Razaria

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Razarian Dominion
Razarsko vladicistvo
Ⱃⰰⰸⰰⱃⱄⰽⱁ Ⰲⰾⰰⰴⰻⱌⰻⱄⱅⰲⱁ (Mstislavic)
Flag National Emblem
Motto: Ⱀⰵⱄⱆⰿⱀⰹⰻⰲⰰ ⰲⰵⱃⰰ ⰻ ⱀⰵⱆⱂⱁⱃⰵⰴⰻⰲⰰ ⱄⱀⰰⰳⰰ
Nesumnjiva vera i neuporediva snaga
Unceasing faith and unchallenged might
Anthem: Ⰿⰻ Ⰼⰵⰿⱁ ⱍⰵⰽⰰⱅⰻ
Mi ćemo čekati
"We will await"
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Holy Banner
Holy Banner of Razaria.svg
Razaria's location in Borea
CapitalČiragrad
Largest city Vojislav
Official languages Razarian
Ethnic groups (2014) 95.5% Razarians
Religion 84.2% Cositene
Demonym Razarian
Government Unitary single-party tvrdjavist state
 -  Vrhovnik Zlatko Khojnović
Legislature None
Establishment
 -  Medieval principality 757 
 -  Empire of Razaria 1202 
 -  Modern state 1957 
Area
 -  659,274 km2
254,547 sq mi
Population
 -  2014 census 41,821,045
 -  Density 63.4/km2
164.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $375.97 billion
 -  Per capita $8,990
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
 -  Total $96.6 billion
 -  Per capita $2,310
HDI (2012)Increase 0.686
medium
Currency Razarian teg (RZM)
Drives on the right
Patron saint Pravoljub
ISO 3166 code RAZ
Internet TLD .raz

Razaria (/ɹəzɐɹiə/; Razarian: Ⱃⰰⰸⰰⱃⱄⰽⰰ Razarska, /rɛʒarska/), officially the Razarian Dominion (Razarian: Ⱃⰰⰸⰰⱃⱄⰽⱁ Ⰲⰾⰰⰴⰻⱌⰻⱄⱅⰲⱁ Razarsko vladicistvo), is a sovereign state located in West Borea, bordering in clockwise order Ceresnia, Slovunia and Aucuria. It has a population of around 41.8 million, the Xth highest in the world. Spanning an area of around 659,274 square kilometers, Razaria is the 3rd largest country in West Borea and the Xth largest in the world. The capital city is Čiragrad, and the largest city and the leading national economic center is Vojislav; other major cities include Grabovica, Džojigrad, Sovanović, and Metav. Razaria's population is mainly composed of ethnic Razarians, with Costeny as their prevalent faith.

First home to the cultures of the Monic Sepcans and Vacaian Mesians, Slavic Razarians would migrate into the area south of the Gozar Mountains starting in the 4th century and establish the Principality of Razaria in 757. From the 10th to 12th centuries, Costeny emerged in and eventually became the dominant religion of Razaria. Under the Empire of Razaria, established in the 13th century, the Razarian state expanded and rose as a regional power in West Borea, before its influence eventually faltered following the Dark Decades, a period of instability and warlordism that followed a succession crisis in the 18th century. Following the restoration of central imperial authority under the Kovačović dynasty in the 19th century, Razaria undergone industrialization and modernization, but continued political instability resulted in the collapse of the country into a civil war in 1949. The war's end in 1957 saw the Jastrebovian restoration, the establishment of a new authoritarian government that has since ruled Razaria.

Razaria is ruled by a constitutionally-supported stratocracy, the National Fortification Command, with supervision from and cooperation with Cositene clergy (leading to some also labelling it as a theocracy). Razarian government has generally been described as authoritarian and occasionally totalitarian, and international observers note systematic human rights abuses, including open legal negation of many internationally-recognized freedoms, as well as pervasive suppression of political dissent. Internationally Razaria has generally aligned itself with states with illiberal or otherwise similarly authoritarian governments such as Tuthina, Xiaodong and Ambrose, opposing organizations and blocs such as the Esquarian Community and ABC. It has refused representation at the International League. Razaria is a member of the International Forum for Developing States.

Razaria has a medium Human Development Index score and overall level of human development, and is considered an industrialized country, but has one of the lowest GDP per capita in West Borea. The Razarian economy, built around manufacturing, was worth $96.6 billion by nominal GDP and $375.97 billion by purchasing power in 2017. Scarcity of natural resources such as fuels have led to a focus on development of technologies capable of resolving such economic issues, and thus making Razaria a noted pioneer in bioengineering fields.

Etymology

The origins of the name 'Razaria' are not clear, however it has been hypothesized that it is derived from the Proto-Slavic root *rъžь, meaning 'rye', possibly in reference to crops grown or found in the area, which has been somewhat supported by recent archaeological evidence. The earliest references to this name were made in the 5th century.

Prior to the widespread use of this name, the area Razaria encompasses has been referred to with terms such as 'Mesia' (referencing the Mesians), 'Ciscozaria' (referencing its location relative to the Gozar Mountains with areas that comprise modern Ceresnia being 'Transcozaria') and 'Zavenia' (referencing the Zavena river).

