|State of Razaria
|Motto: Za Hlina, naroda i zastavu svoju - uvijek spremni
For God, and the people and flag of his - always ready
|Anthem: Tamo daleko
"There, Far Away"
Razaria's location in Borea
and largest city
|Ethnic groups (2014)||99.5% Razarians|
|Government||Unitary single-party tvrdjavist state|
|-||Medieval state||757 CE|
|-||Empire of Razaria||1202|
|-||State of Razaria||1957|
118,756 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|HDI (2012)|| 0.686
|Currency||Razarian marka (RZM)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||RAZ|
Razaria (Razarian: Razarija/Разарија), officially the State of Razaria (Razarian: Kvoja Razarija/Квоја Разарија), is a sovereign state located on the southern coast of northern Borea, in Esquarium. It borders Bohemia to the east, and Ceresnia to its north. It has a population of 41.8 million as of the latest 2014 population census, and an area of 307,577 square kilometers.
The first civilized inhabitants of Razaria were the Mesian people who flourished from the 6th to 1st centuries BCE. A number of Slavs migrated to the area in the 5th century, and established the Principality of Razaria in 757. Goran I proclaimed the Razarian state an Empire in 1202, though it also submitted to imperial Namor as a tributary state. Razarian power was at its peak in its region during the 15th and 16th centuries, when its territory was at its historical maximum. The Dark Decades saw Razaria temporarily disintegrate into a number of warlord states, before being reunified in 1807. The Kovačović dynasty saw industrialization of the country and its entry into the world stage, but also rising tensions between social groups and later ideologies that resulted in the Razarian Civil War. The right-wing nationalist and ultraconservative tvrdjavist forces led by Svetoslav Jastrebović emerged victorious in the war and established the State of Razaria in 1957.
Razaria is a single-party totalitarian state, ruled by an institutionalized military dictatorship with what is widely considered to be a blend of stratocracy, theocracy, ultraconservatism and fascistic thought under Tvrdjavist ideology. The military holds a very significant codified position in both politics and society. The Zrunjnik of Razaria, or the Paramount Leader, possesses most executive powers and is the most powerful of persons in Razarian government, holding many positions that consolidate such a status. Save for a functionally powerless deliberative and advisory council, the Razarian government has no popularly-elected legislative organism.
Destruction brought by the years of war during reunification, including ecological devastation and social effects, still heavily affect Razaria to this day, limiting economic potential of many regions. Razaria has a command economy with implemented policies of self-management in regions, exercising de facto economic federalism, amongst other unique tenets. Its gross domestic product by purchasing power was worth an estimated $681.4 billion in 2017, with a GDP per capita of $8,990. The Razarian economy possesses a robust agricultural sector and a large, developed industrial sector with specialities in armaments, industrial equipment and grid infrastructure components.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Military
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
The name 'Razaria' is believed to have come from the name of a Mesian settlement, named Retiar, which was used by Slavs, and eventually other peoples, to refer to the area. The name was mentioned as early as the 3rd century CE, and was adopted to refer to the Slavic polity in the area in the 6th century CE. The origin of the name Retiar itself is unknown, though linguists link it to reconstructed Mesian rets meaning "cheeks", which could have referred to local geography resembling a human cheek.
Human habitation of Razaria dates back to about 8000 BCE. The Mesian civilization began to take shape in the 6th century BCE, and reached a golden age in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. The Mesian civilization rapidly declined during the 1st century BCE and soon collapsed while its inhabitants became pastoral nomads.
Slavs arrived in the region and settled in the 5th century CE. Most of these new Slavic settlements were located on the river-banks of the Brzota river. By the 7th century the eastern bounds of modern Razaria had been settled by the Slavs as well.
In 757, the Principality of Razaria was established. It initially encompassed the western regions of modern Razaria but soon expanded after the gradual conquest and incorporation of the eastern regions. It was a highly decentralized, feudal state; nobles ruled large fortified towns known as tvrdjavas, and frequently waged war on each other until the 13th century. In 903, Christianity was announced the national faith of all Razarians, though its influence began to be challenged by Tastanism. Saint Sava (Razaria) established an autocephalous Lutheran Catholic church in Razaria in 1032, with himself as its first archbishop.
