Republic of Namor
The Republic of Namor (RON, Namora Kunghoguka, 南屋域共和国, Намора Кунгхогука) was a state that governed and represented most of Namor from NMR 2250 to NMR 2290. From NMR 2290 onwards until its demise in NMR 2368, the RON only exercised de facto control over the Peitoan archipelago and surrounding islets while retaining its territorial claims over mainland Namor.
The RON succeeded the Hao dynasty after the Double Fourth Revolution of NMR 2250, becoming the first constitutional republic in Namorese history. The Republic began as a confederation of self-governing provinces held together by a weak central government. But as internal strife destabilized the country, the Republic adjusted its political system. Ultimately, it had a centralized state dominated by the Republican Party of Namor (KHD). The RON represented Namor during the Namo-Chorean War, which it was the victor, but six years after the war it was forced out of mainland Namor by the Liberationists in the Namorese Civil War. Following its retreat to Peitoa, the RON government ruled by emergency decree and banned all parties other than the KHD. The RON on Peitoa remained a single-party state until it was overthrown by a PRN invasion in NMR 2368.
The period between NMR 2250 and NMR 2290 when the RON ruled mainland Namor is widely referred to by historians as the "Republican era." The period of RON rule in Peitoa is generally considered to be a separate era.
Mainland Namor (NMR 2250-90)
Peitoa (NMR 2290-NMR 2368)
The first constitution of the RON created a "confederation of free and independent provinces" where the provinces had more power than the central government, while the central government itself consisted of the President and National Congress. The President was considered a ceremonial role, while the National Congress' powers were limited to levying taxes and mediating disputes between provinces.
Both the President and National Congress were elected indirectly. In the National Congress, each province seated up to two deputies elected by a provincial convention to unlimited four-year terms. The National Congress then elected the President and Vice President. The candidate with the most votes was elected President while the runner-up was elected Vice President. Provincial conventions were supposed to be directly elected, but in reality their composition was mostly predetermined by the provincial elite.
Two presidents were elected under the first constitution - Jacob Cho in NMR 2251 and Hu Sang in NMR 2255. After Hu took office, he organized a constitutional convention and replaced the first constitution with a new constitution. However, his opponents challenged the legality of the convention and refused to recognize the new constitution. They set up a rival government in Mojing, where the first constitution remained in effect.
The second constitution was adopted in NMR 2255 under the watch of President Hu Sang and lasted until NMR 2262, when the Liberal Democrats regained power in a civil war and restored the first constitution. The second constitution redefined the Republic of Namor as a "federation of united provinces" and expanded the powers of the central government. The National Congress was given the power to raise a national military and declare war, while the President was allowed to rule for life with permission from the National Congress.
The third constitution, adopted in NMR 2267, replaced the confederal system with a unitary state. The National Congress was replaced by a bicameral legislature where Parliament was the directly elected lower house and the indirectly elected Central Council was the upper house. Seats in Parliament were allocated according to the population of each province, while seats in the Central Council were divided evenly by the number of provinces, with two deputies representing each province. The President was separated from the legislature. Although the President was no longer allowed to rule for life, he could suspend elections during periods of national emergency - a power which Jung To used to stay in office for 38 years.
In NMR 2290, the third constitution was amended to codify the KHD's role in "preserving the constitutional order." The amendment effectively banned all opposition parties and granted the KHD a monopoly on political power.