People's Republic of Katranjiev
| People's Republic of Katranjiev |
Narodna Republika i Katranjiev
Populi Respublika i Katranjiev
|Language(s)||Luziycan, Katranjian, Namorese|
|Government||Socialist single party state|
|- 1937-1947||Huankun Chen|
|- 1947-1957||Rongtai Wen|
|- 1957-1967||Nuoju Zeng|
|- 1967-1976||Baikun Qing|
|- 1937-1945||Sasho Yanev|
|- 1945-1967||Deyan Dobrev|
|- 1967-1972||Nuoju Zeng|
|- 1972-1976||Blazhe Hristov|
|Legislature||Shuvet i Khorata|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|- December Revolution||December 9, 1937|
|- Dissolved||May 11, 1976|
The People's Republic of Katranjiev (Katranjian: Narodna Republika i Katranjiev, Luziycan: Populi Respublika i Katranjiev, Namorese: Кaтeлaн Имингукa Katelan Iminguka) was the government of Katranjiev from 1937 to 1976. From the coup d'etat known as the December Revolution on December 9, 1937, to his death in 1970, Huankun Chen served as the Paramount Leader. During this time, he implemented policies that greatly favored the ethnic Namorese minority living in present day Riro, and attempted to turn Katranjiev into a Liberationist state.
In 1937, following the victory of Yunglang Antelope in Namor, a surprise victory of the Liberationists through an election suspected by many to be highly rigged brought in Huankun Chen, the first minority to be a Prime Minister.
After the Supreme Court began investigating in the election, on Oct. 23, 1937, the Liberationists with a 2/3rds majority voted to suspend in the 1885 Constitution and place dictatorial power within Chen. On Nov. 18, Chen arrested the royal family and declared the abolition of the Kingdom and the establishment of the People's Republic of Katranjiev, and a Liberationist-based constitution was adopted on Dec. 9th, modeled on the Namorese constitution.
The new constitution creating the People's Republic of Katranjiev was approved on Dec. 11th via a fraudulent referendum of which the voter turnout was allegedly 100% with 98% approving the constitution. Thus, the National Assembly was dissolved and replaced with the Shuvet i Khorata (lit. council of the people, Luziycan: Koncili populi, Namorese: TBC), with elections held in December with 100% turnout. Huankun Chen became President while Sasho Yanev became Premier, who were the heads of state and government respectively, although in practice, Huankun Chen functioned as a dictator.
On Dec. 19, 1937, the entire immediate royal family was placed under house arrest at the Prokudin Palace. In April 1938, the duchies were abolished and the country was divided into communes, and declaring said communes to be the only tier of administration besides the central government.
In May 1938, all land and major companies were nationalized under the control of the Liberationists. Collective farms were set up in July 1938, and on August 2, 1938, businesses larger than 10 employees were put under state control. Trade unions were merged and put under state control, and Liberationism took hold over Katranjiev. Many Katranjians and Luziycans fled to East Luziyca, resulting in a barrier formed in 1939 to prevent migration northwards to Luziyca. The zalot was pegged at par with the ramon in 1939, and the ramon was accepted. In 1952, elections for the Shuvet resulted in a rubber stamp victory for Huankun Chen and Sasho Yanev, but living standards began falling as it reduced relations from many nations to solely Namor and socialist countries. In 1943, protests broke out in the port city of Desislav against Liberationist rule which threatened to go into outright rebellion, but the Katranjian People's Army crushed the protests and further curtailed rights. Electrification began with the intent to be completed in 1964.