From 936 to 1210, the various Christian Razarian fiefdoms were locked in warfare against the Tastanist states in what would be known as the Razarian Wars of Religion. Concurrently, feudal lords also fought each other for power and dominance of the region.
In 1202 Goran I proclaimed himself Emperor of Razaria and established Razaria as an empire. A complete bureaucratic administrative system modelled on that of imperial Namor was gradually established in the 13th century. The Tastanist states were finally vanquished in 1210 after a punitive campaign and the Tastanist faith itself persecuted and banned, while the entire Mesian population was exterminated or assimilated in the Mesian genocide in the 13th-15th centuries.
The Razarian Empire reached the peak of its power and influence in the 15th century, with its territory including regions of western Bohemia and southern Ceresnia. Its golden age extended into the 16th and 17th centuries until the War of Razarian Succession in 1731, a devastating civil conflict that saw the deaths of a significant amount of the Razarian population and the fall of Razaria to an era of warlordism.
Kovačović dynasty, regencies and Civil War
During the Dark Decades, Razaria was fragmented into warlord states that were based in tvrdjava fortress-towns that waged occasional war on each other, which was akin to conflicts between lords of Razaria's feudal period. As a result of disunity neighbouring countries used this opportunity to seize several former territories of Imperial Razaria. Several powerful warlord states emerged during the Dark Decades but none were able to reunify Razaria either due to constraints in strength, infighting, or a lack of interest. A number of Razarians left the country and settled elsewhere overseas, forming the Razarian diaspora. The Dark Decades lasted for 76 years and ended in 1807 when the Kovačović dynasty unified Razaria. However, in 1809, a series of rebellions by the peasantry and disobedient military commanders broke out and would only end in 1819 following the Pacification Campaigns.
Upon stabilizing the country, the Kovačović monarchy decided to steer Razaria towards industrialization and by extension modernization. Hundreds of factories were built in the country from 1820 to 1850 and a great amount of jobs was created from the new industries that emerged, resulting in an urbanization process in which by 1900 70% of Razaria's population inhabited its cities, compared to a mere 33% in 1836. Tensions between classes and groups led to the rise of new, revolutionary ideologies such as communism and syndicalism in the ranks of Razarian society; as a response, the monarchy maintained reactionary, authoritarian policies and suppressed their presence, well into the early 20th century, prompting further violent actions from revolutionary groups as a result.
A series of political crises in the 1920s, such as an attempted republican military coup in 1922 and a bombing that killed several members of the imperial family (including Emperor Ljutir IV) in 1924, led to the country being taken over by a dictatorship by the military and security services until 1930 when Branimir Kvran became regent. Kvran stabilized the country by introducing reforms that satisfied both right-wing and left-wing radicals and cracked down on violent, uncooperative organizations. Javor Ninoslav succeeded Kvran as regent in 1940, but failed to control increasing radicalism as well as crises in the government itself. By 1947 there was widespread civil and military disobedience and the influence of revolutionary groups were felt across society.
In 1949 the Razarian Civil War would break out, to be fought between the communist-syndicalist National Congress of Workers’ Liberation, the liberationist Razarian Liberationist Party, various warlords and the right-wing nationalist Assembly of Patriotic Forces dominated by the Fatherland Party led by Svetoslav Jastrebović. The war ended in 1957 with Jastrebović’s forces’ victory and the establishment of modern tvrdjavist Razaria.
Upon the establishment of the tvrdjavist state, Razaria became ruled as a highly centralized, closed and isolated military dictatorship with Jastrebović as its first Zrunjnik and the Fatherland Party as the nominal ruling party. Jastrebović began to further develop and refine the doctrine of tvrdjavism and in 1961 enacted major restructuring of the government according to the new changes and additions to tvrdjavist ideology: the Fatherland Party was abolished and the National Fortification Command was established as the new comprehensive governmental body, while the role of the armed forces in the government was further expanded and emphasized. In the 1970s, centralized economic planning was abandoned in favor of regional and workplace self-management, which saw success in increasing economic productivity, then in the 1980s, a mixed market economy (albeit with very limited interaction with the outside world) was adopted. Jastrebović died in 1975 and was succeeded by Radodan Karadsević as supreme leader.
