Leidense Republic

From IIWiki
(Redirected from Leiden)
Jump to: navigation, search
Leidense Republic
Leidense Republiek
Flag
Flag Great Seal
Motto: Prosperity in Harmony, Strength in Prosperity, Harmony in Strength.
CapitalLeidenstad
Official languages Leidense
Koningstaal
Recognised national languages Leidense, Uitkijk
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups By Race:
Alemannic
Asuro-Alemannic
Asuran
By Nationality:
Leidense
Uitkijk
Bunschoten
Koningslander
Buschonten Tudonian
Demonym Leidense
Government Constituent Federal Republic
 -  President Kristofer Cornelis
 -  Prime Minister Adrian Jacober
 -  Senator of the Congress Naomi Jozef
 -  Chief Judiciary of the High Council Leonard Hannes
Population
 -  estimate 20,182,830
Currency Leidense Franziskaner (Fr) (LRF)
Time zone Leidense STZ
Koningsland STZ
(UTC+3 to -7(KST))
 -  Summer (DST) Leidense DST
Koningsland DST
 (UTC+2 to -6)
Date format mm/dd/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +15
Internet TLD .ld

The Leidense Republic (Leidense: Leidense Republiek), otherwise known as Leiden is a constituent federal republic within Northeast Asura located mainly as the northernmost country in Alemannia. It is formed of three different fedral states which include the Leidense Archipelago, the Republic of Bunschoten and Koningsland. The Leidense Archipelago however, is the most powerful part of Leiden and essentially preforms all of the functions of the Leidense Republic with the seat of government located in Leidenstad. The Leidense Archipelago consists of 22 subdivisions, while Koningsland is divided into 17 subdivisions, and Bunschoten is divided into 73 subdivisions. Leiden shares a landborder with Mascylla through Bunschoten and maintains the disputed islands of Vlucteilanden are a subdivision of the Leidense Archipelago. Leiden shares a maritime border with both Mascylla and Soleanna through the Leidense Channel, and shares maritime borders with Libermary in Vestrim. Koningsland is the largest of the three divisions, and overall Leiden reports around 19 million people inhabitants, with the Leidense Archipelago being the most densly populated of Leiden.

Leiden as a country first emerged with the First Leidense Regency run by the Goessen House in the 11th century as a major seafaring nation with an emphasis on its naval development. It only consisted of the three islands with the Leidense Archipelago, and was involved in the initial power grip that Leiden established on the Leidense Channel over the duchies of Mascylla, with the establishment of the Armada of Leiden and the takeover of the Storm Islands. The Goessen House colonized Koningsland during the late 1595 century, and the remainder of Southern Vestrum, including Ovandera, Wobia, and parts of Utamucanee during 1611. The Goessen House intertwined their house particularly with the Liidurian noble house during the Sademic League during this time, allowing its extensive colonial program of Ontdekkingsreizigers. However, during the mid 17th century, Leiden found its political grip around South Vestrim weakening over time, as well as the Goessen House losing popularity with Sovereign Regent Brantgen Goessen. Brantgen Goessen initiated the Vestric-Alemannic Wars in 1662, to which he saw the Goessen House deposed from power with his abdication in 1668 by the newly formed United Republic of Leiden that gained popular backing after the war. The new government proved to be somewhat weak, However, the remaining noble houses, specifically the Cornelissen House sought to reestablish the Regency. During the 1702 century, the Second Leidense Regency was established after the collapse of the United Republic under the control of the Cornelissen House, where the Leidense sought to improve its military prowess and prove itself on the world stage, and during the reign of Kerstiaen Cornelissen took Bunschoten during the Mascyllan War of Five Kings. The Cornelissen House remained in power from 1702 until 1915 with the Cornelissen House abdicating their power after the Cornelissen Abdication after public opinion shifted towards a democratic republic. In 1880, it signed the Leidense-Liidurian Pact with Liiduria and entered the Great War with the Grand Alliance, and established a sphere of influence during this time over Mascylla and Tudonia. The Cornelissen House power started fading after this war, with the introduction of Tudonian refugees. The Cornelissen House disestablished the Second Regency with the current state of the Leidense Republic. The Leidense Republic sought to keep its sphere of influence around Alemannia, with the continued emphasis on the construction of its military and navy. During the Second Great War, Leiden continued its involvement within Alemannia and worked against the Aeian Socialist Union in league with Mascylla.

