports coal and graphite, and has 50 million tons of proven recoverable coal reserves.

Science and technology

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The DS-3 Iyish in space.

The Republic of Tolmakia has an active space agency, the TAAS. After its reunification, Prime Minister Devin Kashlevin approved for a new space agency in 1975, combining the former space agencies of Western and Eastern Tolmakia. The space agency later also became responsible for aeronautical matters and research. The agency's first administrator, Mr. Corey Maggies was appointed, and its headquarters was established in Exeter Town.

In 1980, the TAAS made its debut with the launch of its first satellite, the Dulmnakea 1. The satellite was funded by the government and corporate sponsors. It served until 2005, and is still a notable icon of the agency, marking its first achievement. The TAAS started introducing modern airships as well, along with domestic aeronautical programs. In the mid to late 1980s, it also paired up with the Tolmakian Defence Industries (DDE). In the 1990s, the TAAS started working with NASA in some small joint projects. The space agency later assisted in the construction of the International Space Station (ISS), through its best technicians. The TAAS continues to maintain the Tolmakian "National Spacecraft Fleet," and work with other space agencies in pursing its objectives. It is planning to explore the inner solar system with its own spacecraft and probes by 2025.

The Republic is also known for its airships of conventional and unconventional design, created by numerous Tommy companies, including Good Blimp Incorporated and Tolmakian Airship Enterprises. The former, which was founded by Alan Ruchki and created with the help of the Tolmakian Government in 1980 today creates and specializes in all kinds of airships and balloons, as well as UAV technology and other aircraft such as the MH1 Gonkchuffir. The company has been administrated by Alan Ruchki since its founding, and is considered a pioneer of modern blimp technology in the nation. The republic is sometimes said to be the best manufacturer of airships.

Tolmakia is said to have had a total of two active sophisticated cyber security systems, created and manned by its several intelligence organizations, particularly the TAILCIAG. Its first system, the Aedan Cyber Security System-1 (ACSX2-1, also called Caltrop) was a tiered network, which was installed in 2001 and decommissioned in 2009. It reportedly used hundreds of redundant security features including decoy tiers, and had a "dedicated army of software" and hackers. Its security features were automatically applied to sensitive information using complicated algorithms, and files that were determined to be very important were coded and encrypted a certain number of times. The "army of software" was used to activate and operate these features efficiently, putting information in a vault-like version of the deep web. Downloading modules without undergoing a certain safety procedure would lead malicious hackers to get a virus instead. Information and details on the current system (ACSX2-2) are obviously classified.

The republic is also investing in other fields of science, including biology and robotics. The University of Konan is credited with creating the nation's first android, ANo.13 (Android Number 13, also known affectionately as Annie or Anois). The University of New Oxford is actively researching on nanotechnology and psychology, finding a way to manipulate substances and the human mind (for medical intentions). As early as 1980, it began encouraging a series of innovative contemporary architectural styles that reduced building's energy usage by 30% and employed natural cooling, solely by design. In 2016, KEAPs (Kinetic Energy Absorbing Pads) began to be employed around Meddli City.

Demographics

Ethnic groups

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1980 26,000,000—    
1985 26,900,000+3.5%
1990 28,100,000+4.5%
1995 28,200,000+0.4%
2000 28,500,000+1.1%
2005 28,750,000+0.9%
2010 29,000,000+0.9%
2015 30,000,000+3.4%
Office of Demographics
Ethnic Groups in Tolmakia
Demographics
Percentage
British-Aedan
  
46%
Irish
  
20%
Scottish
  
11%
Other European
  
14%
Indian
  
5%
Other Asian
  
4%
Other Nationalities
  
1%

In a 2016 census, results concluded that 77% of the population were of Aedan, English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh ethnicity or descent, with 14% being other Europeans, 9% Indians or other Asians, and 1% others. The long period of assimilation with the British have led modern Aedans to also be colloquially known as "British-Aedans."

It is estimated that Tolmakia receives 50,000 immigrants each year, most of whom originate from West, South, and Central Asia. These refugees normally relocate to other parts of Europe, hence why the population does not grow. The largest group of legal migrants come from India, followed by China. Most of these migrants can be found in Weslan and Norlan.

