Namorese Civil War
|Namorese Civil War|
|Part of Esquarian Cold War|
Liberationist troops enter Namo, NMR 2290
| Republic of Namor
|| Liberationist Party of Namor|
Communist Party of Namor active NMR 2267-74
|Commanders and leaders|
| Jung To
King Phusai Kahan
King Phusai Saisana
| Yunglang Antelope|
| 4,500,000 (NMR 2285)
2,900,000 (NMR 2287)
1,100,000 (NMR 2289)
| 1,500,000 (NMR 2285)|
2,840,000 (NMR 2287)
4,000,000 (NMR 2289)
|Casualties and losses|
The Namorese Civil War (Namorese: Намора Неджин or Namora Nejin), sometimes referred to in Namor as the War of Liberation (Джикфан Джинджан, Jikfan Jinjan), was a civil war fought mainly between the Republic of Namor government and the Liberationist Party of Namor. Counting the years actual hostilities broke out between the two sides, the civil war lasted for an entire, non-consecutive 13 years.
The civil war began when the Republican government, led by Jung To, purged the Liberationist Party, forcing the Liberationists to return fire. The Liberationists established a regime in Antelopia, but it only lasted for a few years before an allied Republican-Chorean offensive overthrew it. The Liberationists spent the next few years and throughout the war against Chorea in central Namor, where the party reorganized under the leadership of Yunglang Antelope. Once the Second Great War ended, the Liberationists regained their strength in numbers, morale and ammunition.
Failed talks of a coalition government between the Republicans and Liberationists led to a return to civil war starting NMR 2285. The Republicans launched major offensives in an attempt to displace the Liberationists once and for all, but they failed, and the Liberationists gained the upper hand. With lack of public support on the Republican side, the Liberationists launched a southward offensive, capturing major cities before Namo fell to the Liberationists. Jung To fled mainland Namor and re-established his government on Peitoa; on the mainland, the Liberationists founded the People's Republic of Namor with Yunglang as its first President-General.
Although actual fighting ceased once the Liberationists took control of the mainland, no armistice was really signed between the People's Republic of Namor and the Republic of Namor (Peitoa) to end the conflict. Republican loyalists on the mainland sometimes initiated insurgencies against the Liberationist regime, but they were ultimately put down. The People's Republic and the Republic of Peitoa remained separate governments, each refusing to recognize each other, until in NMR 2368-9 when Peitoa was annexed by the mainland.
- 1 Background
- 2 First Phase of the War (NMR 2268-NMR 2275)
- 3 Second Phase of the War (NMR 2285-NMR 2290)
- 4 Post-Liberation violence
- 5 International reaction
The Republic of Namor was founded in NMR 2250 after the Antelopian Dynasty was overthrown in the Double Fourth Revolution. However, unity did not come to Namor as fast as the new republican leaders had hoped. Soon, a split developed between liberal democrats in the new government and conservatives who favored a constitutional monarchist or authoritarian system. The liberal democrats were based in the eastern parts of Namor, primarily Mojing, while the conservatives established their government in Namo, which became known as the Hoping Government. Through the NMR 2250s and into the early NMR 2360s two governments claimed to represent the Republic of Namor. In the meantime, the Liberationist Party of Namor was founded in NMR 2259. The Liberationists, who were radical revolutionaries, sided with the liberal democratic faction of the Republicans, pitching themselves against the Hoping government. The same went for the Communist Party of Namor. While the Hoping government existed, there was a period of cooperation between the liberal democratic Republicans and the Liberationists. Eventually, in NMR 2263 the Hoping government was toppled by the liberal democrats. The liberal democratic victory was mostly attributed to the military tactics of general Jung To, and because of that he was appointed by president Jacob Cho as his successor.
To prevent disunity within his government which took power after Jacob's death in NMR 2265, Jung To formed an authoritarian, military-dominated government which clamped down hard on dissent. Both the Liberationists and Communists were alienated by Jung To's government; the two sides did not trust each other and viewed each other with suspicion. When a Liberationist appeal for open elections to be held (which Jung didn't want because he felt it would promote instability) was met with popular approval, Jung began working on a plan to purge Liberationists and Communists from his government and banish them from the country.