In Monic areas Razaria has been known as 'Gorania' (Syodongmun: 𨞥國) or variations thereof, referencing Goran I, the first Emperor of Razaria, beginning in the 14th century.

History

Early history

An example of delicate, sophisticated Sepcan bronze, dated to around 1720 BCE.

Modern humans have inhabited Razaria since 30,000 BCE. The earliest Neolithic cultures rose in the area in the 7th millennium BCE, represented by the Preljina culture and the Vadel culture. Proto-Pan-Esquarians reached the area in around the 3rd millennium BCE. The first metal-working cultures present in the area however were pastoral-nomadic Monic peoples that invaded and conquered the region in the 1900s BCE, and established the Sepcan Empire that spanned from the east banks of the Brzota river to modern-day Slovunia. Following the Sepcan civilization's collapse in the 13th century BCE, Mesian cultures gradually developed to assume the power vacuum, establishing numerous city-states that formed a confederacy stretching from eastern Sataria to western Slovunia, that was eventually conquered by the Lysandrite Empire in the 2nd century BCE.

Slavs would arrive in Razaria in the 4th century CE, with more gradually migrating into the area, displacing pre-Slavic populations of the area by the 7th century. By the early 7th century, ethnic Razarians began to be differentiated from other Slavs with the development of an unique language and culture heavily influenced by Mesian and Sepcan elements. Much of the area's population adhered to Tastanism by the 8th century.

Medieval Razaria

A monument to the Komljenović dynasty, the founding dynasty of the Razarian Empire

In 757, the Principality of Razaria was established. It initially encompassed the western regions of modern Razaria, but soon expanded after the gradual conquest and incorporation of the eastern regions. A highly decentralized, feudal state, the era of the Principality saw constant internal warfare between nobles and the development of the tvrdjava. In the 930s, the religion of Costeny was founded by the prophet Mstis, and was later spread with a mixture of proselytization and forced conversion in the late 10th century by its armed supporters and adherents. Tastanism, of which Costeny was a radical heresy of, was pushed out of mainstream Razarian society by the 12th century but retained sizeable presence in the form of insurgent Tastanic states conducting armed resistance against Costeny spread. While nearly all Razarians had embraced Costeny by the 12th century, its spread into neighbouring states was curtailed by the efforts of Tastanic states and communities in those areas.

In 1202 Goran I established Razaria as an empire. A complete bureaucratic administrative system was gradually established in the 13th century. The Tastanic states were vanquished by 1210 after a punitive campaign, and the Tastanic faith itself was persecuted and banned while Costeny reached an even more prominent position having been established as the national religion of Razaria following organization and reforms by Pravoljub. The entire local Mesian population was exterminated or assimilated in the Mesian genocide in the 13th-15th centuries, initiated by suspicion of the Mesians as unyielding Tastanics refusing to cooperate and subsume to Razarian-Cositene supremacy in the region.

The Razarian Empire reached the peak of its power and influence in the 15th century, becoming a notable regional power despite limited territory rivalling polities such as Ceresnia-Sataria. Imperial authority, especially over religion, was challenged beginning in the 16th century by the Separationist movement, a school of Cositene clerics advocating complete independence of religious institutions from the political, but was decisively crushed in the Separationist Wars which affirmed the role of the state in faith. However, after this pacification, central authority was again challenged by a newly rising class of merchants beginning in the late 17th century, opposing the traditional nobility. The War of Razarian Succession which began in 1731, a devastating civil conflict that saw the deaths of a significant amount of the Razarian population, resulted in collapse of the economy and authority, and the fall of Razaria to an era of warlordism.

Industrial era

A steel works in Vojislav in 1883, an example of the industrialization that took place in the Kovačović era.

The Dark Decades, a period of disintegration and separation of Razaria into warring local kingdoms and voivodeships, lasted for 76 years, and ended in 1807 when the Kovačović dynasty militarily unified Razaria. The Kovachovids decided to steer Razaria towards industrialization and by extension modernization, to ensure recovery from the fragmentation period. Complete economic transformation from 1820 to 1850 resulted in appearance of new jobs, construction of numerous factories, extensive urbanization of the population, and increasing social tensions. The conflict concerning reform also exacerbated during the Kovachovids. Radical political change such as the centralizing reforms initiated by Vsevoloda of Razaria in her brief rule were first opposed by the noble establishment and conservatives violently, but later with expansion of bourgeois political influence resistance to reform relented. In 1885 Ljuti II adopted a constitution, and turned Razaria into a constitutional monarchy with popular political representation.

Prestige of the Razarian state was also recovered by the Kovachovids with a series of diplomatic and military successes that re-established it as a regional power. The most prominent successes include victories in the ??? wars, and the conquest of Ceresnia in 1866, which resulted in the establishment of Kovachovid sovereignty over the Ceresnian throne in 1869. In 1890, this status was relinquished in favour of Ceresnia becoming a satellite state to Razaria in a tributary system modelled upon Tengkong.

