Powers of Pardes
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The “Powers of Pardes” is an annual report compiled by World Council regarding the statuses of key Pardesi states, ranking them either as 'Major Powers,' 'Middle Powers,' or 'Regional Powers'. The report has been published annually since 1975; in 2013, the report was the only in its kind to show significant changes in the ranking of states within Pardes. The report has been criticised for its narrow criteria and limited scope in areas of investigation, however it is accepted by governments and think tanks alike, despite high levels of debate and criticism upon each annual report. The report is also vocal in its defence of claiming Pardes as a multi-polar world, the report has also been applauded yet criticised for its continued resistance towards recognising the position of ‘Superpower’, although a certified academically produced position within international relations, the report since its first publication has rejected the notion of Pardesi superpowers, stating no nation in Pardes operates the hegemonic necessities for such a status.
A major power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability to exert its influence on a global scale. Major powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause small powers to consider the major powers' opinions before taking actions of their own.
Emmeria has been classed as a major power since the report began in 1975. The United Republic is Pardes’ largest economy and as a result has vast economic ties across the entire region. It is the largest technology and telecommunication hub in Pardes, with Vyrant, the largest information technology company in Pardes, by both overall financial wealth and scope. Its financial services are the largest in Pardes and the Charleur Stock Exchange being the most powerful in Pardes; also, its free trade agreements with Belhavia, Alleghania, Belfras and the Western Confederation are among the most profitable and Emmeria is the third largest exporter in Pardes after Rodarion and Itailia. The United Republic is also home to the most successful space exploration programme in Pardes, STAR. The level of Emmerian technological influence upon Pardes is extensive, with declaring Emmerian technology as ‘vital to our lives as oxygen’. Emmeria was ranked as first in Pardes for ease of doing business and is high ranking in terms of entrepreneurism and business start ups. The use of the Emmerian Dollar as the principle trading and reserve currency in Pardes has also supported the country’s rise as a major power since the 1940s. The Emmerian services sector is the most powerful in Pardes, with the Chaleur Stock Exchange operating the largest exchange in Pardes and has been called the beating heart of stocks and the centre of the region’s services economy.
The United Republic has the 9th largest population in Pardes with 326.7 million citizens and is the XX largest country area with a total surface area of 9.076 million km2. However unlike other Pardesi Major Powers, the United Republic does not have overseas territories located outside of Western Pardes.
Militarily, the United Republic is regarded by some experts as the most powerful in Pardes, being the best equipped and among the best trained forces in Pardes. Through the CDI, the United Republic is able to exercise regional projection, allowing it to protect its interests anywhere in the region. With 2.9 million personnel it is among the smallest; however, its defence spending allows it to develop and utilise some of the most advanced weapon systems in Pardes. The United Republic Air Force and Navy operate the most advanced aircraft and the URN is regarded as the XX largest in Pardes depending upon the means of measurement. The United Republic operates numerous bases across Pardes through its membership with the Central Defence Initiative and bilateral relations with non-CDI states. The United Republic’s defence industry has had far reaching success in the export of various products including fighter aircraft and vehicles. Emmerian soft power is also counted as important by academics, spending $179.84 billion in aid related programmes in 2011 alone, including aid to developing states and peacekeeping operations.
Culturally, the United Republic is the entertainment and film hub of Pardes, producing various regional class music artists and being the birthplace of numerous music forms including R&B and Rap. In literature, the United Republic is a powerhouse. Transcendentalism and even first philosophical works towards pragmatism began in Emmeria: Edgar Alexander Twain and Fatima Wolff are both considered the greatest writers of Emmerian history. Emmeria is also the home to various sports, including Baseball and Emmerian Football in Pardes, with Basketball making a regional wide impact, Baseball and Basketball have popular followings and teams in numerous states outside of Emmeria, making it one of the sporting hubs of Pardes. The region's first commercial motion picture exhibition was given in San Loma in 1892, using Khalid Weston’s Kinetoscope. The next year saw the first commercial screening of a projected film, in Chaleur, and the United Republic was in the forefront of sound film's development in the following decades. Since the early 20th century, the U.R. film industry has largely been based in and around Pinewood, Santa Fe. Director H.A.A Grant was central to the development of film grammar and Lynton Graystone's ‘Good Citizen’ (1944) is frequently cited as the greatest film of all time, Emmerian screen actors like Emir Jones and Martha Howard have become iconic figures. Pinewood is also one of the leaders in motion picture production.