Leiden until the 20th century and even in contemporary parts of society were subjected to pillarisation. Before the modernization of Leiden and Leidense society, while Leiden had a liberal society, pillarisation led to Leidense society being divided between Aristocrats (koninklijk), Alydianists (gereformeerd), and middle-class (middenklasse) during the First and Second Leidense Regency as well as the United Republic. Leidense society has historically being far-left, however, leans to the far-right with topics such as Irsad and the Drago Entente. Its liberal society is indicated by Leiden's long history of social tolerance and inclusivity with Koningslanders and the use of Koningstaal in government. Leiden was one of the earliest countries to legalize same-sex sexual activity by decriminalizing sodomy in 1742, as well as legalizing Abortion and Prostitution. Leiden was also one of the first countries to legalize and recognize same-sex marriage. It has, however, kept a more libertarian stance with the continued domination of the Leidense Committee of Nationalism as the dominant party.

Leiden is a developed country with a social safety net that spans coverage of welfare, unemployment benefit, universal healthcare, homeless shelters, and access to public transport. Leiden also provides free public education and is remarked for its dynamic education system.

Etymology

The origin of the name of Leiden has been different according to several different sources of linguistic anthropologists. The oldest references are two different texts that originate from both the Leidense National University and Mascylla. The first source from the Leidense National University states that the etymology was initially referenced as Leithon. The town was named by one of the groups that immigrated from Mascylla, but whichever one did is still up for debate. The name Leithon is also stated to come from the Alemannic term, leitha-, which is used in the form as a dative pluralis. The term therefore means, "at the canals".

The second backing for the name Leiden is that it derives from the Mascyllary tribe of Lowmen. However the text itself does not give much reasoning itself. This line of reasoning is, because of lack of evidence, mostly disregarded for the previous text mentioned. The most common theory about the name of Leiden follows the Lowmen theory, but states that the Lowmen were the one who created the term after a theoretical war with the already inhabiting Leidense. Oorlogseiland and Sudwest cultures that ran before the immigration of Alemannic and Newreyan people were stated not to have any sort of name, as their languages were rendered non-existant, with the majority of their texts destroyed.

History

Early History

First Regency of Leiden

Unitary Republic of Leiden

After the embarrassment that the Goessen House faced at the Vestric-Alemannic Wars and despite the victory in mainland Alemannia, the population turned against the Goessen House. The Vestric-Alemannic Wars caused the loss of the majority of Leiden's colonies on the mainland, with the tradeoff of Leiden becoming a power within Alemannia and the securing of Koningsland. Over time, the Goessen House would see the separate Dukes of Leiden separate from the Goessen House in 1668, and their ties in Liiduria start to deteriorate. The Dukes had split up into their own independent countries. The Duchy of Paradera-Monnickendam, the Duchy of Maastricht, and the Duchy of Leidense Overseas Territories were the three first duchies that split apart from the First Regency and redacted their oath that was given to the then Sovereign Regent Brantgen Goessen. The Leidense Royal Army was split amongst the decision and the major factions, and as a result, did not take orders. The army had effectively frozen itself, including the navy and the Ontdekkingsreizigers. The situation was extremely eschewed against the Goessen House and the monarchy, and was favored to the separatist Duchies. Seeing this and the losing situation, as well as the lack of loyalty from the army and the increasingly dangerous political situation, Sovereign Regent Brantgen Goessen set up a meeting on June 5 in 1668 with the Dukes of Paradera-Monnickendam, Maastricht, and the Overseas Territories. The meeting concerned the abdication of the Goessen House from power and the abolishment of the title and powers of Sovereign Regent and the exile of Brentgen Goessen to Liiduria to the Goessen Estate. The treaty was signed less than a week later, on June 10, 1668. The Regency of Leiden was abolished in the signing of the

Second Regency of Leiden

Contemporary History

Politics

Kristofer Cornelis, President since 2016
Adrian Jacober, Prime Minister since 2016

The Leidense Republic is a constituent federal republic which was established in 1915 after the Cornelissen Abdication and the disestablishment of the Second Leidense Regency. The current political system is made up of three branches: the executive branch, the unicameial legislative branch and the judicial branch. Leiden operates on the Constitution of the Leidense Republic, created after the disestablishment of the Second Regency of Leiden.

The president is the head of state, which is held by Kristofer Cornelis after the 2016 Presidental Election.

Geography

The Noordbergen van Johannes in the Island of Leiden with the small lake of Vryheid

Flora & Fauna

Map of Leiden's eight major flora zones

Leiden has a considerable difference in climatology between the states, with the Island of Leiden being more frozen than the Bunschoten, while Koningsland is in an entirely different climate with different fauna and flora in each one. Relative to the differences in climate, there are 8 different types of flora zones, both used as categorizers of the different types of flora and fauna that live within these zones.