Branimir Kvran in 1931. Kvran brought order to an unstable Razaria, but this was temporary and chaos resumed after his death.

Social issues that plagued Razaria were still left unresolved however leading to greater national crises and instability in the 20th century, leading to Ljuti IV to suspend the constitution in 1919 and adopt oppressive, reactionary policies. A surge of revolutionary violence broke out in the 1920s, culminating in a military coup attempt by republicans in 1922, and the 1924 Čirograd bombing which claimed the lives of much of the royal family including the Emperor, which were the climaxes of the instability of the country. After the monarchy's de facto destruction in the bombing, the Emergency Committee, a military dictatorship, assumed control of the country, before in 1930 Branimir Kvran, a reformist military officer, became Regent and began stabilizing reforms in political and economic areas, as well as suppression of subversion. Kvran's rule until 1940 saw a temporary return of true order before social tensions re-emerged in the 1940s under second regent Javor Ninoslav's rule. By 1947 there was widespread civil and military disobedience, government crisis, and the influence of revolutionary groups was felt across society.

In 1949 the Razarian Civil War would break out, to be fought between the communist-syndicalist National Congress of Workers’ Liberation, the liberationist Razarian Liberationist Party, various warlords and the right-wing nationalist Assembly of Patriotic Forces dominated by the Fatherland Party led by Svetoslav Jastrebović. The war ended in 1957 with Jastrebović’s forces’ victory and the establishment of the modern Razarian state.

Jastrebovian restoration and recent history

Svetoslav Jastrebović, architect of modern Razaria.

The new Razarian state was first in principle a republic, with Jastrebović as its president, that would follow (both in theory and exercise) guided democracy. Tensions caused by revanchist rhetoric against Ceresnia Kamenia, and Slovunia, who had seized Razarian territory during the tumultuous periods and were strategically perceived as threats, resulted in the Gozar War fought from 1958 to 1959, where Razaria had failed to meet geopolitical objectives and instead incurred major territorial losses. After this, Jastrebović initiated the Rectification and Lustration Campaigns purging the government of potential opponents, and the Razarian government was restructured into a constitutional stratocracy, and later massively promoted the social and political status of Costeny and the clergy, as part of the expansive Jastrebovian restoration. The restoration abolished the ruling Fatherland Party, officially enshrined the status of both military and clergy, promoted a reactionary, isolationist ideology by the doctrine of tvrdjavism and created the all-powerful post of Supreme Commander. The National Fortification Command was established to unify administration of military and politics. However, there were still powerful groups outside of the newly promoted classes influential in the state and eventually becoming a threat to the Restoration's order, and the conflict with them resulted in the Winter Solstice Crisis where the supremacy of the Restoration was solidly established.

Razaria continued to have strained relations with its neighbours after the Gozar War and held a hostile attitude to liberal and revolutionary states in general. In the 1970s, centralized economic planning was abandoned in favor of regional and workplace self-management, which saw success in increasing economic productivity, then in the 1980s, a mixed market economy was adopted, followed by increasing external economic interaction. Jastrebović died in 1975 and was succeeded by Radodan Karadsević as supreme leader. Under Vukašin Branislavić, massive economic projects were conducted from the 1980s to 2000s, building sizeable industry and energy generation facilities, and an economic direction of export-led growth was adopted. In 2008, Zlatko Khojnović, the incumbent leader, ascended to the position of Vrhovnik. Very limited steps towards liberalization have been made and political reform has been entirely non-existent. Razaria joined the International Forum for Developing States in 2017.

Geography

Razaria is a very hilly country, shown here are hills in the South Frontier province, in eastern Razaria.

Razaria is situated in West Borea, bordering in clockwise order Ceresnia, Slovunia, Aucuria (by maritime proximity) and Sataria. To the south is the Central Ocean. The territory of Razaria lies between latitudes 55° and 66° north and between longitudes 28° and 33° east. Razaria has a total area of 307,577 square kilometres. The altitude of the country increases from the coast to the Gozar Mountains spanning from the country's northwestern area close to the border with Sataria to its northwest. The country has a coastline of length of 1194.17 kilometres.

Much of Razaria, especially its east, is rather hilly, while the west, characterized by the Golden Plains, is mainly broad and flat. Three major rivers (in order of west to east), the Brzota, the Zavena and the Jadar flow through the country, alongside numerous tributaries such as the Orasan river and the Medovo river. In addition to this, many streams have been created as a result of the hilly geography of the region. Grass and forest are the predominantly found forms of vegetation. The Gozar Mountains stretch across the north of Razaria, where the country's highest point Mount Jastrebović stands 2,393 meters above sea level.

About 26% of the country is forested. Coniferous trees, such as pine and spruce are the most common of trees found in forests. 18% of the country's area is arable land, and natural resources include copper, iron, titanium, aluminium, timber and hydropower. Soil in western Razaria is rich in various minerals such as iron and potassium.

