History of Cuirpthe
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|History of Cuirpthe|
The history of Cuirpthe as a distinct and specific region in northern Asura began in the 9th Century, but historic documents and archaeological evidence describe the geographic region and people living there as early as the 1st Century and earlier. These records, written by philosophers, historians and Fiorentine explorers, provide accounts of early tribes and societies spread out across the region north of the Vaellenian mountains, with a culture somewhat distinct from the other Mawrish peoples. What is today Cuirpthe made up part of the region known to the Fiorentines as Marra, which also included neighboring tir Lhaeraidd and parts of western Newrey. Marra would fall under Fiorentine rule, causing the forced migration or assimilation of Cuirpthean tribes to avoid persecution by Fiorentine generals.
The end of Fiorentine rule would follow uprisings in the Lhaeraidh region, inspiring many of these exiled groups to return to their homelands. The Fiorentines would be driven out as the empire reached its end. Many of these tribes continued across the mountains into Padania, inhabiting the northern half of this region after its abandonment. The power vacuum attracted many of these old powers, with a Cuirpthean kingdom, Mármaga, coming to rule much of the region for a short period. The rulers of this kingdom made impulsive, unwise decisions that only served to damage their legitimacy, and led to revolts that would destroy their short-lived kingdom. The Succession Wars soon followed, with many of the groups to form after Mármaga claiming themselves as its rightful successor.
By the 7th and 8th century, three major claimants to the Mármagan throne grew to control considerable amounts of Cuirpthean land. The Duchy of Corragh in the southwest held the most legitimate claim, yet still competed with the Grand Duchy of Narraghmore in the east and the Kingdom of Dromleigh in the north. Besides them, a multitude of smaller states battled over what land was left. The creation of the Cuirpthean Confederation would end the petty infighting between Cuirpthean states, creating a sense of unity through the defensive political pact and giving birth to the first Cuirpthean nationalists. But, while it may have ended wars over land in the region, competition for control of the Confederation would become just as prominent, due to the existence of the coveted position as King of Cuirpthe, held primarily by Narraghmore kings.
Narraghmore's stability and power would slowly wane in the region. While it was once the most powerful of the Cuirpthean nations, multiple succession crises had led many to question the legitimacy of their line. The end of the royal line would come from the succession crisis of 1417, fully ending in 1419 with the royal wedding of Caitlín of Narraghmore and Prince Isaiah of Newrey. A period of personal union between the two nations would restore its stability, but sow dissent between many ethnic Cuirptheans that hated rule under a Newreyan prince. Under Isaiah, Narraghmore would unify Cuirpthe and dismantle the Confederation, proclaiming himself King of Cuirpthe in 1477. In this same year, the King of Newrey before him passed, allowing him to incorporate Cuirpthe into the Greater Kingdom of Newrey. Many Cuirptheans despised this period. Newrey was a major rival to Cuirpthe, and their presence was predicted to wipe out the unique Cuirpthean culture. Two years following the unification, Isaiah would die. His two sons would each inherit half of his kingdom, Cuirpthe gaining its independence under Stanley of Newrey. He was seen as more tolerable by the people of Cuirpthe, primarily due to his Narraghmore blood. He hoped to bring Cuirpthe into glory as a great power of Asura. But, his plans would be cut short with his death in 1484. His son's unexplained death some weeks later would give his brother, William, the opportunity to seize the throne and proclaim the beginning of the Newreyan-Cuirpthe Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth would find itself the major power of northern Asura. Influence in trade, colonial efforts and quarrel with Midrasia to the south would build a reputation for the nation. Cuirpthean nationalism continued to grow during Newreyan rule. The Edicts of Public Conduct, which among other things, restricted usage of the Cuirpthean language, gave dissenters an excuse to revolt. During the fifth and final of the Mydro-Commonwealth Wars, Cuirpthean peasants rose up and took back their land from Newreyan rulers. The Commonwealth suffered a devastating defeat, and was split in half for a period of Midrasian occupation. When the Midrasian Revolution ended the monarchy in the nation, Cuirpthe would be released fully as a new kingdom. Colonialism and expansionism became large parts of the new nationalist attitude, and various territories across Aeia in Rennekka, Arabekh, Yidao and Vestrim granted Cuirpthe the resources to grow its military and power. The Industrial Revolution allowed the kingdom to utilize these resources in new ways. Infrastructure projects and urbanization were major focuses of the government.
