Kalenia

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The Alkharanian Republic of Kalenia
Au de Kalenia
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Flag
Motto: “Dulce et Decorum est Pro Patria Mori” (Latin)
"It is sweet and fitting to die for your country."
Anthem: Hail Allegiance
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Location of Kalenia in Pardes
CapitalErikson, D.E
Largest City Au de Kalokos
Official languages Latin
Recognised national languages Spanish, Latin, Italian
Recognised regional languages Spanish, Latin
Ethnic groups (2014 National Census) 75.5% Kalenian, 24.2% Pardesi, 0.3% Other
Religion
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Ulthrianism
Demonym Kalenian
Government Federal Republic
 -  President Kara Peris
 -  Vice-President Robert Denero
Establishment
 -  Establishment of Kalenia November 12, 1594 
 -  Kalenian Revolution September 4, 1779- April 28, 1786 
 -  Republic of Kalenia April 31, 1786 
Area
 -  3,959,550 km2
1,528,791 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 4.98%
Population
 -  2015 estimate 67,930,745
 -  2014 census 67,930,284
 -  Density 30.03/km2
77.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 -  Total NS $2.559 trillion
 -  Per capita NS $37,864
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 -  Total NS $ 2.678 trillion
 -  Per capita NS $38,083
Gini (2014)57.02
high
HDI (2014).918
very high
Currency Valyuta ($V)
Time zone EST +6
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +770
Internet TLD .ALK

The Alkharanian Republic of Kalenia (Alkharanian: Kalenia ) (Latin: Kalenia) is a Federal Republic on Pardes. Kalenia consists of 20 states and one federal district, Erikson, D.E. The nation is situated entirely on the continent of Ashizwe. Kalenia shares a land border with the Eagleland Republic. Kalenia shares no other land borders. Kalenia is a former colony of the Ulthrannic Empire, having been founded in 1594. Kalenia is the second largest nation on the continent by area, the second largest by population, and the richest country per capita and by gross domestic product per capita on Ashizwe. Only the Eagleland has a higher nominal GDP.

Kalenia is one of the larger recognized sovereign states in the the world, with more than one hundred million persons living in the nation and is further one of the largest nations by total area including land and surrounding ocean claims. Kalenia is one of the regions' major commercial hubs and is a prominent financial and cultural center in the region. Kalenia is heavily reliant on trade, but also has a developed service-based economy which coincides with manufacturing. Among many of the region's nations, Kalenia ranks highly in education, economic freedom, and civil freedoms, along with economic competitiveness. Furthermore, Kalenia is a major tourist destination, receiving billions of tourist per year. Au de Kalokos and Erikson D.E are the most visited cities annually.

As specified in the Constitution of Kalenia, the nation operates as a Federal entity consisting of three branches; an Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. The executive branch is administered by the President who acts to enforce laws, veto laws, and is the de facto commander of the Armed Forces of Kalenia. The Legislative branch is unicameral, consisting of the Senate. The Judicial branch is divided into the Supreme Court of Kalenia and the State Court. There are seven justices in the Supreme Court who are appointed by the President, approved by the current panel of judges, and serve a lifetime term. The Supreme Court is the final court to where a person can appeal to.

One of the smaller countries in Pardes, the climate of Kalenia does not vary greatly. The coast around the Halicaus Gulf, to the north of the Korian Mountain Range, has a chilly climate that is characterized by constant rain with temperatures often failing to reach anything above fifty above zero. Beyond that area, as well as in the remaining coastal areas, the country is largely tundra, giving way to extreme colds characterized by a small rate of precipitation and a long and dreary wintry season. Because of the height of the Korian Mountain Range (peak at 29,092 feet), cold winds cannot pass through to the Northern shores.

Kalenia is a prosperous nation with a high GDP per capita and it has a very high standard of living, with a GDP per capita of approximately $37,684 (NSD), among the highest in the world, and a Human Development Index of 0.918, one of the higher-ranked nations in Pardes. With a GDP of $2,599 trillion, Kalenia is the XX largest economy in the world. The private sector dominates the economy, with more than 80% having a stake. 20% of the economy is identified to be in the public sector. Overall, the government helps to manage the economy by forbidding monopolies and unfair economic practices. For this reason, Kalenia is said to have a capitalist mixed-market economy.

Etymology

WIP

History

Main Article: History of Kalenia

Early History

Kalenia has existed for more than four hundred years. She was founded on November 12, 1594 as a colony of the Ulthrannia for the sole purpose of finding precious metals. The early Ulthrannic explorers, [instert names] landed at the mouth of what is today known as the Rimel River. Au de Kalokos, Kalenia's largest city, was the first city to be founded by the Ulthrannians.