Since 2001, the Office of Demographics has been recording declining pregnancy rates.

Language

There are two Tolmakian languages: historic Archaic/Ancient Tolmakian or Aprufahu Llhoyilaklha (which is nearly extinct and not currently in use); and Modern Tolmakian or Mudirn Dulmnakean (Tolmakia's national language). Archaic Tolmakian existed before Tolmakia's assimilation. Unlike its modern counterpart, Archaic Tolmakian is unrelated to English or any other Germanic language. Additionally, it has no relations with any known language, prompting some scientists to mark it as a Language isolate.

Though the Aedans managed to preserve their language, its distinction was almost not retained. It was believed that as Ancient Tolmakian evolved into Modern Tolmakian, it was influenced heavily by the English language, hence why Modern Tolmakian sounds like distorted English. However, in writing, both Tolmakian languages are similar in that they are written from right to left. They both have a different set of characters with their own alphanumerics. Ancient Tolmakian letters are linear and irregularly curved, while Modern Tolmakian usually has a curved runic appearance that resembles that of English writing.

In a 2014 survey, 85% of the population preferred English, the second official language over Tolmakian, while 11% didn't even know how to speak Modern Tolmakian at all. Today, Modern Tolmakian is normally employed for ceremonial purposes or naming. Engekian (a modified portmanteau of "English" and "Tolmakian") is the latinized version of Modern Tolmakian, although the term may also be applied to latinized Archaic Tolmakian.

Other prevalent languages include German, Spanish, Dutch, Tamil, Bengali, Filipino and Arabic. These languages were brought throughout the past centuries by imported slaves, servants, immigrants, foreign businessmen, and travelers. There are large concentrations of Irish speakers in northern Weslan, and German speakers in Norlan.

Religion

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The Winchester Church of Haii.

Tolmakia has always had a free religion policy. However, it restricts radical practices and beliefs that involve harming or killing citizens, as well as damaging private and national property. It also restricts the oppression of a religious group, and forced conversion.

Before the arrival of Christianity, the Aedans were animists with various pagan beliefs. Some believed in gods and demons, while others only believed in fairies, creatures, and spirits. These beliefs have since been supplanted by Christianity and secularism.

The most prevalent religion in Tolmakia is Christianity. Roman Catholicism was first introduced to the land in the same period as it was to the English. During the Reformation movement, Protestantism became the state religion, under the rule of Elizabeth I in Tolmakia. Even after gaining independence, Protestantism was still observed by the Aedans when it was adopted as the ceremonial national religion in 1980. As of 2016, about 42% of the population are Protestants, and 30% of the population are Roman Catholics. Its church, the Church of Tolmakia is predominantly Protestant.

An estimated 27% of the population are Atheists, with more than half of these being seculars. During the split period, the numbers of atheists skyrocketed. After the reunification, there were some campaigns to officially make Tolmakia a secular state, even though it is already practically one. Most seculars can be found in Menlan, while Norlan has many atheist communities.

Other religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Taoism, and neopaganism. Most atheists are Buddhists, and most of the Indian-Tolmakian population practice it, along with Hinduism and Islam.

Education

Main article: Education in Tolmakia
Despite being located in Tolmakia, the Cambridge University remains under British jurisdiction.

Through the Ministry of Education, Learning and Universities, the government of the republic maintains regular funding for education. The Ministry of Education, Learning and Universities is divided into several departments: the Department of Education, the Department of Unconventional Schooling, the Department of Elementary Schooling, the Department of High School Learning, and the Department of College Learning.

Since Tolmakian reunification in 1975, education has been compulsory. There is no mandatory national uniform code, as this is in the freedom of each school to decide. The standard education system Tolmakia uses is divided into preschool, primary (or elementary) school, secondary (or "middle") school, and higher education (university). Children ages 3 to 5 years-old attend the former; 5 to 11 attend the secondary; 11 to 18 the third; and ages 18 and above attend the latter. Higher education usually begins with a bachelor's degree. In addition, students receive "military education" once they have finished their first college years and are put into compulsory military service. They may either resume their college education, or finish it early and continue to serve in the military. There is also an option to serve in the military and to continue college education simultaneously.