Climate

Most of Razaria has a humid continental climate, characterized by large seasonal temperature differences, while high areas of the Gozar mountains experience an alpine climate. In Čirograd, the lowest average monthly temperature recorded is −5 °C in January and the highest is 22 °C in July. Temperatures can approach 30 degrees Celsius on average in summer, while in winter the temperature typically does not exceed 5 °C but does not go below -10 °C. The coastal area is warmer compared to inland regions. Average annual rainfall on the coast is about 840mm while in the eastern inland areas it is only 520mm. The country as a whole is considered rather relatively dry in comparison to its neighbours and other Esquarian countries of similar geographic positions.

Politics

Government

The General Administrative Function Building in Čirograd, seat of the National Fortification Command.

Razaria is officially, according to its constitution, an unitary state, ruled by the National Fortification Command which functions as its 'supreme guiding body'. In practice it is a centralized single-party stratocracy and theocracy, exhibiting features of an authoritarian state and occasionally totalitarianism. The functions and elements of modern Razarian government are mostly creations of the Jastrebovian restoration.

Politically, the National Fortification Command functions as a ruling party of Razaria, holding absolute power and dominance over every single aspect of Razarian politics, while also acting as state apparatus by itself. It is both a functionary organization and a military supreme command, thus dissolving any boundaries between civilian and military in Razarian politics. The National Fortification Command is divided into two wings, an 'administrative' section and a 'strategic command' section, the former being the national government and the latter being the military staff.

Both wings answer directly to the Vrhovnik of Razaria (commonly translated as supreme leader), who holds paramount power over Razarian government and politics. The Vrhovnik, who is required to be either a high-ranking member of the military or a Cositene cleric, is elected by the unanimous consent of a conclave of high-ranking Cositene clerics and experts. The Vrhovnik holds supreme command over Razaria's armed forces and preside over most political affairs of the National Fortification Command. They may directly put into effect any executive decision, order or policy, not restricted by any other body, but decisions are typically consulted with other officials and powerful authorities extensively before making them. The Vrhovnik may also promote and demote officials and officers both civilian and military to their own wishes. Since the death of Radodan Karadsević, the 2nd Vrhovnik, in 1979, no Razarian leader has served terms until death and typically resign after extensive discussions establishing a successor when they believe their plans and goals have been accomplished.

Under the administrative wing of the National Fortification Command, there are 7 State Secretariats which are ministry-level departments, each assigned with one aspect of national governance which it oversees and aims to execute state policy in. This includes the State Secretariat of Domestic Affairs, the State Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, the State Secretariat of Security, the State Secretariat of Economy, State Secretariat of Justice, State Secretariat of Culture, and the State Secretariat of Enlightenment. There are also 7 Military Commissions in the military wing, each administering an aspect of national defence and military affairs, considered titularly equivalent to state secretariats to create a total of 14 ministry-level departments, but are far more limited in their capability.

Constitutionally, as well as by effect of the political structure, the military and the Cositene clergy are the equal paramount classes and powers in Razaria, and possess in theory equal sway over its politics, though this situation has been frequently determined by more realistic considerations and factors. In both the Jastrebovian and traditional Cositene approach to this type of government however, the optimal state would be the 'inseparability of the warrior and priest'.

Administrative divisions

As an unitary state, Razaria is divided into 9 provinces in addition to 1 special capital region (the city of Čirograd and affiliated zones). The de facto administrative division below a province is the 'node' (Razarian: čvor), a metropolitan area based around a city and including its industrial and agricultural satellite areas. The node-district remains a major element in Razarian local economic theory as well as general local administration. The Čirograd region is considered a node promoted to a 1st-level administrative division. Under nodes, areas are divided into quarters (Razarian: četvrt) based around actual individual settlements, categorized by their purpose (such as residential, industrial, agricultural).

The node system is theoretically one and the same with military and religious divisions of the country but have became functionally separated, although node governors are still typically appointed from the military or clergy, usually of the local unit or church.

Foreign relations

An observation post on the Razarian-Slovunian border in 1997. All land borders of Razaria are heavily fortified.

Since the end of the Razarian Civil War, Razarian foreign policy has been characterized by mainly isolationism with careful selection and engagement in a handful of deep partnerships, primarily to resolve its economic needs. Razaria has not established official diplomatic relations with most countries of the world, and it has not been a member of any intergovernmental organization since its modern government's establishment, becoming one of the 2 sovereign states that have refused representation at the International League, the other being Ambrose. Razaria has close ties in economic, political and technological spheres with Xiaodong and Ambrose, and also engages in technological cooperation with Tuthina. Fleeting trade and technological partnerships, some unofficial, have been made historically with other countries such as Ainin. Usually, Razaria is considered part of or an associate of the bloc of conservative anti-modern states.

Regionally, Razarian diplomacy has been characterized by unwillingness to cooperate with its neighbours to any degree, as well as maintenance of a generally hostile attitude towards them. These have been demonstrated in missile confrontations with Ceresnia in 2017 and border disputes with Slovunia. The Razarian land borders are also one of the most heavily fortified in the world. It has also been alleged that Razaria actively supports reactionary subversion and far-right political activity (both legal and otherwise) in its neighbours through funding as well as equipment and training provision, as well as intentionally confrontational and even agitational policies and actions against governments deemed of unsuitable orientation.

