Neuaddduwiau

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Neuaddduwiau
City
Clockwise from top: View from Bediviere's Hill, The Gold Exchange, Teyrnyn Town, Old Castle, Teyrn's Street from Bediviere's Hill.
Clockwise from top: View from Bediviere's Hill, The Gold Exchange, Teyrnyn Town, Old Castle, Teyrn's Street from Bediviere's Hill.
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Flag
Coat of arms of Neuaddduwiau
Coat of arms
Motto: "Anrhydedd yw ein cyfoeth."
"Honour is our wealth."
Founded by Llewellyn Glandwyr446 BCE
Government
 • Lord MayorCynwrig Alwyn
Area
 • Urban1,896 km2 (732 sq mi)
 • Metro14,490 km2 (5,590 sq mi)
Population
 • City8.7 million
Time zoneUTC 0

Neuaddduwiau (pronounced: /nejæðˈdjujai̯, -ˈd͡ʒujai̯/, Lhaeraidd pronunciation: /nəɨ̯aðˈd̪ɨ̀u̯jáɨ̯/) is the capital and second most populous city of tir Lhaeraidd. Standing on the River Dwrteyrnyn in the northwest of the country, Neuaddduwiau has been a major settlement for over two millennia. It was founded in 446 BCE by Llewellyn Glandwyr, a local tribal king, who named it King's Hall and later Teyrnyn Town, in the ancient tongue spoken at the time. Neuaddduwiau's ancient core, around the Teyrnbryn, largely retains its 2.4-square-mile medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "Neuaddduwiau" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between the surrounding Counties, which today largely makes up Cyfalaf Mwyoardaldrefol governed by the Lord Mayor of Neuaddduwiau.

Neuaddduwiau despite its size is a secondary city within tir Lhaeraidh, and though it houses the nominal capital and the seat of government, it is not the country's financial centre. While it is true that many bodies maintain corporate headquarters in the city, Neuaddduwiau generally takes second place to Aurharbwr. Most of the city retains its ancient layout and the vast majority of its structures are listed buildings or part of a wider heritage site; as a result the city is primarily regarded as a cultural and historic centre, housing theatres, opera houses, art galleries, and museums, rather than serving as an economic hub. Nevertheless Neuaddduwiau's GDP is either the fourth or fifth highest for a city in the world depending upon how the figure is calculated, and is one of the most visited cities in the world. The city is the national centre for education with three of tir Lhaeraidd's top universities all located within its metropolitan area, and the city is consistently rated near the top in global rankings of intellectual output.

The city is centred around the Teyrnbryn, where Caer Teyrnyr stands over the rest of the city and the historic Old City, this area is the traditional home of the monarch and the royal family. Neuaddduwiau holds a pivotal position in Lhaeraidh culture and is widely considered to be the birthplace of their culture, faith, and the concept of Lhaeraidh nationalism; every Teyrn since 899 has been crowned in Old Castle on the Teyrnbryn. Legend states that the city has never been taken by a foreign power since the founding of the Teyrnas, and that should the Old Castle on the Teyrnbryn ever fall then it would mark not only the end of the Lhaeraidh nation, but also the world.

Etymology and Terminology

In the language of the Paithwaidh Neuaddduwiau can be separated into two distinct words; Neuadd which literally translates to 'hall', or more specifically 'lodge' or 'mead hall', while Duwiau means 'Gods', the portmanteau of these words creates the name Neuaddduwiau, which thus literally means 'Hall of the Gods'. The city was originally called Neuaddteyrnyr (Hall of the Kings), and once the settlement had expanded Trefteyrnyr (Town of the Kings). However with the increased urban migrations throughout history and the expansion of the city proper it soon outgrew even its later appellations, and when tir Lhaeraidd was united in 899 CE the city was renamed to Neuaddduwiau as a means of glorifying the rule of the Teyrn and legitimising it in a religious sense.

Today Neuaddduwiau is part of the Cyfalaf Mwyoardaldrefol, or Greater Urban Area, which is governed by the City Council, and Council of Guilds, led by the Lord Mayor.

History

The Teyrnbryn has been a site of sporadic human habitation since pre-historic times; its natural fortifications made it an ideal location for small tribes to settle, these tribes ultimately moved on however and for a period of approximately three hundred years, prior to the founding of Neuaddteyrnyr, the 'rock' lay uninhabited. The first permanent settlement on the site was Neuaddteyrnyr, which was founded by a semi-mythical Paithwaidh king called Llewellyn Glandwyr in 446 BCE, though the existence of Glandwyr is disputed there are several reliable sources from the period which indicate that a settlement was well established and thriving by 430 BCE. Further archaeological evidence also confirms these sources, meaning that mythical or not, a settlement has existed on the site since at least 446 BCE.