80% of all Tolmakia's universities are publicly funded, and the best domestic university is the New Oxford University. The University of Oxford and Cambridge are also some of the best universities in the nation, although these belong to the British.

In 2014, Tolmakia had a 99.5% Literacy rate. 89% knew how to write in two languages, and 68% could write in more than two languages fluently.

Welfare

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Sir Wilbur's hospital in Menlani.

Under the Tolmakian Constitution, free healthcare services are to be provided for all Tolmakian citizens. As a virtual welfare state, the republic diverts a portion of its funds equal to 10% of the GDP to welfare. Due to its efforts, there are healthcare facilities in every major city, town, and village. These are maintained by the state-run National Social Services that also includes the National Health Service, under the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. The government's centrist ideals require that it balances the economy with welfare, and thereby maintains a "life first, money later" policy, in which public health and emergency services are usually non-profit. In compensation however, debts are usually paid out by taxation or donations. In some cases, they have been sponsored by coalitions of private entities.

The average life expectancy in Tolmakia is 81 years (83 for females and 79 for males). Most of the nation's oldest people originated from both Weslan and Norlan Bristol. It was also reported by the national office of statistics that Norlan residents had a life expectancy of 0.5 more years. The leading causes of death are heart disease, followed by cancer, and old age deaths. In 2014, major government programs to combat rising heart disease rates were initiated.

The Ministry of Employment and Pension normally collaborates with its health and welfare counterpart. Due to its past projects, public housing makes up a large percentage of structures in Menlan today. During the 1990s to early 2000s, it prioritized this to provide for those who could not afford homes or their rents (since the wealth gap was quite high, especially after the 1998 recession). Public housing is still provided today, usually for young adults still in university, workers, businessmen and immigrants, in some infrequent cases free of charge, in exchange for employment, a scholarship, or a certificate of privilege. The elderly receive free housing in retirement homes or centers, and in good health always have the choice on whether they would like to relocate or stay in their current residence (albeit they are usually persuaded to go to retirement centers).

Culture

Due to its long period of assimilation, most of Tolmakia's culture today only evolved throughout the late 2nd millennium, particularly the 19th and 20th centuries. Some tidbits of its older customs still exist, but are largely overshadowed by other adopted ones.

Holidays

Media

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Official logo of the Tolmakian Star Bulletin since 2010.

During the advent of media, a notable Tolmakian professor, dubbed as Sir Robert Ramskey was lauded for his works in film. He created his own camera that he called the "Fotobox and crank," and went on several adventures, filming his travels and the battles he encountered. Unfortunately, he went missing in South America and was never found again. After he was presumed dead, his works were preserved by a few English universities, which later handed them over to the National Treasury after the reunification. They were exhibited in the 2009 Fotobox and Crank event, which was sponsored by the New Oxford University.

In the 20th century, several Tolmakians enlisted in the British Army, and became cameramen for the military. Post-World War II survivors subsequently formed a film group, which eventually became a broadcasting agency in 1967 after the Tolmakian split. The broadcasting agency evolved into the Tolmakian Broadcasting Center (DVCH), which was a prime witness and recorder of the monumental events of the nation. The DVCH still broadcasts to this day, as one of the nation's flagship broadcasting networks. Its former newspaper subsidiary and current partner, The Tolmakian Star Bulletin also serves as Tolmakia's flagship bulletin. The bulletin works closely with the DVCH, and produces its own magazines, puzzle books and comics, aside from newspapers. Other notable news networks and newspaper agencies are The Tolmakian Times, Tolmakian National News, The Daily Post, Crown Papers, Dhi Nivshchashd, and The Menlan Centre.

Tolmakia is also home to the Rocking Stone Magazine, the Tolmakian counterpart of the Rolling Stone Magazine.

Cinema

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A screenshot taken from one of Rockstone Industry's earlier films.

During the golden period, many local film companies sprung up, one of which became the domestically lauded Rockstone Films in the 1990s. Originally a producer and broadcaster of animated cartoons, it later forged its image as a brickfilming company, popularizing stop-motion animation and Lego movies, and one of the republic's illustrious movie corporations. One of its distinguished films, Life in a Brick was critically acclaimed. The film ran for one hour, and told history from the perspective of lego people. In 2007, the company established its own video-sharing website. The website allows people to post their own Lego movies, while it itself releases a new video every month. Rockstone Films is credited for helping create Tolmakia's Lego culture.