Primarily through its military strength and expanding ties and partnerships with other states, some analysts believe Razaria is approaching and emerging as a middle power, though this judgement has come under doubt due to its lack of soft power in its immediate region and the limited capabilities and reach of its military.

Human rights

The Razarian state and its constitutional documents do not recognize human rights to any degree. Razaria's government has been consistently the subject of a large number of human rights violations accusations, with the most prominent alleged abuses being those of freedom of speech, freedom of movement, freedom of assembly and the right to a fair trial. In addition, political freedom and freedom of the press are regarded as in extremely serious conditions with the complete absence of any form of democracy in politics and the exclusive state control of the media. Political dissidents have been allegedly tortured and subject to forced disappearance. Summary executions are still and often carried out in the country. Razaria has scored extremely poorly on various indices measuring civil and political freedoms, and there have been calls from human rights organizations and democracy activist movements based in Aucuria for the international community to impose sanctions and take further action regarding Razaria's human rights situation.

Military

Soldiers of the RNAF at a military parade. Militarism has been a long-standing tenet of the modern Razarian state.

The Razarian National Armed Forces is the military of Razaria, subordinate to the National Fortification Command through its military wing and commanded by the Vrhovnik of Razaria. It has a total of 125,000 active troops, 260,000 reservists and 660,000 paramilitary forces, with a total of 1,045,000 soldiers or 2.5% of the country's total population. The RNAF has 5 service branches: the Razarian Ground Force, the Razarian Naval Force, the Razarian Air Force, the Razarian Strategic Weapons Force and the paramilitary Razarian Territorial Defense Forces serving as a home guard. Of the branches of the military proper, the RNAF Ground Force is the largest in terms of manpower, with a total of 340,000 enlisted personnel, of which 100,000 are active troops. Razaria possesses various weapons of mass destruction as a means of defensive deterrence, including radiological, biological and chemical weapons.

Razaria is considered a highly militarized country, with regular glorification of the military in media and education, priority allocation of economic resources towards the military, and the training of much of the citizenry in 'readiness programmes' to provide a large reservist combat force in the event of total war. This has been motivated by both strategic and ideological concerns.

Economy

A chemicals factory-complex in Upper Jadar province. Processing and manufacturing fields are a major part of the Razarian economy.

At the beginning of 2017 it was estimated that in terms of purchasing power parity Razaria had a total gross domestic product of $375.97 billion and a per capita GDP of $8,990. Razaria's economic and human development is at a medium level, the country maintains the features and profile of an industrialized economy, but has failed to significantly tertiarize due to the 'tvrdjavist economic model' instituted and followed in economic policy-making.

Razaria's economy operates under a state capitalist mixed market system, a change from the planned economy in place prior to 1980. However, most enterprises and businesses remain state-controlled or owned indirectly; the Razarian military for example controls large portions of mining, machinery, construction and electronics industries through proxy groups, while several high-ranking Cositene clerics are known to own major companies and foundations in the country. The state-owned parts of the Razarian economy however are notably competitive, having adopted a type of 'dog-racing' economic strategy, in that multiple companies are assigned the same or similar tasks to create competition. Regional economic directories, authorities with power over economic assets in state-delineated regions, also have notable freedom in the management and coordination of their resources and assets. Another economically influential body is the zadužbina or 'charitable foundations', which lay claim to major portions of the GDP, and through which ownership of many industries is controlled.

Major industries in Razaria include agriculture, machine building, chemicals production, mining, metallurgy, textiles, medicine and construction. Much of the economy's worth is generated by the industrial sector which also employs 42% of the Razarian workforce. A moderate number of natural resources sustain Razarian industry, such as iron, coal and titanium, whose reserves are found and extracted in the country's north, though it relies more on imports from close partners. In 2013 there was an estimated 2,800 farms and agricultural cooperatives, employing a total of 25% of the workforce. Western Razaria, traditionally known as the country's breadbasket, is the most agriculturally productive region. Major crops include wheat, potatoes, soybeans and flax. The Razarian agricultural sector is sturdy, and can provide for national consumption sufficiently. The services sector of Razaria employs the remaining 33% of the workforce in fields such as transportation, telecommunications, retail, healthcare, information technology and finance.

Razaria has many trade partners, though there are only a handful of substantial, long-term economic partnerships. Razaria mainly imports raw materials and in return exports manufactured products and goods, enabled by its strong, robust and flexible manufacturing industry. Fuels, and to an extent many industrial metals, are a particular major import of Razaria due to its own scarcity of such resources. Major trade partners (primarily those of the IFDS) include Xiaodong, Tuthina, Qaradalai, the UNIR, and Ambrose. Razaria has been heavily reliant on export-led growth since the establishment of its market economy, which has led to the slowing of economic growth in recent years as this potential becomes exhausted, and is on the verge of stagnation.