Geography, Climate, and Environment

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Kalenia borders Eagleland to the west and has no other land borders. Compared to other countries in Pardes, Kalenia is a medium-sized country.

Kalenia is one of the most northern countries in the world, with only Deusaeuri being farther north. As a result, Kalenia is extremely cold year round with temperatures rarely exceeding forty degree fahrenheit and above. Kalenia is a mountainous nation with the Korian Mountain Range, the tallest mountain range in the world, being it's most prominent geographic area. Mt. Kilkainbe is the tallest mountain in the world with a height of 29,092 ft. The Korian Mountains are located along Kalenia's southern border border. Winds from the Gulf of Alloquia and the Northeast Sea are regularly blocked by the Korian mountains, whereas winds from the Northern Ocean regularly send severe arctic cold upon northern Kalenia.

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Map of the Alkharanian Republic taken by ASTRO

Kalenia is divided into two geographical zones; Alkartalak in the north is the area where most of Kalenia's residents live. It is an area of expansive tundra and taiga forest. Most residence of Alkartalak live along the coast where winds are more moderate and livable. Alkartalak's most prominent feature is the Alkartalak Forest, which is a massive forest in northeast Kalenia that covers more than one million square miles. It is snow-covered nine months of the year. Foxes, Caribou, and Evergreen trees are it's most populated residences. The Alkartalak Plains are a vast tundra in central Kalenia that spreads from east to west. Buffalo and Caribou have populated the region heavily. Arctic wolves are the main hunters of the area. Memorian Desert is a polar desert located at the base of the Korian Mountains and are often considered the dividing line between Alhartalak and Memorian. Little life exists in the Memorian Desert.

Memorian is the second geographical zone and the most sparsely populated with an estimated one person per square mile. Memorian is where most of Kalenia's mountains are located. It is the coldest area in Kalenia and one of the coldest places on the planet. It's notable features are the Korian Mountain Range and it's highly popular Polisk Plataeu a large, flattop mountain covering three square miles before it drops off into a glacial lake. Arctic life exists in the form of foxes, arctic hares, wolf packs, Caribou, and several other omnivorous species like bear. Temperatures rarely reach above freezing, with the average year-long temperature of one degree fahrenheit. Bandit's Hole, a 264 ft. depression in western Memorian is Kalenia's lowest point and one of the lowest points in the world. Overall, vast swaths of Kalenia's land has been unaltered. Kalenia's land claims are one of the few pristine, unaltered claims in left in Pardes as much if the region has becoming increasingly industrialized. Kalenia is often considered one of the most beautiful environment in the world.

Wildlife

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Kalenian Caribou

The Kalenian ecology is not very diverse. Kalenia is home to over 200 mammal species, 678 bird species, 98 reptilian species, and 173 amphibian species. There are at least 18,000 species of insects account for, though there could be far more. Kalenia's islands are largely remote and have very little human activity in them. For these such reasons, some species may be unaccounted for or simply not know to mankind yet. The Caribou is Kalenia's national animal and is a symbol of Kalenia's abundant wildlife. The Caribou has been Kalenia's national animal and symbol since 1874 as it represents strength, integrity, and intelligence. The Caribou, along with along related species are under government protection. Kalenian wildlife is very abundance since much of the nation's lands are unspoiled. There are few endangered species. The most notable is the Kalenian Lynx, a medium-sized wild cat that had been hunted to near extinction during the 1950s for their pelts. Wildlife programs had taken to revitalizing the Lynx population. There are currently an estimated 1,200 Lynx in the wild and a further 3,094 in zoos and animal protection facilities.

Government and Politics

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The Villa de Kalenia used by the President of Kalenia, constructed in 1789
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The Capitol Building, constructed in 1793.
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The Supreme Court, constructed in 1801, completed in 1809

The Constitution, written and approved in 1780, is the supreme law of the land in which all law is derived from. In the constitution, the Federal Government of Kalenia and State Governments of Kalenia are described in explicit detail as to how each would function and carry out the constitutional rights of the Constitution. As with many international nation's own constitutions, the Kalenian Constitution is able to be amended. Amendments are only added in a time of necessity. A 3/4 vote is required by the Senate to approve an amendment and then the President signs it into law. As of 2013, there are 24 amendments, all of which are subject to judicial review. The Consitution protects the basic rights of all Kalenians: Freedom of Speech, Privacy (to an extent), Life, Liberty, and Equality.

As laid out by the Constitution of Kalenia, the Federal Government of Kalenia is designed to co-exist as three separate branches; Executive, Legislative, and Judicial. Kalenia operate a unicameral legislative branch, which house the Supreme Court of Kalenia. The President of Kalenia is head of the Executive Branch, and the Judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court of Kalenia, which is headed by the Chief Justice. Kalenia is a federal state in that powers are derived from the population and that states exists with powers not given to the federal government.