The Kingdom of Belfras has been a recorded Major Power since the ‘Power of Pardes’ report was started in 1975. Many academics have cited Belfras as the longest standing regional power in Pardesi history; it maintains a strong position since its regional empire during the colonisation era. Belfras is the XX largest economy in Pardes, both nominal and through power purchasing power parity, Belfras’ advanced economy is heavily supported by its shipbuilding industry which is the second or first largest depending upon measurement; the Belfrasian shipbuilding industry is highly competitive with Rodarion’s shipbuilding industry, also among Pardes' largest. Belfras is also a major weapons manufacturer and automobile producer, and its financial services are also among the most largest and powerful in Pardes.
Militarily, Belfras is among the most powerful states, the Royal Navy is the largest in Pardes through numbers and tonnage of its vessels. Its facilities in the territory of Laesico in the Central Ocean are key to the Kingdom’s ability to project power throughout Pardes. As such the Royal Navy has been called the ‘Navy of the CDI’ and has a focal position within CDI operations and CDI operational plans. Belfras operates numerous overseas bases in fellow CDI members and non-CDI members such as Apyx and Talibastain, the Belfrasian Army is among the largest and well armed within the CDI, Belfrasian special forces are acclaimed by many experts as the best in Pardes, however this is highly contested by other experts who point out to other CDI and non-CDI SOFs. The Myrmidons are considered a national icon and are well known throughout Pardes.
Belfras has a population of 352.5 million, making it the 8th largest nation by population in Pardes, Belfras is the XX largest country by area with XX million km2. Belfras also operates territories across the central ocean, with Laesico and the Deinden Islands, allowing the Kingdom to exercise its power projection capabilities across the most vital trade routes in Pardes.
Culturally, the Kingdom of Belfras is a major influence upon Pardes. Belfras has a flourishing media industry, with radio and television broadcasters spread throughout the country as well as media producers and distributors from foreign countries that broadcast within the country. Publicly-founded Belfrasian Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as BBC, is the largest belfrasian television broadcaster in the country with four channels and two news channels. The BBC operates independant from the government through trusts and exists alongside private and government run radio and television stations such as R-Ray Independance, 96.4 Falcon Radio, Royalty Radio, and Sketrix Television to name a few. The BBC has had a major role in news coverage across Pardes, with its Pardes News Service it has become highly popular across the region, offering new insight into issues and revealing the truth to peoples that would be victim to censorship. The BBC has been heralded as a key tool in Belfras soft power projection and exertion.
Belhavia has been classed as a major power since 1986, rising up from a upper-middle power, following the 1980s Neoliberal Revolution under Julian Settas. Belhavia is a federal constitutional monarchy and is considered to be one of the major leaders of Free Pardes and a guardian of democracy and liberty in Pardes.
The Empire’s economy has grown to become the second largest in Pardes by nominal and power purchasing parity. The influence of the Neoliberal Revolution was felt across Pardes, including Emmeria, Eagleland, Arthurista, Belfras and even Rodarion. Belhavia’s economic power can also be witnessed through its strong efforts to achieve free trade agreements with various states across Pardes, its powerful economic ties to Alleghania, Emmeria, Belfras, the Western Confederation and Arthurista are testament to the country’s economic clout. Belhavia is also one of the largest foreign direct investors in Pardes, investing some $159.4 billion in Rodarion between 1985-2009. Belhavia’s economy has also produced notable companies such as Roth Industries, Zalleran Pharmaceutical and Drug Company, and Gray Industries. It is Belhavia’s technological and telecommunications economic strength that makes it unique, across Pardes hundreds of millions of Pardesians have bought and operate iconic goods such as RothPhones and RothPads, which are cultural icons in their own right. Belhavian soft power has been developed through its ability to invest in key economic sectors of various states’ economies.
Belhavia has a population of 299 million as of 2013 and is the XX largest nation in Pardes in terms of surface area, the entire Empire covers XXXkm2.
Militarily, Belhavia operates one of the most advanced forces in Pardes, with 3.3 million personnel they are among the smallest within Pardes, however make up for this in highly praised training regimens that make the Imperial Armed Forces among the most capable and well trained in Pardes. Belhavia also has access to major power projection capabilities, Belhavia also has access to bases across Pardes through the Central Defence Initiative, which Belhavia is regarded as a key leading power. The Imperial Navy is among the most powerful and largest in Pardes and its blue water capabilities has proved vital in securing Belhavia’s overseas territories. Belhavian military presences in the Central Ocean, Southern Ocean and Eastern Pardes have proved vital in the exercising of Belhavian interests. Belhavian arms companies also have become major regional presences, some of which are among the largest in the region.
