List of heads of state of Santa Rosa

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This article lists all heads of state of Santa Rosa.

List of heads of state

First Republic (1819–1859)

President Term of office Political Party Elected
Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Days
1 General Santander.jpg Juan David Beldad 19 January 1819 20 August 1832 4963 Independent 1820, '24, '28
First President of Santa Rosa. Selected by Congress to be provisional president after independence in 1819. Elected uncontested in first national election in 1820. Appointed a "national unity" cabinet of both Republicans and Confederates. Established a national army. Established foreign relations with many European nations. Retired in 1832. Considered a precedent-forger for the office of president.
2 Domingo Caycedo.jpg Pablo Ignacio de la Cruz 20 August 1832 20 August 1840 2922 Republican 1832, '36
Previously a Congressman and became economic minister in 1824. Elected in 1832 after a contentious campaign. Consolidated Republican political power. Established the first National Bank of Santa Rosa and the independent Santa Rosan peso. Funded the establishment of new military schools across the country. Created a defensive alliance with San Cristobal. Did not run in the 1840 election.
3 Francisco Javier Echeverria.PNG Vicente Silva 20 August 1840 7 March 1843 929 Republican 1840
Foreign minister during Cruz's term. Advocated for the abolition of slavery. Got involved in a scandal regarding mismanagement of government funds. Witnessed his party's fall from power in the Congress. Refused to work with Confederates. Died in a shipwreck while returning home from a visit to Toluca.
4 Valentín Gómez Farías.png Filipe Loyola Vivas 7 March 1843 20 August 1844 532 Republican
Vice President under Silva; assumed power upon his death. Suffered from very low popularity. Attempted to nationalize failing sugar plantations on the west side of the island, but was met with fierce resistance in Congress. Lost the 1844 election by a wide margin to the Confederate Party.
5 Massimo d'Azeglio.jpg Enrique Gabler 20 August 1844 4 May 1859 5370 Confederate 1844, '48, '52, '56
First President from the Confederate Party. Elected by a wide majority and supported by his party's domination in Congress for most of his terms. Instituted wide decentralization reforms, including allowing local elections of provincial governors. Favored trade with the Commonwealth and Vanavoy. Repealed measures by previous administrations that inhibited slavery and private sugar plantations, but retained the slave trade ban nonetheless. Contested with a Republican-dominated judiciary over tax reform laws. Enacted policy that made it simpler for white Europeans and Americans to migrate to Santa Rosa and acquire citizenship. Cancelled the defensive pact with San Cristobal after the latter performed aggressive naval maneuvers in the Caribbean Sea. Deviated with his party by calling for more funding for the navy. Ran uncontested in the 1852 election. Promulgated a new constitution in 1853 that institutionalized his decentralization reforms and split the Congress into thirds with the Clase system. Continued a diplomatic clash with San Cristobal that eventually culminated in the First Caribbean War in 1857. Despite his victory in the war, it's negatives outweighed it's positives; the army and navy was left in tatters, the cities and poor countryside were ravaged, many slave revolts broke out and Santa Rosa had lost one of it's greatest trade partners. Despite his loss of confidence by both his party and the electorate at the sunset of his fourth term, Gabler refused to step down. He was confronted in a coup d'état and forced to resign.
6 José María Montealegra Fernández.JPG Emigdio Aquino 4 May 1859 7 May 1859 3 Confederate
Vice President during Gabler's final term. Secretly collaborated with General Bautista Ortiz to remove Gabler from office. Immediately assumed power after Gabler's forced resignation. Intending to retain power, he appointed General Ortiz to fill the vacancy of the Vice Presidency. However, one day after the General was confirmed by the Congress, Aquino faced the same fate as Gabler, and was forced to resign at gunpoint, handing the presidency over to Ortiz.

First Dictatorship (1859–1882)