Branches of Government

Executive

The Head of State is the President and is readily supported by the EOPK Executive Office of the President of Kalenia, which serves to advise and inform the President of all news. The President is able to veto bills, sign bills into law, enforce executive will, and mobilize troops as commander-in-chief. There are dozens of executive agencies like the Department of Defense, Department of Agriculture, and Department of Health. The President, as Chief Executive, is given the power to grant a pardon, reward a reprieve, or offer amnesty.

The President is approved by the Senate's Electoral College, which votes based on the popular vote of the nation. While the populace does not vote directly for the President, they do vote directly for Senators, who are approved by the Senate.

Judicial

The Supreme Court of Kalenia is the highest court in Kalenia and the final jurisdiction on a case. There are seven justices, each serving a life sentence. A Chief Justice, usually the most senior member, heads the other six justices. Each justice is able to determine whether a person has been falsely convicted and can overturn laws. Judicial review is allotted, which allows for the Supreme Court to render a law or action unconstitutional. Anything considered constitutional cannot be overturned. Justices are also given the power to grant amnesty, a general pardon on a specific group of people, but only when logical reasoning is given.

Legislative

As stated in the Constitution, there is a unicameral legislature called the Senate. It's primary job is to create, amend, and enact laws. As with many legislature, the Senate has control of the federal budget, which is proposed by the President and the approved or disapproved by the Senate. There are two senators for every state. This includes the federal district. In all, there are forty-two senators, each representing their respective states and political parties. The Senate is also in charge of the[[Census Bureau (Kalenia)|census, which is committed to every ten years.

The idea of a unicameral government came about in 1801 when the constitution was being written following the declaration of independence from the Ulthrannic Empire. With the prospect of both equal representation and representation based on state population, many of the smaller states threatened to succeed, most notable Caralon, home to the second largest port in the nation. As a result of the threats, officials present at the convention agreed to a unicameral legislature and thus, equal representation regardless of state size or population, was born. Following independence, Kalenia formally implemented the constitution.

Foreign Relations

Main Articles: Foreign Relations of Kalenia

Kalenia has been an active participant in the Organization for Pardesi Affairs for years. As a member, the Kalenian correspondent, Takari Gonzalez helps to vote on issues facing the OPA, and to discuss current affairs. Kalenia is an active participant in supplying foreign aid to countries worldwide. Aquilinia received in excess of $15,000,000,000 worth of foreign aid, the largest contribution to a single state. Overall, Kalenia sets aside $31,250,000,000 worth of foreign aid annually. The Federal Government also supplies various humanitarian organization aid annually. Other home-bound corporations, which are privately-owned, contribute their own funds to foreign and humanitarian aid. Estimates are reported to be in excess of $100,000,000, though no official number is currently viable.

Throughout the world, Kalenia maintains relatively peaceful relations; however, foreign policy dictates that the nation aid allies when war erupts or when natural disasters occur. Currently, Kalenia has been out of war for nearly a decade, the longest period of peace in Kalenian history. Region-wide, Emmeria is often considered Kalenia's greatest ally and trade partner. Kalenia maintains numerous relations with countries from the Central Defence Initiative and is also the most recent member to join the Central Defence Initiatiave. Additionally, Kalenia maintains positive relations with Temuair and Estovakiva. Kalenia also maintains relations with Ulthrannia. As a former colony, Kalenia can trace it's roots to the Ulthrannic Empire. Despite succession, both states have remained viable trade partners and allies for decades. Ulthrannia is usually considered with Eagleland as Kalenia's closest ally.

Eaglelander-Kalenian relations have been frosty for the past decade following the 2007 Skyrades/Camiza Islands crisis in which Kalenia continued to dispute the Skyrades Islands (know in Kalenia as the Ibiza Islands). The crisis eventually reached a melting point with Kalenian aircraft shooting down Eaglelander aircraft. There was a subsequent forty-seven hour invasion of Kalenia in which Eagleland took the armed forces by surprise and conquered large swaths of land before the armed forces could hold the line. The entire conflict (including the invasion) lasted one week and revealed the critical failures of Kalenia to properly defend her borders. A treaty was signed, ending the conflict. The treaty forced Kalenia's government to recognize the Skyrades islands as the sovereign territory of Eagleland and to formerly rescind any existing claims that Kalenia had on the islands. Since being initiated into the Central Defense Initiative, relations with Eagleland have grown steady.

Kalenia has various embassies located throughout Pardes. Most of it's embassies are with members of the Central Defence Initiative. All embassies within Kalenia's borders are located in Erikson, D.E's Embassy Row.

