Little Green Fever
A mass rally in Desislav, 1953
|Also known as||Little Green Fever|
|Cause||Response to the Desislav rebellion of 1943|
Disputes between Huankun Chen, and Sasho Yanev
The Little Green Fever (Katranjian: Малката зелена треска, Malkata zelena treska, Luziycan: Malenkaya zelenaya, Namorese: Шалусе Канфен, Shaluse Kanfen), officially known as the Campaign to Eliminate Feudal Superstitions and to Modernize the Country Under a Liberationist Framework (Katranjian: Кампания за премахване на феодалните суеверия и модернизиране на страната под Освободителческа рамка, Kampaniya za premakhvane na feodalnite sueveriya i modernizirane na stranata pod Osvoboditelcheska ramka), was a fever that took place from 1945 to 1972 under the regime of Huankun Chen, and during the 1970-1972 Katranjian political crisis, orchestrated by the 1st of July Movement of the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev.
It is generally divided into two main periods: the First Campaign from 1945 to 1959, and the Second Campaign from 1967 to 1972. However, as the 1st of July Movement was still in existence, and many of the policies enacted during the First Campaign were maintained, combined with the maintenance of struggle sessions, most people consider the Little Green Fever to have lasted from 1945 to 1972.
While the official name of the movement was the Campaign to Eliminate Feudal Superstitions and to Modernize the Country Under a Liberationist Framework, the term was quickly displaced by the Little Green Fever (as opposed to the Green Fever in neighboring Namor), as Slevdovatel published a translation of the May 20 editorial from The Liberator to describe the goals of the movement.
While the preferred short form by the government of the People's Republic of Katranjiev was the Great Campaign (Katranjian: Голяма кампания, Golyama kampaniya), with politicians and official media using the term, opponents and foreign media (mostly in Luziyca) used the term "Little Green Fever" to compare it with the Green Fever in Namor.
Unlike neighboring Namor, where the Namorese Civil War was fought to ensure that Namor became a Liberationist state, Katranjiev had a coup d'etat led by Huankun Chen who rigged the May 1937 election, took away powers from the electoral agencies to prevent them from investigating his fraudulent results. In October, when the Supreme Court announced that it will investigate the electoral fraud committed by Huankun Chen. In response, Chen arrested the royal family (including the King, Apostol XIV) and suspended the 1883 Constitution with a 2/3rds majority. On Dec. 9th, he imposed a new Liberationist constitution, and on Dec. 11th, he held a fraudulent referendum that transformed Katranjiev into a republic, with both events being called the "December Revolution."
Thus, in the late 1930s, Chen solidified his control over Katranjiev, by nationalizing many private companies and collectivizing all farmland. There was a brain drain as people fled west to Luziyca, resulting in barriers being put in 1939 to attempt to halt defections to these countries, while keeping relatively open borders with Namor and Kheratia.
In the early 1940s as it reduced ties to only Namor and other socialist nations like Kheratia, and living standards dropped to the point that protests broke out in Desislav in 1943 that threatened to erupt into an open rebellion. The protests were crushed and many rights were curtailed.
Following the suppression of the Desislav rebellion of 1943, and combined with the perceived effectiveness of the Green Fever in Namor in reshaping society, Huankun Chen decided that the best methods of addressing the "underlying conditions leading up to the rebellion in Desislav is to take after Namor and to launch a popular movement to overturn feudal superstitions and lead Katranjiev from the second stage to the third stage.
The Premier at the time, Sasho Yanev expressed criticism of the concept, stating that the "proposed fever will only harm Katranjiev in the long run." This caused Yanev to have a falling-out with Chen, leading to Yanev becoming the first person to be purged as a result of the fever.
Launch of the First Campaign
On July 1st, 1945, at the Deveti Demekvri Fora in the capital, Krasimir, Huankun Chen announced the launch of a revolution, and stated that "We are seeing the rise of a new imperialist class in Katranjiev led by Premier Yanev. Thus, the youth have a sacred duty to eliminate the imperialists!"
With this, the People's University quickly formed an organization named after the date of Chen's speech that announced the intention to purge the nation of imperialist influences and to form a "new Liberationist nation." This organization quickly became affiliated with the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev.