First Phase of the War (NMR 2268-NMR 2275)
On November 11, NMR 2268, Jung To signed an executive order banning the Liberationist and Communist parties from the government. This became known as the "Double Eleventh Declaration," and by the Liberationists as the "Double Eleventh Betrayal." Jung ordered authorities to arrest and round up Liberationist party sympathizers and leaders.
The following day, Republican police, collaborating with Vice President Nie Natan, stormed the streets of Mojing - a Liberationist stronghold - and arrested thousands of suspected supporters and leaders of the Liberationist Party as well as some from the Communist Party. Many of the arrested were sent to show trials before summarily shot by firing squad. Surviving Liberationist leaders from Mojing fled north to Antelopia, where Yunglang Antelope was at so to promote Liberationist ideas to the peasantry. Seeking revenge for the setback imposed on them at Mojing, the Liberationists plotted to return attacks against the government.
Nghenh Nghenh Uprising
The Liberationists began an armed attack against Republican authorities in Antelopia, centered around the provincial capital of Nghenh Nghenh, hence the battle became known as the Nghenh Nghenh Uprising. The uprising, which began on January 18, NMR 2269 and lasted for two weeks, was successful, and Republican troops were forced to leave Antelopia for the time being.
A Liberationist regime, Namorese Democratic Republic, was formed with party chairman Yunglang Antelope as its head. Although it controlled a large portion of Antelopia, it was an unrecognized state.
Namorese Democratic Republic
Jung To ordered major offensives launched against the Liberationists with the goal of driving them out of Antelopia. However, the Liberationists managed to halt Republican advances into Antelopia with guerrilla warfare, which Republican troops were untrained and inexperienced in dealing with.
Liberationist strength began declining when Yunglang purged a large portion of his government, suspecting them to be Republican spies and agents. This greatly reduced the Liberationists' strength in battle, and gave Republicans their much-needed upper hand. In NMR 2271, with apparent help from Chorea, Jung To ordered a final offensive against Antelopia. Republican armies marched from the south and Chorean armies marched from the north; Nghenh Nghenh swiftly fell in a matter of months. Yunglang was forced to take a few thousand of Liberationist troops and flee westward into central Namor, and for the next few years the Liberationist Party was on the run as the Republicans and affiliated warlords tried to pursue them.
March to the Nozama
Following the fall of their government in Antelopia, the Liberationists began what became known as the "March to the Nozama," in which thousands of Liberationist troops escaped Antelopia and marched through the grasslands of central Namor before resettling in Guoctu, West Nozama. The March lasted for three whole years, and during the March the Liberationists lost over half of the troops they started out with. Knowing that the Liberationists were nearly depleted of their men, ammunition and resources, the Republicans temporarily ceased major attacks against the Liberationists. The Liberationists spent the next decade in their hub in Guoctu, rebuilding their party, army and leadership while seeking support from the local population.
One powerful group which chased and fought Liberationist soldiers in the March to the Nozama were the Black Banners, an irregular militant group comprising of mercenaries and led by a conglomerate of local landlords. The Black Banners were not affiliated with the Republican Party or Jung To, but the two groups did at times cooperate to fight the Liberationists. The Republican Party enjoyed the fighting abilities of the Black Banners, as the group was more mobile and agile in the countryside than regular Republican units, enabling it to become more effective in combating peasant-based Green troops.
The Liberationists despised the Black Banners, associating them with ragtag bandits. The Black Banner group was notorious for its harsh treatment of anyone who was suspected of helping or supporting the Liberationists. Black Banner militants were also known for their smuggling industry and black markets; historians believe at its peak the group owned dozens of opium dens across central Namor.
The Black Banners lost momentum once the March was over. It gradually lost Republican support when its leader, Mai Dan, sympathized with the Choreans in NMR 2278 and ordered militants to attack both Liberationist and Republican soldiers. Mai Dan's capture by local resistance fighters in NMR 2283 led to the permanent end of the Black Banners.
Communist involvement in the Namorese Civil War
The Communist Party played somewhat of a role in the first phase of the civil war. Under Tse Chen and Yu Panseng, the Communists set up revolutionary bases and in Xhipei and Minjian, headquartered in Xiangmen. The Republicans did try to displace them, but they did not pay attention to them as much as they did to the Liberationists, whom they considered more menacing. The Communists introduced land reform in the places they administered, but their desecration of historical relics and heavy repression of suspected counter-revolutionaries alienated them from the people.