Razaria remained a totalitarian state into the 21st century. It maintained a policy of isolationism, though it has established trade partnerships with selected states such as Xiaodong. The tvrdjavist dictatorship has mostly concerned itself with internal development towards self-sufficiency. In massive economic projects from the 1980s to 2000s, Razaria was able to build sizeable industry, construct several hydroelectric dams and even open a nuclear power plant. In 2008, Zlatko Khojnović, the incumbent leader, ascended to the position of Zrunjnik.
Razaria is situated in western Borea, bordering Bohemia to the east and Ceresnia to the north. To the south is the East Namor Sea. The territory of Razaria lies between latitudes 55° and 66° north and between longitudes 28° and 33° east. Razaria has a total area of 307,577 square kilometres. The altitude of the country increases from the coast to the Gozar Mountains spanning from the country's northwestern area close to the border with Aleia to its northeast. The country has a coastline of length of 1194.17 kilometres.
Much of Razaria, especially its east, is rather hilly, restricting agriculture to the western Golden Plains (Razaria) bisected by the Brzota river. Three major rivers (in order of west to east), the Brzota, the Zavena and the Jadar flow through the country, alongside numerous tributaries such as the Orasan river and the Medovo river. In addition to this many streams have been created as a result of the hilly geography of the region. Historically this has affected transport between regions of Razaria which posed a great challenge to its economic development in the second half of the 20th century. Grasslands and forests cover the majority of Razarian land. The Gozar Mountains is the only mountain range in Razaria, and the country's highest point is Mount Jastrebović, located in the western section of the Gozar, and stands at 2,305m above sea level.
About 46% of the country is forested, with coniferous trees covering much of the country, and pine and spruce are the most common of trees found. 18% of the country is arable, and natural resources include copper, iron, titanium, aluminium alongside non-mineral ones such as timber and hydropower that can be utilized through the river flows. Razarian soil is considered rich in minerals.
Much of Razaria has a humid continental climate, characterized by large seasonal temperature differences. In Čirograd, the lowest average monthly temperature recorded is −5 °C in January and the highest is 22 °C in July. Temperatures can approach 30 degrees Celsius on average in summer, while in winter the temperature typically does not exceed 5 °C but does not go below -10 °C. The coastal area is warmer compared to inland regions. Average annual rainfall on the coast is about 840mm while in the eastern inland areas it is only 520mm. The country as a whole is considered rather relatively dry in comparison to its neighbours and other Esquarian countries of similar geographic positions.
Razaria is officially, according to its constitution, an unitary tvrdjavist state, ruled by the National Fortification Command which functions as its 'supreme guiding body in all aspects of the nation'. In practice it is a centralized single-party stratocracy. The National Fortification Command functions as a ruling party of Razaria, dominating every single aspect of Razarian politics, while also acting as a governmental entity by itself. It is both a civilian political administration and a military supreme command headquarters, thus dissolving any boundaries between what is and is not military in Razarian politics. The National Fortification Command is divided into two wings, an 'administrative' section and a 'strategic command' section, the former being the national government and the latter being the military staff.
Both wings answer directly to the Zrunjnik of Razaria (commonly translated as Supreme Leader) who holds paramount power over Razarian government and politics. The Zrunjnik is supposedly elected by nationwide public vote participated in by all citizens of Razaria. They hold supreme command over Razaria's armed forces and preside over most political affairs of the National Fortification Command. The Zrunjnik may directly put into effect any executive decision, order or policy, not restricted by any other body, but zrunjniks typically consult decisions with other officials extensively before making them. The Zrunjnik may also promote and demote officials and officers both civilian and military to their wishes.
Under the administrative wing of the National Fortification Command, there are seven State Secretariats which are ministry-level departments running various administrative affairs. This includes the State Secretariat of Domestic Affairs, the State Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, the State Secretariat of Security, the State Secretariat of Economy, State Secretariat of Justice, State Secretariat of Culture, and the State Secretariat of Enlightenment. There are also seven commissions in the military staff each administering an aspect of national defence and military affairs, considered titularly equivalent to state secretariats to create a total of 14 ministry-level departments, but are far more limited in their capability.