The first mass rallies took place on July 2nd of that year in Desislav, where "radical youths demonstrated against local Liberationist leaders" who were accused as being "too aligned with Luziycan and Aininian imperialisms." Over the next few weeks, these rallies spread across the country, especially in Baicheng and Lizhou in the south.
The emerging fever culminated in Yanev's suicide following an argument with Huankun Chen on July 12th of that year, leading to his succession by Deputy Premier Deyan Dobrev. Dobrev, who was opposed to Sasho Yanev, urged the youth to target "those aligned to Yanev."
By September, Chen wrote that:
"Since the call to arms to the youth, the youth in the southern communes have become very efficient in fighting against supporters of imperialism and of those willing to let the sixth class return into our society. All that is needed is to spread the fervor to the north in order to stamp out the reactionary sixth class.
Thus, in October, work teams (Katranjian: работните екипи, rabotnite ekipi) were sent from the southern communes to northern communes to "educate the youth of the principles of Liberationism" and to "motivate them to fight against reactionaries and counter-revolutionaries." That same month, the Katranjian constitution was amended to formally endorse the fledgling fever. Over the next few months, the Little Green Fever started becoming a truly nationwide phenomenon.
By the start of 1946, the Little Green Fever had reached a point that on January 11th, police officers in Yichun attempted to protect the home of poet Filip Venev who was accused of being against the Liberationist government. The protesters clashed with the police, resulting in the death of seven officers, and twenty-four protesters, and culminated in dragging Venev from his home and forcing him to endure a struggle session before bludgeoning him to death.
The Venev incident was not condemned by the Katranjian government, with Chen stating that "the youth are revolting against the bourgeoisie and counter-revolutionaries who are determined to restore feudalism in Katranjiev. By taking down reactionaries, Katranjiev will become a truly Liberationist state."
With the decision to not condemn the Venev incident, it gave further impetus for youths to launch similar attacks against potential "reactionaries" and "counter-revolutionaries." While in some communes, such as Krasimir, Desislav, and Baicheng, the local police attempted to curb the worst excesses of the Little Green Fever, such as protecting notables, they only increased the fury of the youths, with incidents of police officers being attacked and humiliated by youths in struggle sessions, with instances of victims being murdered as a result of these sessions.
"The objective of the Great Campaign is to eliminate all feudal culture, to eliminate all traditional superstitions, to eliminate the residual influence of imperialism and capitalism, and to eliminate non-revolutionary culture."
The call of the Four Eliminations was marked by an increasing vigorous movement, especially as the 1st of July Movement was encouraged by Chen himself to destroy Apostolic Catholic churches and to impose state atheism in Katranjiev. Thus, over the next few months, churches across Katranjiev were shuttered, clergymen were attacked and forced to renounce their faith on the pain of death, and most churches were turned into factories or houses. However, with the exception of temples dedicated to Ninshen, Txoists were protected by the Katranjian People's Army.
Thus, over the next few years, the "ruthless efficiency" of the 1st of July Movement was well noted by both government officials and private citizens. Churches were all but shuttered, many cultural treasures were destroyed, and a barter economy was adopted (even though the Katranjian zalot formally remained the official currency of Katranjiev).
With the death of Yunglang Antelope in 1950 and the start of the 1950 Namorese political crisis, Katranjian officials began to engage in a more independent direction than that of Namor. With the power struggle between the Green Youth Organization and Antelope Gelai underway, the Katranjian government threw their support to Kiang Su and the Green Youth Organization, to an extent that they allowed Su and his family to take shelter in the Katranjian embassy. When the embassy was seized, this action angered the Katranjian government, and the 1st of July Movement.
While Namo-Katranjian relations were restored in the summer of 1951, Huankun Chen began to intensify criticism against revisionists in the Liberationist Party of Namor: at the same time, the Deputy Premier, Ivan Chen, became increasingly critical of Namor and called upon the 1st of July Movement to attack "pro-Gelai revisionists."
By the 1952 elections, the Syndicalist Party of Katranjiev, which had been the governing partner of the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev lost its final seats in the Shuvet i Khorata. As a result, the Constitution was amended to end the united front between the two parties.