Communist involvement ended when Republican armies invaded Xhipei and Minjian in NMR 2274. The Communists, badly outnumbered and outgunned, were forced out of the region. The party scattered; Tse Chen fled to West Luziyca while Yu Panseng was captured by the government and executed. Many Communists either fled overseas or joined the ranks of the Liberationists, never again to play a significant independent role in the civil war.
War against Chorea
Hostilities between the Republican government and the Liberationists officially ceased in NMR 2275 after both sides agreed to form a united front against Chorea, which invaded Namor after declaring war on it, beginning the western theater of the Second Great War. The Liberationist army was formally incorporated into the Republican army, although in times of war it acted independently from other Republican armies, and mostly engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Choreans. Because of this, no battles were fought between the government and Liberationists for the next nine years.
Second Phase of the War (NMR 2285-NMR 2290)
Nozama City Talks
Chorea surrendered in NMR 2284 (1944 CE), ending the Second Great War. With all the damage caused by the war of resistance against the Choreans, many Namorese had hoped that postwar Namor will be led by a coalition government between the Republicans and Liberationists, preventing civil strife from breaking out. Both Jung and Yunglang also had this in mind, and so the two parties agreed to hold talks on the matter in Nozama City, which for the past few years housed the Republican government after Namo fell to the Choreans.
By the time the talks began, the Liberationist Party had successfully regrown from a destroyed, tattered ragtag rebel movement into a strong armed fighting force, with nearly 1.5 million troops as compared to 200,000 when the war on Chorea began. The Republicans, meanwhile, had a larger army with 4.5 million troops, but the army and government was plagued with maintenance problems, corruption and disunity. Years of fighting the Choreans also caused the Republican government to go bankrupt, forcing it to severely slash its military expenditure.
The talks lasted for seven weeks, but they were unable to secure a lasting peace between the Republicans and Liberationists due to ideological differences. Finally, the talks broke down, and the result was a joint declaration between two sides stating that both parties will try to seek diplomatic resolutions to their problems before fighting. It wouldn't be known until later that the joint declaration had no real meaning, as both sides had intentions to irrevocably finish off the other.
Northern Nozama campaign
Weeks after the joint declaration, Jung To ordered an offensive on NMR 2285. Republican armies headed to the northern parts of Nozama, where the Liberationists were at.
The Northern Nozama campaign, as it was called by the Republicans, lasted for two years. Although Republican troops made significant gains in the initial stage, the campaign gradually changed into a war of attrition as the Liberationists' stubborn defense prevented the Republicans from making further advances. Low morale on the Republican side became a detriment to the campaign; soldiers defected to the Liberationists in droves, lacking confidence in a full Republican victory in the campaign.
Jung To announced an end to the Northern Nozama campaign in NMR 2287. When it ended, the Republicans had 2.9 million troops while the Liberationists had 2.8 million. Unable to launch another costly offensive, the Republicans were forced to take a defensive position against the Liberationists for the remainder of the war.
Yunglang Antelope announced the start of the Liberationist Nansa ("Southward") campaign in NMR 2287. All Green forces were consolidated to form the Namorese Liberation Army, and the Liberationists made their way down south to capture the Nozama region and southern Namor.
Faced with morale issues, bankruptcy and lack of foreign aid, the Republicans were quickly pushed out of the Nozama region. The Liberationists dealt a heavy blow on Republican forces when they defeated the Republican army at the Battle of Aolin, in which four Republican commanders were captured and the armies they commanded were disbanded. The Battle of Aolin made sure the Republicans no longer had the capability to secure their strongholds in central Namor.
The NLA captured Nozama City in NMR 2288, completely destroying Republican forces in central Namor, leaving Republicans in southern and eastern Namor open to a full and final Liberationist assault. Seeing that his regime is facing near destruction, Jung To offered to bring the Liberationists back to the table for negotiations on a coalition government, hold elections, and end the fighting. However, this time the Liberationists were not aiming for a political solution. Yunglang proclaimed over party-run radio that the Liberationist Party's "sole task" at the moment was to "liberate all of Namor from the Jung To clique," meaning that there was no longer room for compromise between the Liberationists and Republicans. Foreign attempts at reaching a political solution to the civil war also broke down, as both sides repeatedly rejected co-existence.