Military

Main Articles: Armed Forces of Kalenia, Department of Defense

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Kalenian Soldier in Live-Fire Training.

The Armed Forces of Kalenia are the military forces of the Alkharanian Republic of Kalenia. The AFK was reformed from the Kalenik Defense Forces on September 11, 1974 following the 'September Revolution.' Since the revolution, the AFK has been tasked with defending Kalenian borders and lending aid to other nations across Pardes when called upon. Historically, the AFK has remained a small, well-trained force. With 1,383,529 total personnel, the AFK is one of the smallest militaries. In 2014, there were 259,690 active troops, which, by Pardesian standards, is nearer to the bottom in active force sizes. The AFK is tasked with defending the sovereignty of Kalenia and aiding in the defense of it's allies, most notably the members of the Central Defense Initiative.

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KNS Kara, one of three Kalenian Aircraft carriers.
The Armed Forces of Kalenia are an all-volunteer force (conscription is only considered in times of war when deemed an absolute necessity) that consists of the Alkharanian Army, Alkharanian Naval Forces, and the Alkharanian Aeronautical Forces. The Coast Guard, while not officially listed as part of the AFK, maintains substantial ties to all military movements in and around Kalenik waters. The Department of Defense in Au de Kalokos, is the central command of the AFK and acts as one of the largest employers of the Executive Branch of Kalenia.

The AFK, since it's inception, has played an integral role in maintaining peace and security throughout Kalenia. The Kaleniak Defense forces, as it was called throughout much of Kalenia's history, was founded in 1802 to combat the Ulthrannic Empire in Kalenia's war for independence. Despite being vastly outnumbered and being inferior to the Ulthrannic troops, knowledge of Kalenia's geography aided immensely in securing Kalenia's independence from the Ulthrannic Empire. The Kalenian military saw it's first major action as an independent force since independence in the 1920s when a series civil wars devastated the country. Both sides, collectively called the "Government Forces" and the "Free Forces" were fought on the grounds of hard-line military rule that had effectively ruled the nation since 1902 when Viktor Martinez obtained power. More than 2,300,000 men and women would perish during the civil wars.

Civilians working in the DoD are not counted in the total military personnel count. The Federal Budget for the AFK in 2013 was $68,093,776,424, up 3% from 2012. This represents a substantial amount of finances allocated to one specific aspect of government, but it has been deemed a necessity given the propensity for war in the region. Defense is, by far, one of the most important branch of government in Kalenia.

The President serves as the commander-in-chief. The military is administered by the Department of Defense and its head, the Secretary of Defense (Marget Rosamond).The leadership of the military rest in HIGHCOM (High Command).

Like many CDI and RCO countries, Kalenia is known to possess biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. The Alkharanian Armed Forces have declared the size of the arsenal to be classified. As a result, requests for information are shot down as the Department of Defense refuses to release any statistical data. It is, however, known that Kalenia first tested it's nuclear weapons program in 1976. According to many rumors, the Kalenian military has in its possession at least 365 warheads, though this rumor is likely false given the intense secrecy armed forces members with access to the nuclear weapons are sworn to.


WIP

Total numbers: 1,382,529 - total size 259,690- Active http://iiwiki.com/wiki/M7_Rifle <<< Standard issues rifle since July 2008

http://iiwiki.com/wiki/M9_Hunter <<< MBT of Kalenik Armed Forces

http://forum.nationstates.net/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=199320 (Altman Urbauer F-29 Warrior- There are currently 12 of 40 have been delivered. The FF-29 with drag chute for icy conditions is the order.

Crime and Law Enforcement

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Kalenian SWAT

Law Enforcement in Kalenia is the primary responsibility local governments, though the Kalenian State Police provide a broader service. Several Federal agencies exist to serve the nation such as the Investigative Burea of Kalenia (IBK) and the Marshal Initiative (MI). State courts conduct crimes in which state laws, not federal, are broken; however, a person being charged can appeal the decision to the Supreme Court of Kalenia for a new trial. All federal crimes are immediately taken on by the Federal Court System. As with many countries, plea bargaining is commonplace for criminal trials. As of 2014, 98% of all criminal cases either end in with a plea bargain or a 'guilty' verdict.

According to the Criminal Statistics Agency, there were 3.9 murders for every 1,000 citizens. It was a 50% decline from 2000. When compared to other Pardesian nations, Kalenia has a below-average crime rate, though gun violence has seen a 10% increase over the past five years. Notable examples of gun violence include the Goralsman Elementary Shooting, the Park Bank Heist, and the Central Assault in Au de Kalokos' largest park, Central Park.