With the end of the united front, the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev had full control over Katranjiev, and thus enabled the 1st of July Movement to engage in more radical policies against suspected counterrevolutionaries, especially as they had heavy influence over the Shuvet and much of the party machinery. For example, in 1954, the Constitution was amended to replace all marriages with civil unions.
However, the height of the First Campaign took place on March 28, 1957, when the Fourteenth Party Congress of the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev took place. Besides Nuoju Zeng's speech which she declared Katranjiev to be the only Liberationist state in the world, she also urged the 1st of July Movement to crack down on revisionists.
Thus, a new frenzy of activity took place, as people accused of being revisionists were subject to struggle sessions and violence: in August of 1957, a decree from outgoing President Rongtai Wen said that police officers who refused to cooperate with the 1st of July Movement would be deemed counter-revolutionaries, and thus be subject to the "popular demands of the 1st of July Movement."
However, when Nuoju Zeng became President in December of 1957, she soon acknowledged that the Great Campaign was becoming a major liability: as the 1st of July Movement had effectively controlled the country, she feared that the People's Republic of Katranjiev would fall into anarchy.
Thus, over the next year, discussion among elites took place, as Zeng and many of her colleagues in cabinet, including Deyan Dobrev, sought to end the Campaign, as it had been "effective in eliminating the counter-revolutionaries" and now was causing Katranjiev to be "embroiled in a state of near-anarchy." While Huankun Chen opposed the plans to end the campaign, as he believed that without "an enduring campaign to advance the country to Liberationism, Katranjiev will slide back into monarchism and feudalism," when Chen's first wife, Bisera Chen died in 1958, Zeng took advantage of his grief to get him to agree to an amendment to the Katranjian constitution.
Thus, on January 28, 1959, the constitution was amended to correct the excesses of the Great Campaign, thereby ending the first campaign.
Despite the end of the first phase of the Little Green Fever with the Eleventh Amendment to the constitution of the People's Republic of Katranjiev, most of the policies enacted during the first campaign were not repealed: religious life was not restored, marriage was still constitutionally prohibited, and struggle sessions still happened. As well, the barter economy was still in existence.
One notable incident of a small-scale fever during the interbellum was in 1964 in Haruki, where local Liberationist chairman Nikolai Chen and his family were taken from their home (despite resistance by local police), forced to endure a struggle session by the 1st of July Movement, and then made to dig their own graves before being shot. The police officers who tried to crack down on such protests were beaten up, with 4 police deaths: this caused the Katranjian People's Army to impose martial law on Haruki to crack down on the local department of the 1st of July Movement.
Following the Haruki incident, Nuoju Zeng severely rebuked the actions of the 1st of July Movement in Haruki, calling their actions "a disgrace to Liberationists everywhere," and claiming that they will only empower the revisionists. However, her new husband, Huankun Chen privately expressed support for the 1st of July Movement, and managed to secure lenient sentences for those convicted of killing of Nikolai Chen's family.
Launch of the Second Campaign
On the seventieth anniversary of the establishment of the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev on June 16, 1967, President Nuoju Zeng spoke at the opening of the Pagos Monument on Mount Pagos, which commemorated the first party congress of the Liberationist Party (which was allegedly on Mount Pagos).
During the speech where she dedicated the Pagos Monument, she called for a new campaign against feudal values, and to modernize Katranjiev, claiming that "since the passage of the Eleventh Amendment, the people have began to slide back to revisionist and feudal beliefs. By launching another campaign, it will motivate the revolutionary masses to advance Katranjiev to the third stage by the year 2000."
This sudden reversal was supported by the ailing Huankun Chen, especially as Nuoju Zeng would be succeeded by Baikun Qing, who was perceived to be sympathetic to the 1st of July Movement. Thus, in August of that year, Huankun Chen made a public appearance, where he called upon the members of the 1st of July Movement to "rejuvenate our revolutionary spirit."
With the launch of the Second Campaign to Eliminate Feudal Superstitions and to Modernize the Country Under a Liberationist Framework that August, the 1st of July Movement began to resume their campaign: struggle sessions were resumed on a large scale. At the same time, "work teams" were sent to encourage the youth to participate in the 1st of July Movement, especially in Vitrian-majority areas.