Tolmakia's most watched movie is the adventure thriller, Gone (2014), which was written and directed by Troy Waterford. The film is about a broken man who is nearing his doom, and uses time travel to fix his life mistakes with the help of his best friend, only to find out about an unprecedented conspiracy surrounding him. The film received mixed reviews, but nonetheless topped the local box office. The film's sequel, Space Dilemma was released two years later. It received slightly more positive feedback, but less views than its predecessor. The most watched Tolmakian animated TV series is The Phoney (2010), which narrates the story of an anthropomorphic Iphone who looks after his irresponsible owner.

The nation's famous cinemas are the Meddli Cinema in Meddli Megamall, the historical Perthon Theatre, and the Thomna Cinema in Tomson City. Tolmakia's globally known directors and filters include Claudia Springman, Ron Bajelson, and Remus Lorry. Claudia is considered the best Tolmakian storyteller in the national film industry, while Ron has received many praises and awards for his high-quality animated films and visual effects. Remus debuted in 2009 as an internet celebrity after his skits and vlogs became popular.

Literature

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A work of Jerome Courtnite, a contemporary Tolmakian illustrator and cartoonist.

The first recorded Aedan writer in history was Sir Humphrey Maeyor (born 1551), a rich but undistinguished playwright. Though all of his plays were unsuccessful, he published two novels which received praise, during the Golden Age of England. They were Merryweather and The Servant, both moralistic novels about war and loyalty, respectively. These books were also the first surviving works of literature translated in Medieval Tolmakian, an atypical hybrid dialect between the Modern and Archaic scripts. After he published his last book, Well Done, Sir Maeyor died of leukemia in 1619. One of his students, Bell Grayden made Merryweather into a play. It became popular amongst his townsfolk, and other Aedan viewers. Four centuries later, Merryweather was adapted into a film by Lace Pictures.

Other historical writers include: Father Lenard Voshnik (1459 – 1517), though technically not a writer was the translator of the first Tolmakian bible; James Butterson (1762 – 1812), the author of the first book with elements of Tolmakian nationalism; Selma Rennings (1847 – 1933), the first female Aedan author and sci-fi novelist; Keil Manson (1911 – 2001), who is considered the father of Tolmakian thrillers; Damian Tanning (1949 – present), an adventure novelist; Nina Vrites (1969 – present), the queen of Tolmakian romantic comedy novels; and George Ralph (1984 – present), a renown graphic novelist and cartoonist.

Contemporary trending genres in Tolmakian literature are science fiction (especially time traveling, alternate timelines, apocalyptic/post-apocalyptic worlds, and space exploration), action, and adventure thrillers. During the 1980s, there was also considerable interest in mystery and romantic comedies, which are now dwarfed by the mentioned sci-fi genres. A few works of classic Tolmakian works of literature include Periwinkle, Little Osprey, Princess of the Sea, and Eating Frogs. Some more well-known modern works include Braviune, The Man, Dhi Fredi Shucheidy, Cat, Dog and Sea Bird and Ten Thousand Angels of Fury.

Thomas Berkshire, another affluent writer and MP was born in Menlan, after Tolmakia's independence. He wrote 11 fiction novels, and created many characters. Since his first book, Take over! was published in 1989, his novels have sold millions of copies globally, with two of them being turned into movies. Thomas' novels are now considered modern classics of the republic by the Ministry of Culture and Arts, and copies were preserved by the Committee of National Cultural Heritages (CONC) on 4 August, 2010.

Some Aedan folktales have survived through literature, such as the mythical tale of Sonalyt, a creature that has a mouse's head, shrimp's limbs, bird's wings, and a nautilus' shell, and can fly, swim, and crawl; and the myth of the Nagasit, large snake-like creatures with wings. While the age of these stories are disputed (as they are mentioned as "being one of the stories of the ancient ancestors of the Odd-Tongues" in a 17th century volume), they are widely accepted as genuine folk stories. Elements from other folklore also exist in what remains of Ancient Tolmakian mythological literature, such as faeries and selkies (Sherkies in Medieval Aedan, or Zetyklht in Archaic Tolmakian). Whether the princess in Princess of the Sea is a Selkie or faerie is debated.