Classical Period

A modern depiction of Breda, Warrior Queen and Liberator of the Lhaeraidh.
During the Hearthurian Domination of the region from 92 to 388 CE the settlement was ruled by a succession of petty kings who held the title of Teyrn, but ruled as client kings to the Hearthurian Empire which dominated Asura at the time. The defeat of the Paithwaidh Tribal Confederation in 87 CE precipitated the Teyrn of Trefteyrnyr's surrender to the Hearthurians, and the Empire was allowed into the city; though trade and agriculture in the region continued to flourish, because the Teyrn retained some nominal authority over the locale few Hearthurian structures exist from this time, though the empire's influence on the architecture and city layout as it evolved are undeniable. Around Trefteyrnyr the Hearthurians built a province which would ultimately become the petty kingdom of Gwyfwyr; though under the rule of the Empire the region retained its sense of self and its own unique culture.

In 382 CE the Teyrn of Trefteyrnyr passed away leaving his client kingdom to his daughter Breda. However because Hearthurian law at the time excluded daughters from succession and inheritance the Empire refused to recognise her claim to the city or the surrounding lands, and appointed their own Governor, dispatching with him an army. The Hearthurian legions entered Trefteyrnyr and Breda and her sisters were dragged out into the street, raped, and then tortured - much to the disgust of the local inhabitants. After the capture of the city was complete loyalists among the population free Breda and her sisters and smuggled her into the surrounding countryside. Over the next four years Breda and her sisters Maera, and Sinead, built a coalition of Paithwaidh tribes, who now called themselves Lhaeraidh, and with an army claimed to be 100,000 strong marched on Trefteyrnyr. Caught by surprise the city fell and the governor fled to the nearby Hearthurian stronghold of Civas Colonia where he rallied the remnants of his legion.

Over the next two years a series of small battles and skirmishes were fought between Breda's Lhaeraidh army, and the Hearthurian legions, finally climaxing at the Battle of Phen Faol, where the Lhaeraidh crushed the Hearthurian legions decisively, forcing the Hearthurian surrender and withdrawal from Gwyfwyyr and by 400 CE the whole of modern day tir Lhaeriadd. With the end of the Hearthurian Domination in tir Lhaeraidh Breda established her Kingdom of Gwyfwyr in Trefteyrnyr while other tribal chiefs did likewise in the remaining lands, bringing an end to the Classical Period in tir Lhaeraidd.

The Octarchy

During the Octarchy Trefteyrnyr served as the capital of the Petty Kingdom of Gwyfwyr, one of the more stable of the Wyth Teyrnas' kingdoms and a key trading centre throughout the entire region. The nearby rivers and fertile soil made Trefteyrnyr one of the wealthiest cities on Asura at the time, and during the periods of abundance of the 5th and 6th centuries the urban population saw a brief boom. Trefteyrnyr became a key trading stop and a crossroads for traders in Lhedwin and Asura, making the Teyrn of Trefteyrnyr an exceptionally wealthy man, and it was from the wealth of this city that much of Gwyfwyr's strength was derived. Until the advent of siege weapons such as the trebuchet the city's position made the Teyrnbryn at its heart all but unassailable except by lengthy siege and no single Teyrn had enough soldiers to effectively besiege the city as was proven in 632 CE when Teyrn Owain of Varynfwy made an attempt on the city only to have it result in major defeat.

The city's strength and wealth became a drawing focus for the Lhaeraidh's religious establishment; the Druids, and by 680 the city had three Godswoods where major religious ceremonies were carried out, and four stone henges, which were used to track the movements of the stars and moon. Of these henges only two remain intact, however they remain major focuses of the Lhaeraidh faith to this day. As the Druidic religion became more organised Trefteyrnyr increasingly became the focus of the faith, with a vast temple being built at the foot of the Teyrnbryn, and a number of longhouses being constructed where the clergy trained and practised their faith. In 871 CE the Druids planted the Coedenaur, the Golden Tree, sometimes called the Coedengalon or Heart Tree; a sapling from the Mamhollgoed, the so called 'First Tree', officially cementing the city's place at the centre of Lhaeraidh culture and religion.