Many have also accepted that Belhavia enjoys a strong cultural presence across Pardes, being the epicentre of Pardes’ Jewish faith, its Jewish culture has become an icon in itself, producing numerous popular Jewish poets, writers and thinkers. Belhavia also is home to some of the most watched and praised entertainment centres in Pardes, Dakos has become a key filming location for its unique nature as a city of skyscrapers, numerous playwrights have emerged from Belhavia such as David Meir, Moshe Peres, and Sophia Pravitz. The Belhavian film industry is also recognised as a cultural foundation of Pardes, having popular audiences across Pardes, films such as ‘Our Journey’ which covers the arrival of Jewish settlers in the 14th century and their struggle to build a new home in Belhavia, have been applauded as cinematic marvels. Jewish folk music has also become a highly cherished cultural icon in Pardes, with a strong presence of Jewish folk music in the Rodarian Jewish community, singers such as Rosa White and Golda Solomon receive much acclaim. Belhavia has also produced a vast number of scientists and thinkers, including numerous influential economic theorists.
Rodarion is the newest Pardesi state to be recognised as a major power, being raised to the status in 1995. Rodarion is a ecclesiastical sacerdotal theocratic republic, however it is criticsed as the worst human rights violator in Pardes, its democratically elected institutions are weak and entirely subordinate to the Romulan Catholic Church, and its representative Senate has been denounced as oligarchic and corrupt.
Economically, the Papal Republic is the manufacturing powerhouse of Pardes, it is the largest manufacturer in Pardes, producing some 33% of all manufactured goods in 2005, it is the 3rd largest economy by both nominal and PPP measurements. The Papal Republic has been the fastest growing major economy since 1980, its economic growth has resulted in numerous social and political changes for the country, over 324 million people have been brought out of poverty between 1968-2005 and has the fastest growing infrastructure network in Pardes. The ‘Made in Rodarion’ label has become an icon of the 20th and 21st centuries in Pardes, becoming a fashion icon in late 2009. The Papal Republic operates some of the largest employers in Pardes, with the National Construction Agency (state owned enterprise) employing over 14.3 million people and TETRU employing 5.4 million as of 2012, Rodarion also has a booming pharmaceutical industry with TETRU Life and Futorii Pharmaceuticals being among the largest producers in Pardes, Candreva S.A is also the second or third largest aircraft manufacturer in Pardes depending upon measurement. In 2010, Rodarion became the third largest investor in Pardes, spending $120 billion in 2008 alone in numerous states across Pardes, including the developing world. The Rodarian economy has produced numerous companies renowned throughout the region, including TETRU, Candreva S.A, Lenarda, Futorii Pharmaceuticals and Blue Horizon Insurance.
Rodarion has the largest population in Pardes with 1.4 billion citizens, its Jewish community is the third largest in Pardes with 44.3 million adherents and it has the largest population of Ulthrannics outside Ulthrannia itself with 33 million citizens marked as ethnically Ulthrannian. Rodarion is the XX largest country in Pardes, with a surface area of 12,253,725 km2.
Militarily, the Papal Republic operates the largest armed forces in Pardes, with 9.2 million personnel. The country’s armed forces have expanded in both number and quality significantly since the late 1980s, with vast modernisation projects aimed at the Papal Navy and Papal Air Force, despite claims of cybercrime aimed at stealing designs from across Pardes, the country’s domestic arms manufacturers have been heralded as ‘new and up and coming’, producing numerous vehicles, weapons and vessels that have been exported across Pardes in great numbers. Between 1990 and 2010, the Papal Navy doubled in size and introduced its first nuclear powered supercarriers in the form of the Virtue class aircraft carrier; in 2014, it launched two Saint Sebastiu Class Helicopter Landing Docks (LHD). Expanding its blue water capabilities, the Papal Republic has also dramatically expanded its military infrastructure across its numerous overseas territories, especially the Saint Viktor Islands, Saint Claudiu, and Vespasius. The Papal Republic’s dedication to modernising its military has provoked concerns across Pardes of its true long-term aims and its militarisation of its territories outside Rodarion have also provoked criticism; however, the Rodarian government stresses that its rise is peaceful. Some experts also claim that the Papal Republic has produced some of the most capable air defence systems and anti-ship missiles in Pardes; however, this is highly disputed by other states.
Culturally, the Papal Republic is the epicentre of the Romulan Catholic Church, being a theocracy led by the Catholic Church itself, Rodarian influence reaches out to 2.4 billion Catholics all over Pardes. Numerous polls conducted in the early 2000s by WC, showed that 66% of respondents saw the Church synonymous with Rodarion and vice versa. Rodarion also exercises great amounts of soft power through the church, as it operates various major regional charities and civil society operations, the Pardesi Red Cross Association, is run by the Catholic Church and receives 40% of its funding from the Rodarian government, in 2013 the Papal Republic donated $185.4 billion in aid alone to developing states in Ashizwe and is the largest direct investor in those countries, operating under the mantra of ‘Invest a nation out of poverty’. PRRB and the National Express are both news outlets operated across Pardes and PRRB has been growing in popularity among young students in the CDI’s member-states for offering alternative views to major crises compared to that of the United Press, ABC, BCC, Falcon News, and BNN. Also culturally, the Papal Republic has produced vast numbers of poets, thinkers, scientists, architects, artists and playwrights. Georgio Sollomvici, the painter who created the works within the Sistine Chapel is regarded as one of the greatest artists who ever lived. Rodarian Opera, Folk and Country have proved popular musical forms across Pardes, Rodarian literature especially about Rodarian society and the theocratic government have proved key cultural icons also.