Razaria's currency, the Razarian teg, issued by the National Bank of Razaria, is used exclusively as a domestic exchange medium, but not only between persons on goods markets but also between companies. Ration tickets are still in use, but are less commonly seen than before.

Infrastructure

A freight train travelling in western Razaria.

Travel and movement in Razaria is almost exclusively comprised of transport of materials and goods, bureaucratic needs and military logistics due to great restrictions placed on movement of individuals in the country. Paved roads in Razaria span about 127,310 kilometers. Limited-access roads connect cities and economically important areas. Reportedly, many road sections are in a poor state of maintenance.

The rail remains the primary mode of land transportation for nearly all purposes; a system of combined light rail, rapid transit and high-speed rail connect various areas of the country. The total amount of rail track is estimated to be 24,501 kilometers. Rail freight transport is the main use of railways in Razaria.

Air transport is non-existent outside of military and diplomatic purposes. The various ports and harbors in the country are exclusively operated for commercial purposes or by the military.

Water provision and sanitation is not an issue in Razaria; most settlements had access to running, sanitized water by the 1990s and rationing is no longer common.

Energy

Construction of a nuclear power plant in the 1980s.

Energy generation in Razaria has aimed to allow national energy self-sufficiency and production to become entirely domestic. The country's energy infrastructure is considered modern and power generation facilities are considered sufficient, however, electricity rationing remains in place in many areas. Fossil fuels are scarce in the country, with very meagre amounts of proven coal and oil reserves, and a reliance on imports to satisfy industrial needs. Thus, renewable energy, specifically hydroelectric power, sees a great amount of use, while wind power and solar power are also being developed and used. Another large proportion of power is provided by an active nuclear energy programme, under which there are 3 operating nuclear power plants. In 2017 Razaria also announced plans to construct another 3 nuclear power plants across the country. Nuclear fuels are imported primarily from Tuthina and Qaradalai.

By energy source, 19% of power generation comes from fossil fuels, 35% from hydroelectricity, 38% from nuclear power, and 8% from other renewable energy sources. Razaria's power grid generated 110,982 gigawatt-hours of power in 2016. To solve the issue of reliance on imports for fuels, Razaria is researching algae fuel as a means to satisfy its needs in this area, while other energy-related technologies such as compressed air energy storage to store electricity generated are also being developed. The role of nuclear power and renewable energy in the grid is also being expanded.

Society

Demographics

Razarians from western Razaria in traditional costume.

Razaria had a population of 41,821,045 according to its 2014 population census, and an overall high population density of 161 persons per square kilometer. Based on available data, the population grows at an estimated 0.8% every year, with this trend showing a decrease. In 2014, the total fertility rate in Razaria was 1.93 while the birth rate was 9 per 1,000 persons, and the mortality rate was 7.9 per 1,000 persons. The average age of the population stands at 32 years, and the life expectancy is 70.2 years on average (68.7 for males and 71.7 for females), and has an increasing trend. 71.1% of the population was between ages 18 and 60.

The population of Razaria is largely ethnically homogenous. In the 2014 population census, 95.5% of the population were recorded to be ethnic Razarians. Minorities of Ceresnians, Sloviacs, Kamenians and other groups were present as well. There are a number of non-Vitrian minorities, the largest of which are the Donosians, descended from the Sepcans, who speak a Monic language, Donosine. Donosians in Razaria number around 502,000 or about 1.2% of the population. Other smaller minorities have a mixture of ancestries, but most either speak Sepcanic languages or tongues with rough links to indigenous languages in Slovunia. However, minority culture and status is not recognized or preserved, and expression of it is usually restricted by the state.

Razaria has a low urbanization rate in its population; only 50% of it resides in urban areas according to the 2014 census, though this is a significant increase, compared to 37% in 1990. Most of the population resides in communal villages, and even city residents do not exist outside the communal system.

About 84.2% of the population adhere to Costeny, a religion which has established itself as the prevalent faith of Razarians since the 13th century. The remainder are mostly atheist or otherwise irreligious. Worship of some religions such as Tastanism is practically actively persecuted, while others, such as Apostolic Christianity and folk religions, are restricted. Due to state promotion of Costeny, the piousness of Razarian culture and society, and general hostility to most non-Cositene beliefs (especially long-persecuted Tastanism) and even irreligion, Costeny has a solid, nearly unshakeable position in Razaria.

Health

Surgeons operating in a hospital in Sovanović.

The Razarian population has been historically victim to numerous periods of scarcity of food mainly due to political situations, resulting in large-scaled malnutrition coupled with higher susceptibility to various diseases. The average height in Razaria was still 4.4 cm lower than the average in all of West Borea in 2006, although there is no significant divide between men and women. However, these have begun to very significantly improve with advances in agricultural efficiency and healthcare. Improvements in sanitation and medicine as well as public health education have eliminated or significantly reduced the threat posed by most infectious diseases and the primary cause of death is currently non-communicable diseases. The mortality rate in 2014 was 8.41 deaths per 1,000 population. Primary public health risks include alcohol poisoning from overdrinking, a prevalent phenomena amongst working-age males in the country.