President Term of office Political Party Elected
Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Days
7 Luís Alves de Lima e Silva.jpg General
Bautista Ortiz
7 May 1859 14 February 1882 8319 Military
Primarily maneuvered Vice President Aquino's overthrow of President Gabler, then orchestrated an overthrow of Aquino only days later. Despite being born into wealth, having a lengthy military career, and leading the armed forces during the First Caribbean War, Ortiz presented himself as a populist political outsider, promising to elevate the lower classes and tear down the "corrupt political establishment." Ruled in an authoritarian fashion. Suspended the constitution, dissolved the Congress, and purged the judiciary. Banned all political opposition. Appointed a cabinet consisting of both Republicans and military officers. Promoted a nationalist and corporatist economic agenda (nicknamed Ortismo). Enforced mandatory conscription in the armed forces. Unilaterally banned slavery, ordering the liberation of all slaves in Santa Rosa. Nationalized many sugar plantations in the west half of the island, which unexpectedly caused the sugar market to boom again. Pursued an infrastructure and urbanization overhaul of Ciudad Beldad, seeking to make it the capital city of central American trade. Opposed San Cristobal. Seized the wealth of several wealthy politicians, bankers, and other elites, using the money to fund the military and wealth redistribution programs. Invaded the small island country of San Luis in 1869, kicking off the Second Caribbean War, which eventually ended months later in a stalemate. Survived an assassination attempt in 1872. Afterwards, Ortiz shifted his policy towards isolationism, political Catholicism, and traditionalism, sacking and replacing many of his ministers. Suffering his lowest popularity at the end of the 1870s, and with the possibility of a revolution breaking out to overthrow him and restore democracy, Ortiz declared free elections for Congress and President to take place in 1882. Did not contest in the 1882 presidential election and suffered a fatal stroke months before it took place.
8 Maximo Santos.jpg Captain
Poncio Toledano
14 February 1882 20 August 1882 187 Military
Chief of staff and designated successor to President Ortiz. Continued the transition to democracy rather than pour gasoline on the fire. Did not contest in the 1882 election. Peacefully handed over power to president-elect Rolando Merlo on 20 August 1882.

Second Republic (1882–1909)

President Term of office Political Party Elected
Portrait Name Took Office Left Office Days
9 Antonio Starabba di Rudinì 1891 restored.jpg Rolando Merlo 20 August 1882 20 August 1890 2922 Freedom 1882, '86
Formerly imprisoned political activist released in 1878. Campaigned for president on the Partido de Libertad ticket in 1882, being the first person to be elected president by popular vote in 24 years. Released all political prisoners and legalized all political parties. Privatized many publicly owned businesses with the aim of paying off government debts. Promulgated a new constitution, mostly based on the one authored during Gabler's administration, with additional articles that would limit the powers of the "acting President" (position of the Vice President after the President dies or resigns) and explicitly forbids the executive branch from dissolving the legislature. Instituted electoral reforms that would expand voting rights to all free, white/Mestizo, male citizens. Signed an Instrument of Amity with San Cristobal, normalizing relations and reopening the lucrative bilateral trade. Purged the army of old officers loyal to the old regime, replacing them with young and liberal officers. Decreased tariffs with other Central American nations. Established a friendly relationship with the Texan Confederacy. Fell from popularity by 1890, losing the election.
10 Deodoro da Fonseca (1889).jpg Maxime Switzer 20 August 1890 20 August 1894 1461 Ortism 1890
Born into a wealthy Prussiaholmer family with extensive military ties. Previously served in the Ortiz government as a defense ministry official. Recognized as a national hero following his decisive victory in the Battle of Cabo San Domingo. Elected president on the Partido de Ortizmo ticket in 1888, defeating incumbent Merlo. Forcibly un-purged the military and reappointed "old guard" officers. Raised national taxes with the intention of establishing a national rail network on the east side of the island. Invited Texan naval advisors. Attempted to wind back Merlo's constitution but was blocked by the legislature. Entered a military alliance with Quito to counter Barnetian influence in the region. Attempted to purchase Commonwealth colonies in the Caribbean Sea, but could not afford to foot any of the bills. Narrowly lost re-election in 1894.
11 Vicente Lucio Salazar.jpg Raimundo Maçon 20 August 1894 20 August 1898 1461 Soc Dem 1894
Vice President during Merlo's final term. Defeated Switzer in 1894 election after uniting the left-wing opposition parties under one party. Passed comprehensive voting reforms, amending the constitution to grant suffrage to black citizens and women. Funded the development of new hospitals and other medical centers in particularly poor and undeveloped areas of the island. Passed land reform legislation to diversify the ownership of land previously belonging to the state and wealthy capitalists. Taxed foreign capital. Placed further bars on immigration. Chose to not run for re-election in 1898 due to illness.
12 Francisco Silvela, de Kaulak, en Nuevo Mundo.jpg Francisco de Kaulak 20 August 1898 20 August 1906 2921 Soc Dem 1898, '02
President of the Congress from 1894 to 1898. Helped progress Maçon's legislative agenda. Elected president under the PSD ticket in 1898 with a wide margin.