Visual art

Indigenous Tolmakian art is chiefly physical. While much of modern Aedan paintings were almost no different than those of their French and British counterparts, Tolmakian sculptures were distinctive, not in appearance, but in meaning. Sculptures were inspired and "moulded by stories; life experiences filled with emotions." They were always accompanied with a story of what they symbolized, which explicitly reflected when and how they were crafted, and what type of person the sculptor was. These stories or emotions are discerned with the dimensions, colours, and textures of the sculpture, aside from its form and semblance. The physical feel was overly expressive; it conveyed movement in contrast with rigidity. This art custom was believed to have been inherited from the ancient's pagan spiritualism, which was applied to rock art, and later sculpting during the high renaissance. Nowadays, Tolmakian sculpting is used as a form of expressive art, and even as a tool for the mentally troubled.

During the late modern era, only a handful of Aedan painters rose to fame. These painters tried developing their own styles, and are today regarded as the pioneers of "distinctive" Tolmakian painting. A few of them were known for their paintings of landscapes and portraying everyday life. Almost all of them usually included a glaring flaw and a famous symbol in their visual artworks. One such painter was Duke Sermon, who was born in London. His paintings are now stored in the national treasury. After the reunification in 1975, a cultural "boom" brought about more famous painters in the 1980s, re-sparking interest in Tolmakian painting. Tolmakia's famous painting is Raenvuchedi, which depicts a common everyday scene in 20th century British Oxford, except with objects painted colours that represented whatever "mood" they resembled.

Music

The majority of the republic's folk songs today were composed during its revolution and civil war days. The national anthem is one such song, as well as The Silence, "Aedan March", and Beloved Anne. Very few old Aedan songs exist, having been supplanted by music brought in by other nations and translated to Tolmakian.

Music in Tolmakia today is diverse. Pop-rock is predominant, along with heavy metal and classical rock genres. Electronic and experimental music are also rising trends. Older generations and some of their dedicated descendants still celebrate classical music. Popular bands originating from the country include the indie band HotStop and Radiohead, the latter of which now resides in England. Popular orchestras include the Easton Orchestra and the Meddli Philharmonic Orchestra. Some famous musicians are Fry Hojes (1813 – 1901), Mia Fishthrower (1928 – 2014), Kurtis Viegler (1935 – present), Lloyd Murkwaters (1945 – 1998), Peter Knockwood (1951 – 1981), Paul Billund (1976 – present), and Elen Viseks (1985 – present).

Music is conventionally taught in most Tolmakian schools, along with creative art and thinking. Students are taught how to sing, compose (or identify the components of a musical sheet at least) and use a musical instrument. The most played instrument is the acoustic guitar, followed by the violin, flute, recorder, and percussion. At least 50% of the population continuously play the guitar, its steel, and electric variants. The violin is another celebrated musical instrument in many universities, and at least a third of the population have owned one, a Cello, or a Viola in their lifetime.

Cuisine

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Fachveprodsh, a well-known dish in the republic. It is also passed off as the national dish, next to Tolmakian turkey.

Bread is one of the country's staple foods, along with berry products, cruciferous plants, and grain. These include rye bread, wheat bread, oat cakes, Tommy bagels, turnip pie, watermelons, blueberry preserve, orange spread, apple jam, cabbage salad, and carrot squares. Tolmakia's traditional baked products usually include strawberries, raspberries, chicken, beef, and lamb. Rice imported from Asia also makes up part of an average Tolmakian's diet, although it is usually eaten as a lighter substitute for bread.

Originally a farmer's typical meal during the split period, bread with berry spread and a cup of chocolate was a simple yet popular dish for breakfast, usually in the rural areas. This evolved to Difadent, a more "fancy" version of the meal, which normally includes jam baked inside crusty chocolate bread, thinly coated with hard caramel, meant to be dipped into hot chocolate and eaten with fruit or sweet vegetables. Egjen Vriad, or "Egg in Bread" in English is another well-known breakfast meal, where eggs, herbs, and vegetable jam are cooked inside the bread. A hole is cut to help in the cooking, and this also gives it the appearance that the bread has an egg yolk.