Southern Namor offensive and fall of Namo
The Namorese Liberation Army launched the Southern Namor offensive in NMR 2289, its goal to capture all of southern and eastern Namor and its major cities, therefore toppling the Republican government.
In a last ditch effort to preserve his regime, Jung To proposed that Namor be divided into two countries, one ruled by the Republicans and another ruled by the Liberationists. However, both members in his government as well as the Liberationists rejected this scheme, as they were opposed to an image of a divided country. It became clear that the Liberationists were fully bent on ending the Republican government.
Hopeless of a solution, Jung To voluntarily stepped down as president of the Republic of Namor in NMR 2289, although this was just a temporary move as real power was still in his hands; Jung To hoped that by stepping down from power the Liberationists would reconsider their offensive. Besides Jung, Nie Natan, a close ally and Vice President, also stepped down. An election put governor of Southern Namor Tu Lanvei as president. Once Tu became president, Jung To began plans to evacuate important government officials, as well as himself, to the archipelago of Peitoa. Much of Republican Namor's infrastructure moved to Peitoa in the eve of the Liberationist capture of southern Namor. The Republicans brought along of them thousands of loyalists, religious leaders, businesspeople, and intellectuals. Some believe this was a scorched earth tactic adopted by the Republicans, so they can take what strategically matters with them to Peitoa and leave the Liberationists with nothing once they took over mainland Namor. In an attempt to prevent this from happening, the Liberationists promised that intellectuals and businesspeople will be "held in high regard" in a regime with them in power.
By the winter of NMR 2289, the cities of Uontze and Sicho were liberated by the NLA, and the Liberation Army began its offensive against Namo. Tu Lanvei, de jure president of Namor who was told to leave behind while Jung To fled for Peitoa, lost hope in defeating the Liberationists in the war. Representatives of his government met with Liberationist leaders, and in the end Yunglang adopted a more lenient policy towards Republican officials, saying that government officials who agree to accept Liberationist rule and surrender to the Liberationists will not be harmed, and be allowed to contribute to a "new Namor." Tu offered to peacefully forfeit Namo and remaining areas under Republican control to the Liberationists if they could promise that he and few other officials who were left behind in mainland Namor will not be harmed by the new regime. On New Years' Day of NMR 2290, Namo was formally handed over to the Liberation Army. The fall of the Namorese capital to the Liberationists marked the effective end of Republican rule over mainland Namor.
People's Republic of Namor
Once Namo fell, other cities followed. Mojing and the rest of East Namor was liberated peacefully. The same went for Republican-controlled areas in Xhipei and Minjian. Warlords who ruled large areas in the country throughout the war agreed to capitulate to the Liberationists. Warlords in Shanpei and Arra turned to the Liberationists, and were granted asylum.
However, fighting continued in some places on the mainland. In West Namor, where there existed a significant Christian population who were loyal to the Republican government, the rulers of the region refused to surrender to the Liberationists. A Liberationist offensive on the area was met with strong Republican resistance, but in the end the region still fell to Liberationist forces. Thousands of Republican loyalists fled across the border into Luziyca, many seeking shelter in the occupied territories of Nantai.
Meanwhile in Namo, plans were underway to establish a new government headed by the Liberationist Party. In March 28, NMR 2290, Yunglang Antelope was elected President-General of the People's Republic of Namor, becoming the inaugural holder of this office. The People's Republic of Namor was founded that day as well, its establishment announced by Yunglang in front of Liberation Square in Namo. Once the PRN was announced, allies in West Luziyca quickly switched their recognition from the RON to the PRN. Some other countries followed, although there were exceptions. East Luziyca refused to recognize the People's Republic of Namor, and that stance remained for decades before detente began and recognition fully switched. The Republicans on Peitoa still maintained that they were the legitimate government of Namor, and refused to recognize the People's Republic or have diplomatic relations with any country which recognized the PRN until it was finally unseated by the PRN nearly eighty years later (See One Namor policy).