Kalenia has one of the lowest incarceration rates in Pardes. Along with a low prison population, Kalenia remains a relatively safe nation with gratitude to the men and women of their respective police departments. Since 2000, the prison population has grown 0.7%, one of the lowest rates in Pardes. On average, caucasian males and females were jailed more than any other ethnicity. In a 2014 report, Javoer had the highest incarceration and prison population, whereas Gorasmel was the complete opposite. Crimes rates have steadily dropped every year since 2000. There are more crimes during the winter months than the summer months.

Economy

Main Article: Economy of Kalenia

Kalenia is the 13th largest national economy in Pardes, third largest national economy on Ashizwe, and 13th largest by GDP (PPP). Since economic reformations were enacted in 1940s, the Kalenian economy has been among the healthiest, fastest growing in Pardes. The economy is based off the concept of a social market economy. In 2013, Kalenia was ranked as the ninth largest exporter, with a recorded $794 billion worth of exports. Kalenia also has one of the largest trade surpluses, standing at $623 billion. Kalenia is a part of the Pardesi Monetary Fund. The GDP was estimated to be $2.559 trillion as of Q1 of 2014. Kalenia has a mixed economy and has maintained a stable overall GDP growth rate, a moderate unemployment rate, and high levels of research and capital investment. Kalenia has an expansive trade network with many nations.

Kalenia has a highly-developed infrastructure and an abundance of natural resources which aids in high productivity. The service sector contributes around 65% of the total GDP, industry 24.1%, and agriculture 0.9%. Much of Kalenia's economy centers around tertiary services. Most of the country's production is centered around engineering, especially in machinery, metals, and automobiles. Also produced, are solar turbines, hydroelectric turbines, and wind turbines. Kalenia is the largest producer of wind turbines and wind power in the world. Kalenia is also one of the largest exporting nations in the world.

Kalenia has one of the world's largest and most influential markets. The Kalokos Stock Exchange is one of the largest by total investments and market capitalization. Kalenian citizens invest heavily in other countries, most notably Emmeria. Much of the economy comprises of consumer spending, making the economy one of the largest consumer markets as well. Kalenia's economy was rated among the best, at fourth, per the Ease of Doing Business Index, Global competitiveness, and other rating systems.

The Kalenian economy recently exited an economic slowdown that lasted from early 2007 to December 2010 before the economy finally begin to recover. Unemployment rates have since declined from 9.3% to 4.31%. The economic slowdown brought about an increasingly vigorous debt. In 2000, the percentage of national debt was 36% of the GDP. By 2015, the percentage had increased to 51%.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
190064,438,581—    
191064,505,849+0.1%
192063,593,858−1.4%
193063,474,827−0.2%
194063,793,840+0.5%
195064,139,585+0.5%
196064,800,093+1.0%
197065,338,220+0.8%
198065,935,940+0.9%
199066,203,948+0.4%
200066,739,404+0.8%
201067,029,485+0.4%
201567,230,284+0.3%

Kalenia is a country of moderate diversity, but gives homage to it's Ulthrannic heritage. Ulthrannic ancestry accounts for nearly 64.4% of the population, a moderate rate when compared to other nations on Pardes. Prominent minorities include Aquilians, Rodarians, Eaglelanders, and Belhavians. Eagelanders are the largest minority, representing 17.5% of the total population of Tiami. The growth of minorities continues to rise. Urban life is prominent, representing 93% of the population.

The Census Bureau records the population of Kalenia to be 67,930,284 as of February 1, 2015, a .3% increase from previous estimates. There are an estimated 354,983 illegal immigrants in the Republic, sizably lower than the average for nations of similar sizes. Since 1900, the Alkharanian population has experienced dwindling growth rates at .8% per decade, which is among the slowest rates in Pardes over the span of a century. Kalenia alone is the eighteenth largest nation in Pardes by population.

With a birth rate of 13 per 1,000, its population growth rate is positive at 0.8% (per 2015 estimates), significantly lower than those of many developed nations. In fiscal year 2013, over two hundred thousand immigrants (most of whom entered through family reunification) were granted legal residence. There are a further estimated seven hundred thousand persons with legal residence in Kalenia that are expected to be given citizenship in the next decade. Kalenian law states that all persons living in Kalenia and that are applying for citizenship, must live in Kalenia for ten years. Emmeria and Eagleland have been the leading source of new residents since the countries came to friendly terms in the early 2000s. Belhavia and Rodarion are other countries with growing populations in Kalenia, with the last expecting to double by the end of the decade.

The 1920s and into the early 1930s saw a negative growth rate in Kalenia for the first time in more than fifty years. A series of civil wars had resulted in the loss of millions of men. Because many of the men were off in battle, women were not afforded the luxury of having as many children. By the time the Civil War ended, 1.5% of the population (about 1,000,000 citizens) had perished. As soldiers began to return home, the population begin to rise again. By the 1950s census, the population had once again begain rising (.5%). Historically, the growth rate has hovered around .6% every ten years. The beginning of the new decade, however, has brought lower growth rates (.3%) due to overcrowding and generations becoming older. If current trends continue, Kalenia could face a negative population growth by 2025.