Customary dishes in the afternoon are usually sweet, spicy, salty, or a combination of the three. Its dishes are typically filled with abundant seafood caught from the Haii coasts. Shrimp is a favorite delicacy, and fermented shrimp, shrimp paste and even shrimp bars are iconic products of Tolmakia. Shrimp is so loved that there was once a rumour that in the late 17th century, the British were able to tell apart Tolmakians from themselves by feeding each other shrimp products. Crab and lobster are almost as loved as shrimp is, and shellfish platters are the norm for big social gatherings or special dinners. Fried fish and chips, and breaded shrimp and crackers are well known snack combinations.

Tolmakia's national dish is Shiapuud Fashda, or Fachveprodsh - seafood pasta. The word "Fachveprodsh" comes from "Fachuvepapprodsh'", which in turn comes from the sentence "fashda chuukid vedh pesh and puud prum dhi shia" which means "pasta cooked with fish and food from the sea."

Tolmakians will usually prefer herbed or marinated meat. It is rare for a native Aedan to eat meat "dry," unless it is fried. Chicken and beef are consumed by 89% of the population, and are usually eaten in every meal. Lamb is a notable dish in rural parts of the republic. It is stewed or boiled, and served with soup and and assortment of herbs. Pork such as crispy chops, ham, and bacon are more popular in the main province than in rural areas.

The nation's common pastries are sweet bread, fruitcake or pie. The republic also has a certain pie dubbed Shdupfei, where sweetened berries and apples are baked in it, and served with a lettuce salad that's supposed to contrast the sweetness. A favourite dessert is mint ice cream cake, which can be found in most Aedan restaurants, supermarket branches, or convenience stores. Honey candy is a popular form of candy that is easy to create. It is the unofficial state candy of Norlan, where it is served as a mini-dessert for every meal.

Popular beverages include contemporary shakes and tea, such as earl grey tea, milk tea, Tolmakian tea, and Konan's tea. As with Difadent (where you dip sweet bread into the chocolate), small herb cookies are eaten likewise with tea.

Sports

The Weslan Soccer Stadium in 2014.

Tolmakia's national sport, soccer has been enjoyed ever since its independence, and throughout its years as the Western Tolmakian Republic. Tolmakians have continuously hosted soccer tournaments and events for entertainment and physical exercise throughout the 70s and 80s. In 2014, five stadiums were built, with one per region. They were built to commemorate the nation's dedication to the sport. Every year, Tolmakia encourages its soccer clubs to join worldwide soccer competitions, while it also holds its own tournaments once every 2 years. The Tolmakian soccer team has won 5 golden medals and 11 silver medals throughout its history. "Street soccer" is commonly played in the streets by younger citizens. The Tolmakian Soccer Association is also one of the largest sporting groups in the nation.

Archery is the second most popular sport in the nation after soccer. It has proven to be favoured by young and fit people, especially those who have recently undergone or are currently participating in military training. Both crossbows and composite bows are employed. Some sporting events call for or allow firearms, such as handguns and sniper rifles. An annual archery tournament is held in the Eslen stadium to commemorate the history of the British-Aedan longbowmen. Archery is also taught in some schools as part of physical education.

Basketball is another favourite of Tolmakia's younger generation. Like with its soccer clubs, the nation encourages its basketball enthusiast clubs to join events around the globe. The sport is well-liked with teenagers and children. In the Weslan stadium, frequent basketball matches are usually held once a month or week. Basketball is also a pastime for many older Tolmakians, and usually friendly matches are held in parks or even in houses. The nation's basketball team, The Ospreys have won 5 tournaments.

Other noteworthy sports include cricket, baseball, volleyball, and golf. Volleyball is eminent with many women's clubs and Haii communities. Cricket and baseball are also other celebrated sports, notedly with the military. The armed forces annually holds friendly games for both cricket and baseball, sometimes with prizes.

Society

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Tolmakian society.