Reproductive rights see restriction in Razaria with the state mandating families to raise at least 2 children to avoid population decline. In addition to this it is believed the state practices eugenics, with allegations of people with inheritable disabilities and disorders being subject to compulsory sterilization or even forced disappearance being raised by defectors and human rights observer groups.

Razaria has a state-operated universal health care system. Basic diagnoses and treatments for simple conditions are (almost exclusively) conducted at the workplace-level by registered nurses assigned to the unit, while more serious cases are processed and treated at hospitals, almost exclusively owned by Cositene charity organizations. The adequacy of medical supplies and thus quality of healthcare varies by region, though the training of personnel and their supply is not considered an issue. Currently, pharmaceutical production and technology in Razaria is heavily reliant on foreign imports, mainly those from Tuthina and Xiaodong, but it is progressing fast in the field of research.

Education

Kvonigrad University is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in Razaria.

There are two main types of formal education providers in Razaria: state schools and mission schools run by Cositene charity, both of which do not charge fees for attendance and tuition, and differ little in curricula and materials which are unified by the national Joint Syllabus Design Commission. Attending school (receiving basic education) is compulsory for persons aged 7 to 17, divided into 6 years of primary education and 4 years of secondary education. This is immediately followed by an unique form of higher education offering radically different programmes oriented towards either science-vocation or humanities-liberal arts, with subdivisions for more precise directions. The liberal arts programme is offered by only a few higher academic institutions. Other options exist following the 10-year compulsory education such as apprenticeship in production units and military education. Educational material reportedly blends large amounts of state rhetoric, in addition to political indoctrination as well as religious sessions and classes being present themselves.

A nationwide consolidated education system began in the mid-13th century in Imperial Razaria; the oldest universities of the country were built in this period such as the Kvonigrad and Sovanović universities. After the 15th century Cositene charity became the main provider of education and operator of schools rather than the state. Guilds also opened various technical schools in this period. After the end of the Dark Decades, modernized Kovačović-ruled Razaria adopted an education system based on foreign, especially Luziycan, programmes. After 1957 'liberal and foreign influences' were removed and purged from the educational system in a massive revamp and Cositene influences and political propaganda were introduced.

The Razarian government claims a literacy rate of 99.6% as well as complete nationwide coverage of the 10-year basic education programme, though this has come under dispute due to the remoteness of many regions and inaccessibility of educational facilities there. Higher education institutions produce about 500,000 graduates of various fields of specialty every year.

Social strata

While the Razarian state claims the existence of a 'national community' where all members of the Razarian nation are principally equal, it has also officially endorsed priority treatment of classes on numerous occasions, and even contradicted and rejected its own statements on national equality. The two elevated strata in modern Razarian society arethe military and the Cositene clergy, whose statuses are not only enshrined on the founding documents of the modern state but also served in policy and practice; not only do members of these groups receive preferential treatment and allocation of commodities, but political and economic development is supposedly steered with these groups as the foci of service. Members of the military, clergy and their family receive subsidies and additional rations and also concessions at public services. Prominent political posts are primarily held by members of these two groups.

Defectors claim that outside of these two most privileged groups, the rough social and bureaucratic hierarchy of the population can be organized from high to low into general functionaries, engineers and scientists, factory/industry workers, and agricultural workers. Discrimination and preferential treatment supposedly takes place in this order.

Propaganda and the 'Contemporary Mindset'

1959 propaganda poster emphasizing national fortification.

Since 1957 the Razaran state has initiated and sustained intensive propaganda aimed at creating a sense of siege mentality amongst its citizens not too dissimilar to 'thought enhancement' in Tuthina. Tvrdjavist doctrine is the primary base for nearly all national propaganda, which aim to satisfy and achieve the ideology's goals with regards to the social field. Main forms of propaganda include revival of medieval Razarian traditions, including symbols, administration and values, inspiration of pride in historical Razarian achievements, promotion of Costeny, as well as constant presentation of a frequently exaggerated, hyperbolized and demonized enemy to the integrity and freedom of the Razarian nation (and sometimes implicitly other 'free nations' as well) that primarily consists of imperialist, modernist, globalist and revolutionary-leftist forces. Razarian state propaganda takes nearly all possible media and vehicles. While a degree of a cult of personality is observed surrounding Svetoslav Jastrebović, the founder of modern Razaria, it is not at all a central feature of the Razarian propaganda system.

Complimenting and often deemed essential to the Razarian propaganda route is the concept of the 'Contemporary Mindset', the notion of a mentality that should be developed in every Razarian for the situation of the times as the ultimate spiritual and psychological consolidation of the tvrdjavist tenet of national fortification. The Contemporary Mindset's main values include awareness (especially emphasized), integrity (mainly in ideological and spiritual areas), piety, loyalty and discipline, courage, a work ethic, and solidarity with one's compatriots as well as other 'free peoples'. Since the 1990s, it has become one of the most-featured and essential recurring themes in Razarian propaganda. Political education focuses heavily on the construction of such values. The Mindset is supposedly to be exercised in both individual action such as community service, everyday practice and personal lifestyle (echoing themes of Cositene asceticism according to many analysts), as well as collective action, including overall national unity, and demonstrated in forms such as mass military-styled parades and political rallies, and even large liturgical events that have become closely blended with ideology.