States

Kalenia has a population of 67,930,284 of which the population is divided into ten states. The Distric of Elberny is a federal district containing the capital city, Erikson, D.E. It has a population of 4,632,052.

  1. Gorasmel (Population: 24,920,264)
  2. Javoer (Population: 6,039,000)
  3. Irivinia (Population: X)
  4. Hemor (Population: X)
  5. Shorel (Population: X)
  6. Leshore (Population: X)
  7. Uro'kel (Population: X)
  8. Crescel (Population: X)
  9. Scanviani (Population: X)
  10. Felcian (Population: X)

Cities

Ancestry

Before Kalenia was settled by the Ulthrannians in 1594, much of the land had no human life. Because of this, today, the largest ancestry are the Ulthrannians, which constitute 64.4% of the population.

Religion

Religion in Kalenia
Religion
Percentage
Ulthrianism
  
63.0%
Catholicism
  
23.0%
No religion
  
6.0%
Lutheranism
  
4.0%
Islam
  
4.0%
Other religions
  
1.0%
Unknown
  
1.0%
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The Citadel de Imperia; completed in 1803

The first amendment guarantees all citizens of the Republic a free, nondiscriminatory practice of their respective religion. Ulthrianism is the largest religion in Kalenia. Ulthranianism represent roughly 63% of of citizens in the Republic. While Ulthrianism remains the largest religion, its numbers are falling due to the emergence of the catholic church and other monotheistic religions. Romulan Catholicism is the nation's second largest religion, representing 23% of the population and is its fastest growing religion. Since religion is a basic right identified in the constitution, the government, more specifically the judicial and legislative branches, cannot pass, nor declare, laws that violate a person's freedom to express their religion.

As with many modern countries, religion is declining. Irreligion is rapidly growing, having grown 200% since 2000. Furthermore, there is a decline in organized religion. Polls indicate that overall Kalenian citizens are losing confidence in religious affairs. As a result, many young Kalenians are becoming increasingly irreligious. Around 10% of citizens under the age of 30 are identified with having no religion, or not openly worshipping another religion.

Language

Language in Kalenia
Language
Percentage
Spanish
  
34.0%
Latin
  
26.0%
Italian
  
20.0%
English
  
9.0%
Native
  
7.0%
Other
  
4.0%

Kalenia is a country of diverse languages. The most prominent language is Spanish. Italian, Latin, Spanish, and English are all nationally recognized languages, with Spanish being the most spoken language. Latin and Italian follow Spanish. National education systems typically offer Latin, English, and Spanish as electives in high schools. Other language classes taught are sign language and certain native languages from the plethora of ancient tribes that once occupied Kalenia.

Spanish is the de facto national language of Kalenia. While not official, it is required in standardized naturalization tests. In a 2012 survey, 34% of the populace over five years of age spoke Spanish as their primary language., the largest percentage in the nation. Spanish has been the national language since before declaring independence from the Ulthrannia.

English is also prominent in Kalenia. According to a 2014 survey, more than 50% of the population spoke English as a secondary language.

Education

Main Articles: Education in Kalenia

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Larito Sa'lir University; Constructed in 1804, completed in 1812.

Education in Kalenia is crucial to financial and social success, and competition is consequently fierce, with many participating in intense outside tutoring to supplement classes. According to the International Reports, Kalenian education came in first for problem solving, second and mathematics, and ninth in sciences. As one one of the largest education systems in Pardes, and most complex, the Kalenian government has also provided high speed fibre-optic broadband internet to every primary (Middle School and High School) and secondary school (colleges, universities, technical centers). Kalenia is also home to a burgeoning digital textbook industry. The aim to to have high school students own a school-sponsored tablet with every textbook downloaded on it by 2014.

The Ministry of Education separates the school year into two semester. First semester begins in on the first Monday of August and ends on the last third to last Friday in December (Christmas break). The first Monday in January marks the beginning of the second semester, where new classes are given. The second semester lasts until the last Friday in May or the first Monday in June depending on snow days or other weather-related incidents that cause schools to be shut down. There are five total built-in weather days. Public schools are not required to wear school uniforms, whereas Private school require school uniforms. The Ministry of Education allocates less funding to Private Schools than Public Schools.

The official budget in 2014 was $109.3 billion, which ranks among the highest in the world. The discretionary budget was $98.3 billion while the mandatory budget was $75.9 billion. Officially, the Ministry of Education is responsible for appropriately allocating all financial means equally among all levels of education. On average, students receive more than $3,800 per capita on a yearly basis. There are more than twenty-one million students in Kalenia.