Many of Tolmakia's modern social customs and traditions usually border with hospitality, humility, and being polite. This makes Tolmakians generally friendly, peace-loving, and compassionate. The nation was ranked as one of the top ten most hospitable countries of 2013. However, because of social customs and values, mainly the nation's compulsory military training lifestyle, corporate culture, and its introduction of politics to minors at a young age, Tolmakians have a tendency to restrain emotion and be stereotyped as "kind robots." According to a survey in 2014, Meddlians were found to be the "coldest" Tolmakians, while residents in Norlan were found to be the friendliest, free-spirited and emotional citizens. It is also considered polite to state the truth or one's own thoughts, no matter the consequences. Some customs also include the concepts of honour and shame, especially for high ranking Tolmakians in the government or military.

The republic is also famous for its gender equality. In 2012, women made up 54% of personnel in high-paying corporate positions, including the position of CEO (such as Eunice Staurenia of the FIESTA Stocks and Shares). In the same year, women made up 46% of the Republican Assembly, with 33% of them being from the Republican Party. In 2015, women's share in Tolmakian society reached 50%. A notable woman in the Cabinet of Tolmakia is Sally Romanus Small, the Minister for Environment. Both genders also work together in the national police force and the military. Remarkable female servicewomen include Cmdr. Helga Chatterton, Lt. Kuvira Skidblandnir, and Lt. Sandrah Onik Braveston.

Tolmakians are also tolerant of each other's beliefs and interests; goals, perspectives, and sexual orientations. Even though Protestantism is the official religion and same-sex marriages and other genders aside from male and female are not officially recognized, other religions and same-sex couples are permitted, while LGBT people are still treated well with equal rights. The government's official stance on the latter is to "let society decide." This has caused some tension between the Church of Tolmakia, and some liberal groups.

Symbols

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The flag of Western Tolmakia with the Republican Emblem.

The republican flag is a rectangular tricolour with three colors: light green, dark blue, and white. The flag normally has a shield in the upper-left corner, although for the state flag version, this shield is placed in the middle and enlarged. The white represents prosperity, while blue is for peace, and green is for harmony. The flag of Tolmakia is usually called "Tom's Jack," "Tom's Banner" or the "Jack of Tom." The republican flag is held with high regard, and people who disrespect it are frowned upon. During its time as Western Tolmakia, the flag of Western Tolmakia was usually called "Wesley's Jack", "Tom Wesley's Banner" or the "Jack of Wesley Tom". Tolmakia's old flags include the flags of both Western and Eastern Tolmakia, and the pre-independence revolutionary movement.

The republic (specifically its authority) is also represented by a simple dark-blue shield, with a red cross on another white cross. Initially, this symbol signified the nation's origins from the United Kingdom (hence its colors), but ironically since the revolution, it has been adopted by both sides into their flags or coat of arms to represent authority and independence. The shield is named "Tom's Shield," the "Shield of Tom," the "Republican Shield" or the "Republican Emblem." This symbol is glaringly visible in the Tolmakian Military Forces' seal, including in all of its own branch's seals (excluding the Tolmakian Army's and the Royal Knights'). It can even be found in some government agencies' seals.

During the post-split decade of literature or media, Tolmakia was colloquially humanized as "Mr. Tom," a character who supposedly portrays the republic's stereotypes. Mr. Tom was usually portrayed as a humble but rich person, a pro-capitalist who cared for the environment, his fellows, and barely avoided fighting with the communists. To liberals though, he was seen as a "boring bored literal board-man with statistics on him," representing the globalization Tolmakia was experiencing during the late 20th century. During the revolution, early sketches that resembled Mr. Tom portrayed him as a labourer with dark thoughts. Today "Mr. Tom" is portrayed as a typical 20th century European in a business suit with a top hat, or as a knight in homage to Sir Thomakia.

All military units (regardless of branch or rank, with the exception of the Royal Knights and a few special units) are marked with a square, slashed diagonally. The triangular top-half side of the square is coloured blue, while the triangular bottom-half is coloured orange. This blue-and-orange square insignia resembles the unity of the Tolmakian Military Forces. During the civil war and split, the Western Tolmakian Military Forces were marked with blue patch, while the Royal Forces of the Tolmakian Kingdom were marked with an orange patch. After the reunification, the symbol was created out of these patches, and displayed commonly on army, navy, and air force units. The symbol may also be flown as a flag during war games, ceremonies, or exercises. As a flag, the orange and blue symbol is flown beside the republican or military flag.

See also