Mawrish nationalism also grew during this period. Many sought to unite the mawrish peoples into a new empire in northwest Asura. Cuirpthean leaders looked for excuses to invade neighboring tir Lhaeraidd and form this great empire. After the Perpignan war and the humiliation of Midrasia by Cuirpthe and Veleaz, their justification seemed to be close approaching. Midrasian revanchism was bringing tensions to a breaking point in western Asura, and the great powers began to arm themselves. With the bombing of Perpignan and the beginning of the Great War, Cuirpthe had its excuse and invaded its western neighbor.
Cuirpthe was devastated in the war. As Newrey joined, Cuirpthe was forced to stretch its armies thin in a two front war. Eventually, with dwindling morale and devastated armies, Cuirpthe capitulated. After the carving of its territories, Cuirpthe entered a seven year period of occupation by its neighbors until it was finally released as a free republic. Growth, increased immigration and aid from other democracies created a golden age for Cuirpthean industry, until the Great Depression and Great Famine brought it to an end. The ideas of communism appealed to the masses, and the words of revolutionaries sparked the Cuirpthean Civil War. This war would drag Cuirpthe into the Second Great War. Following its end, Cuirpthe would grow to the modern state it is now, recovering from the scars of war and the damage of the depression, becoming one of the new influential nations of western Asura.
- 1 Prehistory
- 2 The Iron Age
- 3 Middle Ages
- 3.1 Collapse of Mármaga
- 3.2 Succession Wars
- 3.3 The Three Great Houses
- 3.4 Outward Expansion
- 3.5 Foundation of the Cuirpthean Confederation
- 3.6 The Crusades
- 3.7 Union of Newrey and Narraghmore
- 3.8 Cuirpthean Unification
- 3.9 Act of Union and the Commonwealth
- 4 Early Modern Period
- 5 The 18th Century
- 6 19th Century
- 6.1 Rise of Brennan Madden
- 6.2 Railways and Infrastructure
- 6.3 Scramble for Arabekh
- 6.4 Cuirpthean Colonial Empire
- 6.5 Mawrish Unionism
- 6.6 Growing Tensions in Asura
- 6.7 Perpignan War
- 6.8 The Great War
- 7 20th Century
- 7.1 Post-War Cuirpthe
- 7.2 The Great Famine
- 7.3 The Great Depression
- 7.4 Cuirpthean Civil War
- 7.5 The Cold War
- 8 Modernity
With the discovery of the Birr Mandible in 1912, ancient humans are estimated to have been present in Cuirpthe from 800,000 to 900,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons in northern Asura have been found in southern Cuirpthe, within the Vaellenian mountains. The 380,000 year old tools were javelins, around 1.8 meters long each, and were likely used for hunting. The valleys just north of the mountains are host to the remains of several settlements, with much of the evidence found on the banks of rivers or near lakes. The Valley Gleanmór in Cuirpthe was the location where the first non-human fossil to ever be discovered was found and recognized in 1856; He was named Fer nGleannmhór(Man of Gleanmór), and later became known as Homo glenmorensis by the scientific community. This fossil, Glenmoren 1, is now known to be around 40,000 years old, close to the disappearance of Glenmorens as a whole. These people have been found to be present in Asura as early as 400,000 years ago, but died out close to 30,000 years ago, most likely out-competed by modern humans during periods of cold weather. This aligns with evidence suggesting the arrival of modern homo sapiens in Cuirpthe to be around 35,000 to 40,000 years ago. This is backed up by 38,000 year old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes found in Cuirpthe, some of the oldest musical instruments in the world. Cave paintings remain as the only record of early Glenmoren and Cuirpthean society, mostly depicting the hunting of megafauna like mammoths.
The global temperature increase at the end of the last ice age allowed many of the early modern humans to migrate to the coasts. The Lhedwinic channel became host to some of the earliest permanent settlements of humans in Cuirpthe. Because of this age, dating back 15,000 to 11,000 years ago, few written records exist of the people there. The remains of early canoes, spears and nets suggest a focus on fishing and sailing in daily life, with most settlements clustered on the coastline. Other early Cuirpthean settlements remain close to rivers. Tools found in these regions(dating back 10,000 years ago) appear to be used for agriculture. Some of these people decided against permanent settlement, taking up nomadic lifestyles in the mountains of southern Cuirpthe.
The Iron Age
The Már Tribes
The ethnogenesis of the Már peoples(and by extension, the Cuirptheans descended from them) is believed to have started during the Lhaeraidh Bronze Age, or at the latest during the Pre-Fiorentine Iron Age. From their homes and settlements in western tir Lhaeraidd, the early Paithwaidh people migrated eastward into the interior of Western Asura. These people would reach what is today Cuirpthe close to the 12th BCE. There, they came into contact with other early Cataisuran peoples, initially coexisting with the other inhabitants of northern Asura. However, by the late 9th century BCE, many of these people had been driven eastward by the newcomers, into neighboring Newrey. By this time, the people to inhabit Cuirpthe had developed a distinct identity, calling themselves the Már.