Provinces -> districts -> cities/counties -> quarters/sela
Razaria has established official relations with very few countries in Esquarium. Its isolationist policies have led to some labelling it as a hermit kingdom. The country maintains a hostile attitude towards most countries including syndicalist states and liberal democracies, but it does have limited economic and political partnerships with Xiaodong and Tuthina. Razaria has no membership in any intergovernmental organizations, and is considered to be mostly independent from the major power blocs of the world.
Razaria is widely described as a totalitarian state by the outside world. Razaria has been criticized for various human rights violations, as there is a very notable and obvious absence of the freedom of speech, freedom of the press, right to a fair trial, right to property, freedom of movement and various other human rights deemed standard by various international organizations. The absence of a proper judicial and legal system in Razaria and its summary executions of suspected subversives, as well as average citizens being forbidden to leave their own commune, have become infamous examples of the extent of repression inside the country. The Razarian constitution makes no mention to fundamental human rights of any sort. Razaria, consequentially, has ranked poorly on the Liberty Index (Esquarium) and various other measures, rankings and indices of civil and political rights in Esquarium.
The Razarian National Armed Forces is the military of Razaria, subordinate to the National Fortification Command through its military wing and commanded by the Zrunjnik of Razaria. It had a total of 125,000 active troops, 260,000 reservists and 660,000 paramilitary forces, with a total of 1,045,000 soldiers or 2.5% of the country's total population, which is considered very large. Razaria is considered a highly militarized country, with much of the citizenry trained in 'national defense readiness programmes' that commence at age 16 which supposedly guarantees a large potential combat force in the event of total war. The RNAF has 5 service branches: the Razarian Ground Force, the Razarian Naval Force, the Razarian Air Force, the Razarian Strategic Weapons Force and the paramilitary Razarian Territorial Defense Forces serving as a home guard. Of the branches of the military proper, the RNAF Ground Force is the largest in terms of manpower, with a total of 340,000 enlisted personnel, of which 100,000 are active troops.
Personnel in the RNAF Ground Force primarily comprise units who are based in communes or equivalent-level administrative divisions, and most units rotate from or into reserve forces every year, in a system known as military rotations (Razaria). Analysts believe only a small number of units are all-time and it is commonly assumed that this number does not exceed 10,000. Similarly, air force and naval units typically rotate annually, although their organization is more unitary due to the smaller amount of pilots or sailors one commune or equivalent-level unit can field (if they can raise any at all). The RNAF is strategically divided into three main integrated commands all with ground, aerial and naval components, the Western Command (Razaria), the Eastern Command (Razaria) and the Central Command (Razaria). The Western and Eastern commands field the most active ground forces and air force units, while the Central Command fields more naval units and has more reservists, and is likely only to be involved when foreign invasion threatens central areas of Razaria. Typically 20 brigades (or around 100,000 men) in the Ground Forces including on average 10 light infantry brigades, 5 motorized infantry brigades, 3 mechanized infantry brigades, and 3 tank brigades are active at any given moment.
The RNAF's inventory and equipment are mostly domestically developed and produced as a result of autarkic economic policies enacted by the tvrdjavist state. It is claimed by the Razarian state that many of the equipments are 'completely original and Razarian in design'. Notable domestic equipment designs and developments include the Tip 86 main battle tank, the Tip 85 multiple rocket launcher and the Lov-14 multirole fighter. Military industry in Razaria is entirely domestic and supplies the RNAF with a full range of weaponry. The RNAF has a reportedly updated arsenal, but is technologically inept in terms of command and control assets and unit networking and communications. Its doctrine places it as a defensive force, and the primary defensive strategy is to engage a 'war of national resistance' when invaded, in which it will be assisted and augmented by the Territorial Defense Forces and the general populace.
Razaria possesses weapons of mass destruction as a means of defensive deterrence. It possesses stocks of biological and chemical weapons, having capabilities to cultivate, breed and develop strains of pathogens to weapons standards as well as production of various chemical agents, capable of incapacitation or death of targets. The RNAF is also in possession of radiological weapons produced using radioactive waste from the country's only nuclear reactor. For unknown reasons, Razaria does not pursue a proper nuclear weapons programme, and has conducted no officially known nuclear tests in its history.