Culture

Pravoljub, the patron saint of Razaria.

Razarian culture is a part of the Slavic cultures and thus bears many similarities in many aspects with the cultures of its ethno-linguistic brethren, but is also influenced heavily by the cultures of non-Slavic neighbours, namely Monic cultures, as of all Slavic cultures in Esquarium, Razarian culture is considered to be one of the most heavily monicized, featuring many borrowed and influenced customs. In terms of music, art and cuisine Razaria possesses several unique aspects shaped by local historical conditions, but shares similarities to that of its neighbours as well. Historical heritage of Razaria includes that of both historical Razarian states and the Mesians, though Mesian artifacts and ruins have mostly been destroyed due to their historical and current persecution by the Razarian government. The influence of pre-Slavic cultures are especially prevalent in customs and religion.

Razarian culture, while heavily based on the role of family and a work ethic like other Slavic cultures, has added focuses on values such as adventurousness, prudence, caution and collectivism.

The Razarian language is a Slavic Gozaric language, but features some Monic and Mesian loanwords. Razarian is written in Mastic script, an adapted form of Glagolitic scripts used earlier in medieval Razaria as a liturgical script. Mastic has been used as the sole official script since the 16th century.

The Cositene faith maintains a high status in society and culture of Razaria, becoming equivalent to a civil religion in social influence, owing to Razaria being the only nation that has to a large degree embraced the religion. The Synod of Razaria is the administrative organization of Costeny in Razaria. Major cultural monuments aside from medieval super-fortresses are mainly various Cositene places of worship. The patron saint of Razaria is Pravoljub.

Art, literature and music

A monument honoring soldiers in Čirograd, characteristic of tvrdjavist-era art.

Early medieval Razarian art was almost solely comprised of religious works, displayed in various monasteries, with Tastanic works the most numerous. One example is the gallery at the Grabovica Tastanic Cathedral with 73 individual artworks decorating the church walls. After iconoclasm became an official doctrine of Costeny, the prominence of religious art declined. In the Imperial era, artworks began depicting the monarchy and its achievements as well, while styles became more realistic in contrast to earlier works. In the 13th century, borrowing of foreign influences and techniques created the Kolska style that dominated Razarian art in fields such as painting, architecture and sculpture until the 16th century. Razarian art shifted towards neoclassicism and romanticism in the 18th-19th centuries. Under the Tvrdjavist state, the heroic realist and romantic tendencies of 19th century Razarian classicism were pushed to new heights to form tvrdjavist art which placed an emphasis on depiction of the military, industry, the Razarian people and history.

The literary tradition in Razaria has a long history dating back to Mesian lyric poetry and wandering poetry prior to Slavic settlement, in turn believed to have been influenced by Sepcan literature. These influences reached early Tastanic liturgical literature as well as general secular works. Epic poetry became popular in the 8th century. New styles further developed during the Imperial period along with the rise in popularity of prose. After a literary decline during the Dark Decades, a revival in the 19th century heralded by writers such as Borivoje Zorić, Sava Urošević and Malina Vasić which focused on the commoners' lives with works mostly in vernacular Razarian ushered in the age of modern Razarian literature. Poetry has seen a revival in the Tvrdjavist period but literary activity overall has been limited due to extensive censorship and restrictions on publications.

Music in Razaria too has a long history and compared distinctiveness from other Slavic cultures. Early music revolved around a main purpose of serving as vehicles for poetry, using simple string instruments. Liturgical music began development in the 5th century, and classical music in Razaria continued to retain religious influences. The 16th-century composer Zvonko Rajković is often regarded as the greatest pre-modern Razarian musician with over 100 individual works, many new developments in music theory and profound influences on later Razarian music attributed to him. Romantic and folkish themes permeated into development of 19th century Razarian music, while the accordion began to substitute flutes in the role of the main folk music vehicle. The tvrdjavist era has saw state-promoted revival of folk music with poetry accompaniment, as well as the rise of marches as a vehicle for propaganda and tvrdjavist art, most of which use the ternary form. Main traditional instruments include the flute, the accordion, the lute, the trumpet and the horn.

Cuisine

Podvarak is a popular, common dish in Razaria, and considered one of its cultural symbols.

Sports

Sport and exercise is actively encouraged in Razaria as a means to maintain health. Many if not all communes have sports clubs created for the purpose of leisure and relaxation outside of work. Some sporting events, especially large-scaled games, are interpreted with religious significance as a massive ritual. <...>

Internationally, Razarian sports teams have made only occasional appearances. The Razarian national football team has participated in several friendly matches with other countries and more recently the Spring 2018 Coupe d'Esquarium. Razaria's notable national teams include those of swimming, track and field, tennis and shooting.