26th of July Movement
In 1961, Huankun Chen had to retire due to term limits, but he was designated Paramount Leader by the Shuvet. Rongtai Wen became President while Sasho Yanev remained Premier. The Liberationists maintained all the seats, but while living standards declined, a feud between Sasho Yanev and Huankun Chen broke out, resulting in Sasho apparently committing suicide on July 12, 1945, although many suspected that Huankun Chen or Rongtai Wen killed Sasho Yanev. In response, Rongtai Wen appointed the Minister of Agriculture, Deyan Dobrev as Premier. On July 26, 1945, after the Green Fever began in Namor, Huankun Chen declared the start of the 26th of July Movement (Dvizhenie Vadeset i Shesta Yuli), which was modelled on the Green Fever, and a youth organization bearing the same name was created at the People's University of Krasimir (known from 1888 to 1937 and since 1976 as the Royal University of Krasimir), quickly spreading through the rest of the country. Rongtai Wen and Deyan Dobrev were re-elected with a significant majority in 1952, and Huankun Chen began using the Youth of the 26th of July to eradicate all old values to form a "New Katranjiev" based on Liberationist values. As a result, religion began to purged. All religious institutions save for Txoist temples were shut down and either turned into schools, party headquarters, factories, causing religious worship to be driven underground. A new anthem was also created, Stani, bratya in 1947 to distance itself from imperialist influences.
The movement reached its peak in 1950, when the country was completely electrified, 14 years ahead of schedule.
In 1957, Rongtai Wen had to retire, and while Deyan Dobrev remained Premier, Nuoju Zeng became the first female President. Huankun Chen's first wife, Bisera Chen died at the age of 69 in 1972, and after that, Nuoju Zeng married Huankun Chen in December 1958. Despite their relationship and the latter's increasing manipulation of Huankun, Deyan Dobrev asserted himself in politics, and in 1959, the central government cracked down on the Youth of the 26th of July, with the intent to restore order. However, civil war nearly broke out between the Youth and the Katranjian People's Army and there were fights, but by late 1959, they were reduced to marginal importance. Some churches were restored to their owners, but most remained in their converted use. In 1962, Nuoju Zeng and Deyan Dobrev were re-elected, and by then, Liberationist rule tightened. Civil liberties had all but gone extinct by that point, and in 1978, the "military administered zones" were set up to protect their borders and sea borders. All rights were effectively stripped from these areas, and were 100 km deep. The only exception was the border with Namor. A severe recession crippled the country and nearly caused the country to fall into famine after the government ordered increased exports of food and oil to try and pay off their debts. Only aid from Namor ended the famine.
In 1967, Nuoju Zeng was elected as Premier while Baikun Qing became President. That year was the first year no Luziycan or Katranjian were in the Cabinet and few ethnic Katranjians were even in the Shuvet.
Political crisis and reform
On Oct. 16, 1970, Huankun Chen died and without his strict influence (he ruled over Katranjiev for 10 years officially and 33 years unofficially), the party became divided, causing a major crisis that would mark the beginning of an end of Liberationist rule over the country.
Premier Nuoju Zeng advocated for revolutionary Liberationism, seeking to continue the Liberationist government according to what Yunglang had devised, while her rival, Baikun Qing advocated Minjuha and reforms to the Liberationist system. The Shuvet became divided and gridlocked, with about half of the politicians siding with Zeng, and half siding with Qing. The gridlock in government effectively caused the government to cease functioning, and by 1971, Desislav and some towns declared themselves "free cities," declaring that they were not subject to the Shuvet. While Zeng demanded intervention, Qing argued that they need to democratize. However, due to a 2/3rds majority required to revise the 1937 Constitution, no reforms were made.
By 1972, Zeng's faction created the Revolutionary Liberationist Party of Katranjiev while Qing maintained the Liberationists. The elections showed that Zeng won the east and the south where the Namorese were concentrated, while Qing won the west and the north, where the Luziycans and Katranjians were concentrated. With a slim majority, Qing appointed Blazhe Hristov to be Premier. It was not the 2/3rds majority that they needed, but they began compromising to ensure that parts of Minjuha got through. However, these reforms were too little and too late, since dissent was increasing. In September 1974, Zeng and her faction was purged and was sentenced to house arrest for being an enemy of the people, and after the trial, fresh elections for the vacated seats brought in reform-minded Liberationists, who began implementing Minjuha a bit late. Towards the end of 1975, an increasing number of cities declared themselves "free cities."