At the beginning of 2017 it was estimated that in terms of purchasing power parity Razaria had a total gross domestic product of $375.97 billion and a per capita GDP of $8,990. Razaria's economic and human development is at a medium level, the country maintains the features and profile of an industrialized economy, but has failed to significantly tertiarize due to the 'tvrdjavist economic model' instituted and followed in economic policy-making.
The economy of Razaria is closed aimed at achieving autarky, but it is also decentralized, built upon principles of workers' self-management in the administrative field. Razaria abandoned centrally issued economic plans in the 1970s due to perceived economic inefficiency and thus decentralized the procedures of economic planning, creating de facto economic federalism. Regional economic directories, which are the economic administrative authorities of first-level administrative divisions, have the power to manage economic assets in their areas of control and authority to however they may accomplish 'general economic outlines' issued by the central government that has since replaced basic economic planning. The power is further decentralized down to basic production units. This new model of operation saw improvement in the Razarian economy. Since the 1980s a sort of mixed economy has been adopted allowing for somewhat of greater economic freedom within the country. State-sanctioned companies have begun to run economic activities, 'quasi-privatizing' sectors of the economy but are also expected to accomplish parts of the economic outline assigned to them. A type of 'dog-racing' economic strategy making use of competition has been adapted into the Razarian planning model in that multiple companies are assigned the same or similar tasks, supposedly forcing them into capitalist-like competition while still retaining overall control.
Major industries in Razaria include agriculture, machine building, chemicals production, mining, metallurgy, textiles, medicine and construction. Much of the economy's worth is generated by the industrial sector which also employs 42% of the Razarian workforce. A moderate number of natural resources sustain Razarian industry, such as iron, coal and titanium, whose reserves are found and extracted in the country's north, though it relies more on imports from close partners. In 2013 there was an estimated 2,800 farms and agricultural cooperatives, employing a total of 25% of the workforce. Western Razaria, traditionally known as the country's breadbasket, is the most agriculturally productive region. Major crops include wheat, potatoes, soybeans and flax. The Razarian agricultural sector is sturdy, and can provide for national consumption sufficiently. The services sector of Razaria employs the remaining 33% of the workforce in fields such as transportation, telecommunications, retail, healthcare, information technology and finance.
Razaria trades with a limited number of countries. It imports some raw materials and supplies, and occasionally technology, from Xiaodong and Tuthina, and in return exports minerals such as iron, aluminium and titanium. It has also exported arms to some Nautasian countries and organizations. The Razarian economy claims to be self-sufficient and autarkic, however shortages of some materials are problematic and pose great challenge to its industry.
Razaria's currency, the Razarian marka, issued by the National Bank of Razaria, is used exclusively as a domestic exchange medium, but not only between persons on goods markets but also between companies. It is uniquely for its economic model a currency based on a gold standard, with 1000 marka pegged to 10 grams of gold. Ration tickets are still in use but are less commonly seen than before.
The road network in Razaria is ill-maintained and in disrepair. In comparison, its railways are in significantly better condition, primarily due to its relevance in military logistics. Most civilians are forbidden from leaving the communes they reside in, and only state officials and soldiers can travel around the country, who become the only passengers of the rail network of the country. Air transport is non-existent as all aerodromes in the country are owned by the military. Some ports exist for transport and commercial purposes, but they are rarely used, and are in poor condition.
Water provision and sanitation is not an issue in Razaria; most communes had access to running water by the 1990s and rationing is no longer common.
All energy production in Razaria is fully domestic due to the country's closed economy. The country's energy infrastructure is considered modern, though there is a huge disparity of coverage between areas, with the grid in the northern area in disrepair and poorly maintained. In 2012, the country had 8 billion tonnes of proven, extractable coal reserves, 13 million barrels of proven petroleum reserves, and 0.3 trillion cubic meters of proven natural gas reserves. Fossil fuels are scarce in the country, and petroleum products are used almost exclusively by the military, while natural gas and many sources of oil are intentionally left untapped. Renewable energy, specifically hydroelectric power, sees a great amount of use. Wind power sees use in some regions. Razaria also has an active civilian nuclear energy programme and has 1 operating nuclear power plant, the Betovo nuclear power plant. A second, larger plant, the St. Sava nuclear power plant, is under construction. In 2017 Razaria also announced plans to construct another 9 nuclear power plants across the country.