  • Leidense Alpine-Birch Zone (Leidense Naald-Berk Zone)
  • Leidense Bare Mountain Zone (Leidense Verlaten Bergzone)
  • Leidense Coniferous-Alpine Zone (Leidense Naald-Alpine Zone)
  • Oorlogseiland Coniferous-Alpine Zone (Oorlogseiland Naald-Apline Zone)
  • Uitkijk-Oorlogseiland Coniferous Zone (Uitkijk-Oorloseiland Naald Zone)
  • Uitkijk Deciduous Zone (Uitkijk Bladverleizende Zone)
  • Bunschoten Deciduous Zone (Bunschoten Bladverleizende Zone)
  • Koningsland Subtropical Deciduous Zone (Koningsland Subtropisch Bladverleizende Zone)

See the map to the right, the eight Flora Zones in Leiden labeled in Leidense

Koningsland Subtropical Deciduous Zone

The Koningsland Subtropical Deciduous Zone is apart of the larger flora zone that exists within the Columbian Sea in the continent of Vestrim. Koningsland alone accounts for over 200 species of plants and 100 species of different animals included within Leiden's diverse fauna. Within the subtropical deciduous zone, the soil is classified as Red Earth clay, contrasting with normal subtropical deciduous zone soil, serosemes. Koningsland is home to mostly tropical flora, with Koningslander bamboo (K. bambusoideae) and teak (Tectona grandis) trees being the most common within Koningsland. Within the south of Koningsland, it is common to see palm trees (Arecaceae) of varying families and genera to form a line along the coastlines and planted within cities as decoration, while the Koningslander Palm (Astrocaryum aculeatissimum) is the only native tree from the Astrocaryum genus. Koningsland soil is stated to be poor for agriculture, and as such is not suited for large amounts of agricultural projects, however Koningsland's subtropical deciduous zone produces pistachios , citrus and avocados for exportation, as well as cocounts from the coconut palm trees (Cocos nucifera). Other important flora that are included in this zone are dracaena trees (Dracaena columbianus) and yucca trees (Yucca aloifolia), while taxaceae trees rarely grow and only grow within the northernmost parts. Live oak grow within these areas. Due to the flora zone that Koningsland is placed in, it is stated to be much more susceptible to more dangerous natural disasters, more specifically tropical cyclones.

The status of Koningsland being a subtropical deciduous zone is a well-debated topic amongst the geographic-climatology community as it is observed to have the soil quality on par with moist deciduous. The most accepted theory past the accepted definition of the zone is that Koningsland can be divided between the Northern Koningsland Subtropical Deciduous Zone and the Southern Koningsland Tropical Zone. Where the boundary exists, however, is not defined and has yet to be accepted by the Leidense Geographical and Climatologist Organization and passed off to the government. A meeting by the Leidense Geographical and Climatologist Organization is planned in 2019 to discuss the topic of Koningsland's geographical and flora zones.

Fauna that Koningsland remains onpar with other countries and geographical regions in the Columbion Sea, with a reported high endemism, and lower taxonomic diversity. The most recognizable terrestrial being that is native to Koningsland is the Common coquí, mostly found in the more swampy central areas in southern Koningsland. The only native mammals within Koningsland are the bats (Chiroptera), while the Echimyidae family spread the Alkema's spiny tree-rat as a native species in Koningsland. Over the years with passing native tribes, renewed interest in new food sources from the natives, and Asuran influence and importation from Leiden during the 17th century led to several new mammals and species being introduced to Koningsland. This included the introduction of opossums (Didelphimorphia), pilosas , and hutia (Capromyidae) in the native lands as well as introducing domesticated animals such as the Koningslander dog, goats and cattle. It is theorized that Alkema's hutia (Capromys pilorides) and Anssem hutia (Geocapromys anseemium) were not native to Koningland and that their origin is from islands east of Koningsland or the islands separate from the two Koningsland Islands before colonization. However Alkema's Hutia and Anssem Hutia they are found only in Koningsland as opposed to Alkema and Anssem, however, their origins remain mystified.

Birds make up the majority of the Fauna in Koningsland, known as the Avifauna. Out of 210 species that have been spotted within Koningsland, it is stated that there are 18 native avifauna species. Out of the 210 species, it is also stated that 152 regularly breed on the island, while the remaining 40 species are accidental. The most notable of the avifauna is the Konensļante Columbica (Columica vittata) or the Konensļante parrot. The most extant avifauna is the Coereba flaveola, specifically the Coereba flaveola columbica. Within recent years more aggressive avifauna flocking from Southern Vestrim and Rennekka have colonized Koningsland, like the previously mentioned Coereba flaveola columbica, and goes to include tanagers (Italic text) and hummingbirds (Italic text)

The first descriptions of fish were clarified by Cuirpthean Marine biologist Fionn Ó Ceallaighe in his trip to Koningsland, approximating 35 taxa for Koningsland. Koningsland in its geography has very little native freshwater species, and have throughout the years have had introductions of other species both accidental and intentional, such as Ceallaighe's armored catfish (Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus) and peacock bass (Cichla). Within the ocean, mangroves, reefs seagrass exist as habitats, including rocky shores extant to North Koningsland.