Thus, by early 1968, the movement spread much more rapidly than the first campaign. Mass rallies and struggle sessions became far more common than in the preceding interbellum period, but just as common as in the first campaign. Officials suspected of being aligned with Namo or as being sympathetic to Luziyca and Ainin and their families were subject to public humiliation and violence.
Over the next two years, the 1st of July Movement's second campaign caused further damage, mostly to cultural treasures, with frescoes dating back to the Lysandrene Empire being vandalized and destroyed. At the same time, while Zeng maintained her enthusiastic support, Qing began to criticize the Little Green Fever in private.
Death of Huankun Chen and political crisis
In June 1970, Huankun Chen was admitted to the hospital in Krasimir as a result of his lung cancer. After falling into a coma on June 28th, the seeds of the ensuing power struggle between President Baikun Qing and Premier Nuoju Zeng were planted.
When Huankun Chen died on October 16, 1970, despite the initial weeks being peaceful, by December of 1970, tensions between the two leaders caused deadlock in the Shuvet i Khorata. As the power struggle started to affect the functioning of the Katranjian government, movements opposed to Liberationist rule in Katranjiev began to emerge, especially as the budget crisis took place. As a result, Zeng ordered the 1st of July Movement to launch attacks against such organizations, with many people being injured or killed as a result of these clashes.
Even after the conclusion of the budget crisis, the 1st of July Movement became a critical component of Zengite forces, often clashing with the police and with the Katranjian People's Army. At the same time, struggle sessions began to be extended towards supporters of Baikun Qing.
Thus, when the elections in 1972 took place, the 1st of July Movement was tasked by Zeng and her faction to intimidate voters into voting for the Zengites, especially in Vitrian-majority areas. This caused the military to be deployed in a vain attempt to maintain order, causing the government to describe the situation as being "more of a riot than an election."
Following the decisive victory of Baikun Qing's faction in the 1972 elections, his first act upon taking office was to end the second campaign, as it had achieved "the intended aim as set out by Chen in 1945 [to modernize Katranjiev along Liberationist lines]."
With the defeat of Zeng's faction, Baikun Qing sought to purge major officials involved in the 1st of July Movement: on March 28, 1973, he formally dissolved the 1st of July Movement, and charged top officials involved in the 1st of July Movement, such as former leader Nuoju Zeng, with "treason against the People's Republic, and conspiracy to seize power." The trials held that summer convicted all of them, and sentenced them to life in prison without parole.
Baikun Qing began embarking on a process similar to that of Minjuha in Namor, and to try and reconcile the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev with its Namorese counterpart to end the Namo-Katranjian split: while the Namorese never recognized Katranjiev as a Liberationist state, nor did it restore relations prior to the end of the People's Republic in 1976 (following the referendum to restore the Katranjian monarchy), Qing was successful in removing the Zengites and ending the Little Green Fever.
Unlike in neighboring Namor, where the Green Fever was not discussed initially, Baikun Qing condemned the Little Green Fever in 1975 as being "an excessive abuse of power by power-hungry individuals like Nuoju Zeng that caused harm to hundreds of thousands of people." As well, many Qingites viciously opposed the Little Green Fever.
With the end of the People's Republic of Katranjiev and the restoration of the Katranjian monarchy, a key platform of the first post-Liberationist Prime Minister, Blazhe Hristov, was to undergo Deliberationization. A royal commission was organized to "investigate human rights abuses under the Liberationist regime," including the Little Green Fever. Thus, in 1983, a memorial was built in Krasimir to commemorate the victims of the Little Green Fever, known as The Steps of the Prisoners.
When the report was released in 1989, the report found that based on estimates from the regime's State Security Service, as well as eyewitness testimony, that 146,611 people died during the Little Green Fever, and that around 200,000 were injured. The state was ordered to pay compensation to the victims of all human rights violations done by the regime, including the Little Green Fever.
Internationally, the Little Green Fever impacted countries like Nunalik, where following the end of the People's Republic of Katranjiev in 1977, Puupi Kakatsak launched a fever that was much like the Little Green Fever and lasted until 1983, when his nephew, Adlartok, convinced Puupi Kakatsak that his goals had been achieved.