An emerging power is a sovereign state that is rising in its global influence and economic strength, military and soft power projection is also expanding in tandem to economic growth. They are considered to be the mid-way group between major and middle powers, usually emerging powers become major powers after a unspecific amount of time.
Long been classified as an 'emerging power', after a prolonged period of economic malaise, Arthurista emerged as the fourth largest economy in Pardes following a sustained campaign of liberalisation in the late-80s and early-90s, which was supported by both of the main centrist parties in parliament. Economically, Arthuristan politicians continue to adhere to their commitment to a pragmatic problem-solving , non-ideological approach which liberally apply policies drawn from both the centre-left and centre-right on the ideological spectrum as the situation demands. It is a major exporter of consumer electronics, machine tools, automobiles, armaments and other high-value added manufactured products, supported by a robust financial and services industry and the mining of rare-earth minerals. It maintains at least some trading ties with most nations in Pardes.
In terms of hard power, Arthurista has been forced to maintain significant defence forces in order to deter the militarily aggressive powers in its area. It is one of the few liberal nations in Pardes with compulsory service obligations. Arthurista has a significant domestic armaments sector producing innovative, indigenously developed weaponry, from small arms to main battle tanks, cruisers and fighters. Its powerful blue water navy is considered as especially critical in keeping the vital sea-lanes open in the event of a total war with its RCO-aligned neighbours. Arthurista also has key elements of power projection through CDI bases across the Central Ocean and its two overseas territories of Lion's Rock and Tarangyika.
Arthurista also possesses a significant degree of soft power, having established one of the first modern democracies in Pardes in the mid-1600s, as well as being a pioneer of the enlightenment and industrial revolution. Its citizenry is known for its prevalent socially libertarian attitude, as well as for their enthusiastic engagement in the political process and its commitment to human rights at home and abroad. The Arthuristan academia is well-known for its cutting edge research in the sciences and perceptive analysis in the humanities.
A middle power is a sovereign state that is not a major power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition and relative economic strength, however their soft power capabilities is lesser than that of a major power.
The Prestonian Empire is recognised as a middle power in the 2014 and 2015 Powers of Pardes reports due to its strong and rapidly-growing economy and its sizable military comparative to its region. The 2014 report also retroactively identified Prestonia as a "former Great Power" for the period preceding the Great Eastern War. Its economy is highly advanced, post-industrial and capitalist in nature and possesses strong sectors in information technology, electronics, transportation and light industrial manufacturing which it exports heavily. Militarily, Prestonia possesses a mid-sized defensively-oriented armed forces with a strong and modern surface navy and burgeoning submarine fleet; it also operates three carriers, though only one is in active service at any given time. Military analysts have labeled the Imperial Prestonian Navy "the preeminent naval force in the Pardesi Far East," though this distinction has as much to do with the region's relative isolation as with the physical strength of the Prestonian navy. Culturally, Prestonia possesses less of a degree of soft-power than other states on the Powers of Pardes list, with much of its modern democratic and legal traditions being borrowed from western Great Powers; its popular culture, however, enjoys a wide range of dispersion across Lusankya and elsewhere.
Prestonia's inclusion on the Powers of Pardes list has been criticised by some economists and political scientists, who point to its middling population and economy as evidence against Prestonia being considered a power in any sense. Despite strong economic growth, Prestonia's mid-sized population is disproportionately skewed toward those aged 50 and up, a consequence of severe losses during the Great Eastern War; this demographic crisis has led some to speculate that Prestonia will experience both a population and an economic decline as these aging workers leave the workforce and die off without adequate replacement. This interpretation has been subject to criticism by domestic analysts. Militarily, its inclusion is criticised on the grounds that the Imperial Armed Forces of Prestonia lack the ability or indeed the desire to project offensive power abroad; the military is forbidden from undertaking offensive warfare by the Constitution. Since the nation's 2014 accession to OSEN, the Prestonian government under Prime Minister Nakamura Shinichiro has pursued a hawkish military policy of "defence through superior deterrent" which has led to the government declaring interest in developing a nuclear program and nuclear-powered submarines, as well as increasing the size of the military to 600,000 active-duty personnel by 2020.