Decidious Zone

Culture

Mathematics and Science

See more: Mathematics and Science in Leiden

The discovery and advancement of the fields of mathematics and science have always played a very important part of Leidense culture, with mathematicians and scientists being nationally recognized as further advancing Leiden and its positioning on the world stage, with awards being given out ever since the rule of First Regency of Leiden. The area of mathematics has been pioneered ever since the medieval age and has seen many different advancements, as well as its use of foreign help. The most notable of which has seen Mascyllary, Liidurian, Cuirpthean, Crylantian and Hisaristani scholars and mathematicians since the medieval age. Within the sciences, Leiden has become notorious for its advancements within the field of chemistry. Leiden currently hosts the chemistry section and the Sven-Thuring Conference of the Physics and Chemistry within the city of Grote-Vlissigen in Bunschoten. Leiden's largest university, the Leidense National University, has several programs dedicated to the advancement of mathematics.

One of the most culturally important mathematicians of Leiden is Kristofer Westeinde, a mathematician who was the first mathematician who pioneered imaginary numbers, and wrote the book Kunst van Polynomen Eerste Serie (Art of Polynomials First Series), which offered earlier solutions from cubic functions and solved quartic equations. Kunst van Polynomen Eerste Serie was released in 1545, and he was recognized as the Father of the Leidense Golden Age. Westeinde afterward released the book Kunst van Polynomen Tweede Serie (Art of Polynomials Second Series) in 1562, which was a treatise on the subject of imaginary quantities which came up in Kunst van Polynomen Eerste Serie. The Kunst van Polynomen Tweede Serie introduced his first treatise on the notion and computation of negative numbers and sets the rules of the arithmetic of complex numbers. Westeinde afterward made the Kunst van Polynomen Derde Serie, the shortest of the series containing 173 pages, as opposed to the first series which contained 554 pages and the second series which contained 712 pages, it was Westeinde's attempt at providing a mathematical proof to the parallel postulate that was stated in The Elements by not!Euclid. His postulate was later determined to be incorrect and relied on motion and time, which did not translate to absolute geometry. Westeinde's mark on the field of complex numbers and the complex number theory solidified his place within Leidense culture and as one of the major architects of the Leidense Golden Age. Westeinde also pioneered the Leidense National University's studies of the field of mathematics.

During this time, after Westeinde and Kunst van Polynomen had become a well-renowned book concerning mathematics, Leiden became a hotbed for mathematicians around Aeia. Several mathematicians had afterwards migrated or at least visited Leiden, including Mascylla, Cuirpthe, Crylante and Hisaristan. Within Hisaristan, Irsadic Mathematics had made its way to Leiden after the publishing of Westeinde's work and the subsequent correspondence that Westeinde had with several other Irsadic mathematicians that were revealed after his death. Within the late 16th century and the following 17th century, following the ascension of the United Republic, the mathematical society within Leiden was elevated on par with the then koninklijk within the pillarised society of Leiden. Mathematicians became known as aristocrats, including Ian Macomberal, Vincent van der Sterring, and Ivan Thering. However Leiden also saw an increase in the expansion of the sciences of chemistry and physics.

Ivan Thering became one another one of the most famous mathematicians coming from Leiden, and arguably the most renown mathematician from the 17th century. He was the founder of the Thering Household and the ancestor of Lammert Thering, the founder of the Sven-Thering Conference. Ivan Thering had first worked as a military scientist during the United Republic's rule in 1617. He entered the Leidense National University and received a Kandidaat voor Wiskunde en Wetenschappen in 1920, 3 years after he entered the university, with his dissertation for his degree being his formulation of analytical geometry on improving the parts of the scientific method based on the works of, XX, in his book, De Richtingen van Wetenschappen en Wiskunde. Ivan would only continue in his works. Throughout his lifetime, he released Een Discours over Licht, Beweging en Geometrie and Geometrische Proefschrift op Breking.

Several other mathematics, chemists and scientists have had a major impact on Leiden and its position in the world stage for discovery and scientific advancement. Ian Macomberal formulated Macomberal's number and Macomberal's Principle within the field of chemistry. Ian Macomberal worked with Michelle Susanna, who formulated the Susannan constant. The first telescope was created by Oorlogseiland optics spectacle maker Casper Rukijik. The Leiden jar has remained unattributed, but its first patent came from Hieronymus Rejekker

Literature and visual art

Leiden has been a known for its propagandation of art throughout the modern world, and has had a historical reputation for upholding the integrity of art. The period consisting of the 17th-century to the 19th-century was known as the Golden Age of Leidense Art, where artists such as Frederick von Johannes, Loyken Kersigaen, Reimhout Wemmer, and.