Healthcare

Main Articles: Healthcare, Health Insurance in Kalenia, and 2010 Healthcare Reforms

Kalenia citizens have an average life expectancy 86.4 at birth, up from 84.2 in 2000, which ranks the Republic as one of the highest life expectancy ratings in the world. Most Kalenia citizens are relatively healthy. Obesity is a rising concern, though only 10% of the adult population suffers from being overweight and less than 9% of children suffer from being overweight. Because of the small obesity rate, diseases such as diabetes, both type-1 and type-2, are relatively uncommon, though larger population areas usually have larger amounts of people suffering from obesity and consequently diabetes.

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In 2014, lung cancer, COPD, and heart failure, along with traffic accidents, formed the largest cases of death in the Republic. Obstructive injuries, which include back pain, skeletal disorders, and anxiety were leading causes of depression, which, subsequently, lead to the fifth leading cause of death, suicide. Only 4% of the population is known to be affected by signs and symptoms of depressions. Other statistics that were noticeable were the the low percentages of teen pregnancies and underage drinking, where only 5% of the population under the legal age of consumption (18) polled were noted to have consumed alcohol in excessive amounts.

Kalenia is a regional leader in medical innovation. The federal budget allocates 16% of its total budget to further the advances in the medical field and its technology. The Trondheim Medical Center in Saralia is the world's largest medical center. More than eight million people visit the medical center annually, with an average of 22,000 per day. Among the patients, about 400,000 are known to be regional or international patients. There are approximately 345,000 medical personal working at the Scanivan Medical Center.

Science and Technological Advancements

The Republic of Kalenia is a leading nation in scientific advancements in biomedical research and other affiliated subjects. With over 90,000 researching sharing a $110 billion research and development budget, Kalenia operates one of the largest budgets in the world dedicated to further advancing technology and medicines. Perhaps the best known areas where Kalenia has made a prominent technological contribution is in automobiles and electronics, aircrafts, and chemicals. Furthermore, much of Kalenian industry functions with a variety of automation.

Kalenia has a small, but advanced space agency. The Kalenian National Space Agency, or KNSA, is the primary space-fairing venture in Kalenia. The KNSA conducts space, aviation, and planetary research in an effort to make space travel safer and more efficient. While the KNSA is a small agency by world standards (when compared to nations with a viable space agency), it maintains a highly advanced repertoire. The KNSA boasts 16 civilian-use satellites and an estimated several dozen military satellites (the exact number is classified). KNSA does not have its own space station, opting to use other nation's space stations when approved, such the Eagleland's "Acropolis" space station.

Culture

Sports

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Jager Municipial Stadium; home of the Kalokos Browns.

The most popular sport in Kalenia is gridiron football. Football is played at all levels: Pop Warner, Middle School, Jayvee, Varisty High School, College, and Professionally. At the professional level, the Kalenian Football League is most prominent. Home to twenty teams, it operates a playoff format where the top three teams from each of the two conferences, the National League Conference (NLC), and the Alkharanian Football Conference (AFC), square off based on their power rankings. The final two teams play each other in the Super Bowl. As of 2014, the Kalokos Browns are the winningest franchise (.703 win percentage) and have won the last three Super Bowl titles. More than 70,000,000 citizens watch the Super Bowl annually, making it one of the most watched sports programs in Pardes, and the most watched program in Kalenia. The Kalenian Football League adheres to the field format of Emmerian gridiron football. As with many football leagues across Pardes, the KFL operates four quarters, each fifteen minutes long. There is a fifteen minute halftime after the second quarter and an overtime period. Overtime rules consist of the following: if the receiving team does not get a touchdown, fails to score, or scores a FG, the other team has a chance to tie, or win the game. If the team fails to score, the team that received the ball first wins. If the first receiving teams scores a touchdown on their first drive, the game is over. Overtime continues until a team wins, ensuring no game ends in a tie.

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Acre Stadium, home of the Acre Eagles.

Soccer is the second most popular sport in Kalenia. Professionally, the Federation Soccer League is the main professional soccer league. As with most association football in Pardes, the Federation Soccer League is a part of Asociación Pardes de Fútbol, the governing association football body in the region. The League operates 24 franchises, each of which are split into four division: North, East, South, West. There are six quarters, each fifteen minutes long. An overtime period of ten minutes exists if the game is tied at the end of regular regulation. As of 2014, the Acre Eagles are the defending champions and winningest team.