On March 9th, 1976, protests broke out at the "Ninth of December Square" (Deveti Dekemvri Fora, known as the Kralski Fora or Royal Square from 1865 to 1942 and 1976 to the present) in the capital against the delay of reforms. While initially, the authorities tolerated it, on March 15, 1976, they marched to the Royal Palace where soldiers blocked access. The peaceful protesters demanded access to greet Apostol XIV, but the soldiers fired at the crowd, killing 63 people. The government condemned the protests for being a conspiracy, and on March 17th, imposed state of emergency over the entire country with a curfew which was widely ignored.
At the Square, police tried to evict the protesters, but they fought back and drove them out of the area. By the end of March, control was being lost from much of the country, and on April 13, the royal family was pardoned by President Baikun Qing, with his release marked with celebrations and demands that the monarchy and the 1919 constitution be restored. The Liberationists refused to do so, but pressure continued to mount. Finally, on April 24, the entire cabinet resigned, except Hristov, and Baikun Qing announced a referendum will be held on May 10th to decide their future. It was handed over to a temporary committee led by Blazhe Hristov, who became President and Premier of the People's Republic.
On May 10th, the referendum was held and 72% of those who turned out to vote voted to restore the monarchy and the 1919 constitution, 21% voted for the status quo (mainly in the east), and the remainder for a republic. As a result, on May 11th, Apostol XIV was crowned King again, and Hristov was appointed provisional Prime Minister. He called elections on August 1st, the first elections to the National Assembly in nearly four decades. The duchies were restored again, and the military zone was removed.
After the elections, the lame duck Shuvet i Khorata was dissolved, marking the official end of the Liberationist regime.
The legislative branch was the unicameral Shuvet i Khorata. It contained 100 seats, as opposed to its predecessor, which contained 150 seats in the National Assembly. It was believed that the lower number would "simplify government" and prevent it from being "riddled" with feudal superstitions.
The Shuvet was dominated by the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev, which from 1966 on was the only legal political party of Katranjiev, especially until the late 1980s when Baikun Qing attempted reform by planning to democratize the country. In its early years, the Liberationists shared power with the Syndicalists, before they were pushed out of the way.
The executive branch is shared by two offices: the President and the Premier. The President's role is somewhat similar to the King: to provide a unifying figure for the nation to rally around, and to put legislation into effect, as well as serve as head of state. The Premier is equivalent to the Prime Minister, and serves as the head of government.
The judicial branch was changed. Under Liberationist rule, there were Communal Courts, Appeals Courts, and then the Supreme People's Court. However, appeals for crimes were rarely granted, and they often were more like arbitration tribunals. In addition, common law, which had been the law of Katranjiev was overturned and replaced with socialist law. The secret police and intelligence agency was the State Security Service, which existed from 1955 to 1990.
Katranjiev was not divided into duchies after April 1952, but was instead divided into communes (Katranjian: komuni, Luziycan: kommuni, Namorese: coкyнг sokung). As of 1985, there were 1,923 communes in the entire country.
The communes had no autonomy from the central government in Krasimir, and served merely as "middle-men" between the people and the central government, providing many government services.
In addition, in 1956, autonomous republics (Katranjian: avtonomni republiki, Luziycan: autonomirespublika, Namorese: Чиджигука, Chijiguka, much like the autonomous republics in Namor were established. Three were created: one in the east, one in the south, and the other in the west.
The eastern republic was the Riroese Autonomous Republic present-day Riro and Trifonov, based in Chunov, the southern republic was the Jewish Autonomous Republic (based in Iyikoronu), and the western republic was the Katranjian Autonomous Republic covering the rest of the country. These were officially the first level administrative divisions of the country, being above the communes, but in practice, they never functioned, and were often used as sinecure positions to push rivals out of the way.