By energy source, 53% of power generation comes from coal, 30% from hydroelectricity, 13% from nuclear power, 3% from wind power and 1% from various other sources. Razaria's power grid generated 36,021 gigawatt-hours of power in 2014. Due to a scarcity of fuel sources, Razaria plans to greatly expand the role of renewable energy as well as nuclear power in its grid in the near future, and is also researching algae fuel as a means to satisfy its needs for fossil fuels, as well as compressed air energy storage to store electricity generated.
Razaria had a population of 41,821,045 according to its 2014 population census, and an overall high population density of 161 persons per square kilometer. Based on available data, the population grows at an estimated 0.8% every year, with this trend showing a decrease. In 2014, the total fertility rate in Razaria was 1.93 while the birth rate was 9 per 1,000 persons, and the mortality rate was 7.9 per 1,000 persons. The average age of the population stands at 32 years, and the life expectancy is 70.2 years on average (68.7 for males and 71.7 for females), and has an increasing trend. 71.1% of the population was between ages 18 and 60.
The population of Razaria is largely ethnically homogenous. In the 2014 population census, 99.5% of the population were recorded to be ethnic Razarians. Minorities of Ceresnians, Cheranavians and other groups were present as well.
Razaria has a low urbanization rate in its population; only 40% of it resides in urban areas according to the 2014 census, though this is a significant increase, compared to 27% in 1990. Most of the population resides in communal villages, and even city residents do not exist outside the communal system.
Razarian culture has been heavily impacted by its historical political conditions of experiencing constant turmoil and instability in medieval times, its Christian faith and its geography. In terms of attitude, Razarians are very close with those they are familiar with and generally suspicious towards foreigners at best and outright hostile at worst; this is reflected at both the national level, where a siege mentality has developed and been ingrained into the population, and at personal, social levels. Within their communities, Razarians are considered to be collectivistic. It is believed that life in the tvrdjavas of the medieval and Dark Decades-era have influenced heavily this general attitude.
Razarian culture is a part of the Slavic cultures and thus bears many similarities in many aspects with the cultures of its ethno-linguistic brethren, but is also influenced heavily by the cultures of non-Slavic neighbours, namely Monic cultures, as of all Slavic cultures in Esquarium, Razarian culture is considered to be one of the most heavily monicized, featuring many borrowed and influenced customs. The Razarian language is a Slavic Gozaric language. In terms of music, art and cuisine Razaria possesses several unique aspects shaped by local historical conditions, but shares similarities to that of its neighbours as well. Historical heritage of Razaria includes that of both historical Razarian states and the Mesians, though Mesian artifacts and ruins have mostly been destroyed due to their historical and current persecution by the Razarian government.
The Christian faith maintains a high status in society and culture of Razaria. The locally followed denomination, the Razarian Catholic Church, is an autocephalous branch of the Lutheran Catholic church. Major cultural monuments aside from medieval super-fortresses are mainly monasteries and other church buildings.
Art, literature and music
Early medieval Razarian art was almost solely comprised of religious works, displayed in various monasteries. One example is the gallery at the Grabovica Cathedral with 73 individual artworks decorating the church walls. In the Imperial era, artworks began depicting the monarchy and its achievements as well, while styles became more realistic in contrast to earlier works. In the 13th century, Namorese art styles began influencing Razarian art and formed the Peved style that dominated Razarian art in fields such as painting, architecture and sculpture until the 16th century. Razarian art shifted towards neoclassicism and romanticism in the 18th-19th centuries. Under the Tvrdjavist state, the heroic realist and romantic tendencies of 19th century Razarian classicism were pushed to new heights to form tvrdjavist art which placed an emphasis on depiction of the military, industry, the Razarian people and history.