The term Már originates in the early Mawrish word Mór, a common term for "people" or "mankind." The Már tribes had spread to cover the majority of modern Cuirpthe, as well as some parts of Wayt in Newrey and western Padania in Midrasia. While ultimately related, the cultures of the many tribes were vastly different, their customs generally associated with the lands they came to inhabit. Overall, they would be grouped into three distinct cultures. The smallest and least organized of these groups were the Márléibe (Fiorentine name: Maralibi), translating to the "people of the mountains." The Márléibe lived nomadic lifestyles, retaining the customs of the bronze age peoples of the Vaellenian mountains and the prehistoric inhabitants before them. Much like their predecessors, the Márléibe lived and roamed across the Vaellenian mountains and the northern foothills, hunting and gathering as a source of nourishment. They rarely interacted with other tribes, and lacked any primitive form of government. The closest they had to a leader was a chief, who guided the people, led hunts and made important decisions.
North of the Márléibe, in the valleys and plains of central Cuirpthe, were the largest and most prominent of the Cuirpthean cultures, the Mármaige (Fiorentine name: Marbacci), or the "people of the fields". The Mármaige had adopted the sedentary ways of most small civilizations at this time, founding small villages with a focus on agriculture rather than hunting and gathering. The Mármaige were by far the most prominent of the three groups, covering the majority of Cuirpthe from east to west. Hierarchy is thought to have played a big part in Mármaige society, though the exact relationship between the those of higher rank and those of lower rank is not fully understood by researchers. Settlements are known to have had a mayor or chief figure, but the activities and finer details of Mármaige have yet to be uncovered. The Fiorentines would primarily interact with the Mármaige prior to the Marric campaigns, mostly because of the widespread presence of these groups compared to that of the Márléibe. In the far north and along the coast of the Lhedwinic Channel were a group focused more on aquatic lifestyles. Their native name is not known, due to the destruction of what few records they had. The Fiorentines called them the Boreamari or the "Northern Már", though had little to no contact with the group, save for what they learned from the Mármaige. Much like prehistoric Cuirptheans before them, the Boreamari are thought to have relied on fishing more than farming for food. What existed of their society has since been destroyed by Mármaige invaders, that either slaughtered them or drove them from their settlements, taking what remained. Multiple theories concerning where they left to exist, including southern Lhedwin, Newrey, Aleia and even Sturhlund, though little evidence is provided for each possibility.
The region of Cuirpthe was commonly called Marra by the Fiorentine Empire. The Vaellenian mountains acted as a natural barrier and defense for the Már, preventing the Empire from simply marching in and driving out the natives. Close to 130 BCE, it is believed the Fiorentine city of Intermodium was founded, in the narrow pass that connects Cuirpthe to Midrasia through the mountains. For several decades, Intermodium was the furthest extent of Fiorentine control in Marra. Several encampments and fortified positions north of the city marked the border between Fiorentina and Marra. The tense peace between the two was relatively stable, though it became extremely strained in 85 BCE and onward, following the beginning of Fiorentine campaigns in northern Asura, primarily tir Lhaeraidd. Skirmishes and attempts at gaining control would occur throughout this time, but the narrow entrance into Marra enabled the tribes to hold off the military advance. This defense would become useless in 92 CE, following the conquest of tir Lhaeraidd.
The Marric Wars (131 CE - 187 CE) were a series of wars and conflicts between the Fiorentine Empire and the Már peoples. While small excursions north of the Vaellenians had occurred for decades, it was only now, with the annexation of tir Lhaeraidd, that the Fiorentines possessed an open passageway into Marra. Few mountains existed between northern tir Lhaeraidd and Cuirpthe, leaving the Már with no natural defense from the west. Before the Fiorentines controlled the region, this had not been an issue, but now the tribes were extremely vulnerable. The Empire would go through a period of establishing its control over northern Asura, subjugating rebellions and constructing new cities and fortifications. The Limes Marrus (Fiorentine for the Marric Frontier), a series of fortifications, towers and walls stretching from the Vrnallian Sea to the Vaellenian Mountains. At the time of its completion in 116 CE, it divided the Empire and the unsubdued tribes east of them. The Limes stretched approximately 575 kilometers, and included at least 60 forts and 900 watchtowers. The majority of the structure was unbroken wall, around 3 meters in height. From 116 CE to 131 CE, it would define the border between Cuirpthe and Fiorentina, with both parties enjoying a stable, if tense, peace.