After the PRN was founded, most parts of Namor quickly accepted Liberationist rule, although this wasn't true for every place. Of all districts in Namor Proper, West Namor was the last area to be informally liberated by the Liberationists, as Republican loyalists there held out longer.
From Peitoa, the Republicans devised various plans to militarily take back the mainland. The NMR 2290s saw a resurgence in Peitoan purchase of East Luziycan arms to build up its military strength. However, in the end none of the plans made by the regime to retake the mainland were executed, but Republican loyalists on the mainland continued to wage periodic insurgencies against the new government, most particularly in West Namor in NMR 2292 when Republican commandos exiled in Nantai returned to take up arms against the Liberationists. The insurgency lasted for well over six years before it was crushed by the Liberationists.
The Liberationist side tried to take over Peitoa in Operation Olympus in NMR 2297, but the operation was a failure, and Peitoa remained in Republican hands. Two years later, Operation Huiying was started by the Republicans. That operation ended in a Liberationist victory.
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- Republic of Namor on Peitoa - The Republic of Namor, once it relocated to Peitoa, condemned the Liberationist takeover of the mainland. It continued to maintain that it was the sole legitimate government of all Namor. In his first speech delivered from Peitoa, Jung To called on "all freedom-loving Namorese to fight until the end, until the Liberationist bandit regime is overthrown and people's rights are restored." During his years in Peitoa. Jung To devised numerous plans to militarily retake the mainland, but many of these plans were eventually abandoned. Peitoan propaganda often depicted the Liberationists as "no more than peasant thug gangs," and Yunglang Antelope as a "sick, peasant emperor" and a "tyrant."
- Arkiasis - Despite originally supporting the Republic of Namor during the Double Fourth Revolution and for several decades thereafter, Arkiasis began to distance itself from the nation following the implementation of authoritarian polices by Jung To in 1925. Arkiasis remained neutral during the Civil War as focus turned to the home front during the Second Great War but however continued to recognize the Republicans as the legal rulers of the country. Nevertheless, upon the Liberationist victory Arkiasis recognized the People's Republic of Namor in 1950. Supporting the Republic of Namor is often viewed as a failure for Arkaisian foreign policy and one of the reasons for the decline of Arkaisis' interventionist pro-Republican foreign policy.
- Britanno - Britanno took no formal stance on the civil war during the fighting, mainly due the non-interventionist stance on international affairs taken by Prime Minister Henry Chaplin as also demonstrated by the lack of Britannon involvement in the Second Great War. However, when the war was over, Parliament overwhelmingly passed a motion to formally recognise the newly founded People's Republic of Namor.
- Masseau - After the war, Masseau quickly recognized the Liberationist People's Republic of Namor, having been close enough to Namor to receive information about the fighting. The current parliament at the time agreed with and supported most of the Liberationist Party's ideals. Therefore, Masseau recognized the new state.
- Walminghaven - Walminghaven during the 20th Century was a nation that was staunchly anti-communist and a supporter of republicanism (despite the fact that they were not a true republic), and it viewed the Liberationist rebels to be both communists and authoritarians. Popular opinion was, for the most part, against the revolutionaries, and a unit of volunteers fighting with under the Republican banner was even formed. Parliament experienced numerous proposals to join the war on the side of the republicans. (all failed to pass, however). Walminghaven didn't extend diplomatic relation to the PRN until 1970, and dropping their recognition of the RON on Peitoa in 1974; however relations have warmed considerably since then.
- West Cedarbrook - 1950 saw West Cedarbrook gripped in the scandal surrounding attempted Communist takeovers of major labor unions. This caused a major reconsideration of foreign policy by the Ariel administration, which continued recognition of the Republic. The policy continued under successive Conservative administrations, with de facto recognition of Liberationist control of mainland Namor coming in 1964. Under the Liberal administration of Lawrence Goldstein, de jure recognition of the Liberationists was extended in 1970.
- Xiaodong - The Xiaodongese government under anti-communist First Minister Ma Renzhong voiced strong support for the republican government of Jung To. Following the Liberationist victory the Xiaodongese government stated Namor was "no longer a country ruled by the Monic tradition, but one ruled by leftist bandits". Xiaodong would not recognise the People's Republic of Namor until the election of Fu Wen in 2014.