Yr Hen Teyrnas

Upon the union of the Wyth Teyrnas the city of Trefteyrnyr was made the capital of the new Teyrnas tir Lhaeraidd, and in recognition of its status as botht he temporal and spiritual capital of the Lhaeraidh it was renamed Neuaddduwiau, by the order of Teyrn Alwaen I. Though most cities and territories within the Teyrnas were granted by landright to members of the aristocracy the Teyrn chose to keep Neuaddduwiau as his own fief, granting himself the title of Duke of Neuaddduwiau, in addition to his other titles and styles. Between 899 and 1000 CE successive Teyrns would increasingly leave the governance of the city to others, and finally in 1010 the rule of the city was given over to the Lord Mayor, an appointed official, and the Council of Guilds of the City.

Neuaddduwiau remained a formidable fortress, and every Teyrn was wise to the need to maintain its defences. During a period where noblemen fought each other over territory, and in which the powers and rights of the Teyrn were yet to be set in stone the Teyrn had to have a secure holdfast of his own. Huge city walls were constructed between 1043 and 1060 not only as practical defences, but also as an imposing statement on the power of the Teyrn to any visiting noblemen or foreign ambassadors, and much of the foundation work for the Old Castle as it is today was built in this period as well. For over a centurys following the formation of the Teyrnas Neuaddduwiau was in a constant state of construction and renovation, until 1064.

In 1064 the Yellow Flux swept through tir Lhaeraidd, and its impact upon the populace and the city was huge, with almost a third of the population dying before the plague abated; with so much death huge swathes of the city were left depopulated and abandoned, and finally in 1072 a conflagration swept the city after forgotten stores of pitch and oil caught fire. The resulting fires destroyed fully half of the city, but apparently resulted in few fatalities, and much of the city was left in a state of ruin and disrepair, with slums growing up in the burned districts as the population slowly rose once more.

The Feudal Era

The defining point in Neuaddduwiau's history came in 1201 when a second fire swept through the city's slums; the cause of the fire is not known though rumours from the time claim it was deliberately set by the Teyrn's men so that he could eject the squatters and paupers from the city and rebuild. Huge areas of the city were levelled in the great works which followed and for the first time in its history Neuaddduwiau was built to a prearranged street plan. The old streets and roads were little more the mud and waste choked tracks. Cobbled streets were built throughout the city, and new structures were built en masse, the construction project cost the Crown vast sums of money, but rejuvenated the city's economy and population.

Construction on the city was finally finished in 1286, having taken over eight decades, due to further outbreaks of disease, and the controversial decision to tear down the ancient buildings left untouched by the fires which had swept the city in the past. New city laws were passed which required all buildings stay in an acceptable state of repair, and authorising the City Council to tear down any which did not meet their standards; new slums which sprung up outside the city's walls were periodically raided and torn down by the Teyrn's men, until squatters, so discouraged by the policy, fled to nearby hamlets. This movement of people to the hamlets surrounding the city began the steady growth of the greater urban area which would evolve into modern day Neuaddduwiau.

In 1224 the Royal Gold Exchange was opened, one of three in the country besides Aurharbwr and Saied, and the only one inland. This would ultimately lead to the construction of the Merchants District within the city walls, and the further construction of the Resource Exchanges, Staples Exchanges, and Farming Markets. Though farmer's markets had existed in Neuaddduwiau prior to this period, none had had a dedicated space within the city set aside for them, in 1289 the Llocdefaid was built and became the largest livestock market in Asura at the time. With so many animals being brought into the city, and the huge numbers of people coming and going on a daily basis even the new civic laws could not prevent the outbreak of disease on a large scale, and in 1673 a Cholera epidemic broke out.

The Great Scourge would last from 1673 until 1686 when the Third Fire of Neuaddduwiau engulfed the city and levelled three quarters of the structures within the walls. When the fire abated the Teyrn appointed architect Syr Ffransis Éamonn to rebuild the city, with the express goal of improving public health and preventing future fires. The resulting designs called for well ordered and broad thoroughfares, subterranean sewers which drained into the river once it had left the city, and most importantly structures made from stone and brick. The Crown, Council of Guilds, and City Council poured funds into the reconstruction effort, and even approved Éamonn's plans to tear down all but the gatehouses of the old city walls, which he intended to maintain as symbols and landmarks within the new city.

Once against the city's layout was completely changed and a constant process of construction and development would continue right up to the present day, though Syr Ffransis Éamonn's original designs would be realised and completed in 1704.