The Alkharanian College Athletic Assosiation (ACAA) is the ruling body for all sports at the college level. As a body, the ACAA requires all colleges and universities to provide at least 15 sports. Football, Soccer, Basketball, Sailing, Competitive Swimming, Cricket, Ping Pong, Weightlifting, Track & Field (outdoor), Cross Country, Softball, Baseball, Competitive Frisbee, and Indoor Track are the most common sports offered. The ACAA operates a two-tier division- Division I and Division II. Division I contains the larger universities and larger athletic budget. Division II contains smaller schools, or extremely prestigious Schools. Division II schools are usually less endowed and have far lower budgets than Division I. In 2014, there were 56 Division I schools and 78 Division II schools. Every few years, Division I or II schools switch divisions based on success, school population, and prestige. Division I schools operate a Bowl Series, with the highest ranked teams (in the top 15), are chosen to bowl games. The top two teams will play each other in the National Championship Game. Division II operates a playoff format where the top ten teams play another top ten team until there are two teams left to compete for a title.

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Tiger Stadium; also known as "Death Valley."

College Football is the most popular sporting event in the country. The most successful team over the past two decades is the Larito Sa'lir Tigers. In a twelve game season, the Tigers have compiled a 135-9 over the past twelve years in regular season play, winning five championships (including three in four years with their most recent in 2013; the Tigers are 11-0 this season) and completing three undefeated seasons (two of which came with championships). The Tigers play at 112,094 person Tiger Stadium, often cited as "Death Valley" for it's difficulty to play in. Overall, the Tigers are the biggest 'franchise' in college football, and are the most popular. They play in the Northereastern Conference (NEC) with other stellar teams such as the Acre Eagles and the Ja'kir State Crusaders.

Cinema

Kalenia has a highly developed cinematic industry, grossing over $10 billion annually across 17,011 screens nationwide. On average, 245 films are produced each year, making Kalenia one of the most valuable film producers in Pardes. Saral, the fifth largest city in Kalenia, has been the leading cinematic area in the nation, grossing 89% of all profits garnered through out the year. The film industry has existed since 1932 when Gregory Williams opened the first studio in Saral. As his motion pictures became more and more popular, theaters began to open up, giving Kalenians the chance to engage in a new pastime: going to the movies.

Cuisine

Cuisine is largely similar to many countries in the world, with wheat serving as an integral part to everyday food intake. Traditional Kalenian meals consists of venison, turkey, potatoes, and beets, all of which have been hunted or grown in Kalenia since ancient times. Kalenia is home to various holidays, all of which have some special food dish that is eaten on the day of the holiday. For Poloko, the largest holiday in Kalenia, which also celebrates the armed forces and their sacrifices, a large turkey, typically stuffed, is made and shared with in a large gathering of family and friends.

Many foods offered in Kalenia are derived from immigrants. Hamburgers, burritos, and french fries all are from the far west. Like many countries, the preferred drink is coffee over tea. In fact, the most consumed beverage in Kalenia is black coffee. It accounts for more than 10% of all liquids consumed according to latest reports. Typical dinner drinks include apple juice and water, whereas typical breakfast drinks include orange juice and milk. Food-wise, most Kalenians consume a combination of pork chops, steak, or turkey, with a side of mash potatoes or peas with dinner, and a ham, cheese, and bacon sandwich for breakfast. Lunch is typically a mixture, though most reports estimate that simple sandwiches made with deli ham are the most common.

Given it's Ulthrannic heritage, Kalenians have historically enjoyed Spanish food. Pisto, one of the most common dinner meals in Kalenia is one such example. Many Kalenian restaurants are noted for their serving of Croquettes, which are bread filled with a creamy cheese, cured meat, or cured sausage. It is one example of a delicacy in Kalenia. Leche Frita, or simply "fried milk" is the most popular dessert in Kalenia. It is a mixture of milk, egg, and flour that can be topped with sugars, cinnamons, spices, or creams. Egg and flour form a bread of sorts that is filled with a warm milk-pudding substance, deriving a scrupulous taste.

The Kalenian fast food industry is small, but robust. It operates various franchises across the country and even internationally. Despite the fast food industry being a profitable venture, most citizens prefer a healthier lifestyle and only purchase fast food when absolutely necessary. A long-time symbol of obesity, few fast food franchises can hope to survive without offering some sort of healthy food dish on their menus.

Literature

Fine Arts and Music

Media

There are two major broadcasting corporations in Kalenia, Northern Broadcasting Station (NBS) and the Kalenia Broadcasting Company (KBC). According to a 2014 report by Keuters Magainze, Kalenians watch on average, three hours of television per day, among the highest rates in the world. The average time continues to rise and is expected to reach four hours by 2025. As with most broadcasting stations, NBS and KBC are commercial entities. Kalenians also average two hours of radio per day, again, one of the higher rates in the world.