Hipasia

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Kingdom of Hipasia
ממלכת־חפּסיה
Flag
Motto: "אנחנו מאחדים להגנה־המולדת"
"We Unite in Defence of the Homeland"
Anthem: "למלך, לחפּסיה"
"For the King, for Hipasia"
Capital
and largest city
Yam-Yaroq (ים־ירוק)
Official languages Mashahith
Recognised national languages Mashahith, Golushish, Modern Mzinku
Ethnic groups Mashahi (various divisions), Mzinku, Veleazian
Demonym Hipasian
Government Elective parliamentary monarchy
 -  King Isaac II Hipasi (מלך יצחק ב׳ משה בן־אליהו חפּסי אסתרי)
 -  Prime Minister Jonah ben-Zohar Lavan (רמש״ל יונה בן־זהר לבן)
 -  Magister Primate Kamlad Hillel III (כמל״ד הלל ג׳ אברהם בן־שמעון ברק)
 -  Commander-in-chief Raal Ram ben-Noam Amos (רא"ל רם בן־נועם עמוס)
Legislature Knesset
History
 -  Conquest by Hawid Empire and Diaspora 265 
 -  Colonisation by Veleaz 1600s 
 -  Independence 1898 
Area
 -  Total 162,799 km2
62,857 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 1%
Population
 -  2015 estimate 8,530,254
 -  Density 52.40/km2
135.71/sq mi
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total NS$300,365,085,982
 -  Per capita NS$35,211.74
HDI (2015)Increase 0.835
very high
Currency Shekel
() (HSH)
Time zone Hipasian Standard Time (UTC-3)
Date format mm.dd.yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +71
Internet TLD .hp

The Kingdom of Hipasia (pronounced /hɨˈpæsjə/, /-ʃə/, called מַמְלֶכֶֿתְֿ־חִפָּסִיָה mamleḵeṯ-ħippåsiyå pronounced /mæmlɛˈχɛθ ħɪppɑˈsɪjɑ/ in Mashahith and אל ריינו די חיפסיה el reyno de hipasya pronounced /el ˈrejno de xiˈpasja/ in Golushish) is a constitutional monarchy located in the center-north of Arabekh on the planet of Aeia. It borders Onza to the west and Biladia to the south. The country lies against the southwest coast of the Green Sea, after which its capital Yam-Yaroq is named. The nation's climate varies from very arid desert in the south (Aerh Bwh) with more of a dry summer climate (Aerh Csa) along the fertile coast. The majority of the country's population is found along the coastal region, include the three main cities of Yam-Yaroq, Silvia-D'shav and Tel Hai.

The oldest known permanently settled inhabitants of Hipasia, the Mashahim, were largely forced out of their homeland by the Hawid Empire in the first millennium. Those who remained were subservient to the Hawid rulers, who exercised all legal and administrative power in the region. The Empire suppressed the practice of their traditional religion, Mashahism. Much of the Mashahi diaspora came to Asura, becoming a distinct social group continuing old religious traditions. As a result of their incomplete assimilation, particularly their distinct religion, and their common occupation in financial professions such as banking which led to their general distrust, many of the countries they lived in were hostile to them and pogroms were common. Following the fall of the Hawid Empire and the later colonisation of their ancestral lands by Veleaz, many Mashahim moved to Veleaz in the hopes that they might be able to reclaim the land of Hipasia in the future. After the Great War, and following the Veleazan Revolution, Hipasia was granted its independence and many Mashahim began to migrate there en masse. Primarily in the south of Hipasia, the mostly nomadic Mzinku people continue to live their own traditional lifestyles, though some have adopted sedentary lives, living along the major rivers in the region.

Hipasia was settled fairly early in human history, likely by settlers moving west and north. Contact with Asurans is attested from early in history, with traders visiting the coastal regions about the Green Sea. Exploration of the interior by Asurans began in the 1100s by Aquidish pioneers travelling west. Aquidneck first colonised the northeast of the country in the 1600s, but was quickly supplanted by Veleazan colonists who claimed the land for the Dominion. Hipasia in the modern sense was founded at the end of the Great War as part of a decolonisation scheme by the Veleazan Communists. The Mashahi diaspora, a large segment of which had come to reside in Veleaz, was allowed to replace the Veleazan settlers who were repatriated to Veleaz proper. The government of the country was decided to be a parliamentary monarchy, but under pressure from Veleaz the monarchy was made elective. Mashahim became the dominant group in government, although some legal powers were devolved to the nomadic Mzinku people of the Deromi Desert who happened to live within the borders of the new country. Ultimately the Mzinku are Hipasian citizens and thus subject to Hipasian law, and their status in society remains something of a concern for rights groups.

Hipasia has become somewhat of a regional power, with a rapid industrialisation leading to a strong manufacturing base in the early twentieth century with a particular renown in areas such as aeronautics and information technology, with the company KTVM Ltd. being one of the most recognisable aeronautics companies worldwide, with numerous offshoots such as KTVM Motoring and KTVM Electronics. The Royal National University of Yam-Yaroq, the country's only fully public university, is generally regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in Arabekh. Hipasia has also benefited from the natural surplus of oil to be found in the Deromi Desert, which was largely ignored by colonial businesses on account of the difficult terrain and frequently hostile locals. Hipasia today ranks well, particularly for Arabekh, in a variety of areas including life expectancy, educational attainment, economic prosperity and development, though is fairly lacking in other areas such as infrastructure (particularly in less urbanised areas) and economic equality.

Etymology

The name Hipasia is a Newrickisation of the Mashahith noun חפּסיה ħippåsiyå, a medieval spelling of חפּשׂיה (ħippåśiyå, pronounced identically), a noun of location from the root חפּשׂ (ħ-p-ś). The meaning of the root is "look/search for", though historically is has been confused with a similar root חפשׁ (ħ-p-š) meaning "free" (the letters שׂ śin and שׁ šin are often written identically as ש). The name of the country can thus be translated as "the sought-after land" or "land of freedom".

The name is not attested in older religious texts, and first appears in the Ktuvoth Ben-Shirel in the seventh or eighth century. Thence it became a name used by Mashahim of all types to refer to the ancestral homeland, i.e. modern Hipasia. Amongst the Mashahim still living in other parts of Arabekh, the older names בּיתֿעמאל Beithamel "land of God's people" and ממשהה Mimshahah "land of the Mashahim" continued until the founding of the Kingdom of Hipasia.

In Golushish, the country is called Hipasya (alternative spelling Hipasia), a borrowing of the Mashahith word. Some speakers may pronounce this as if it were spelt Hipaxa, though to write the word in such a way is considered incorrect. When written using the Mashahith letters, it is spelt as in Mashahith itself: חפּסיה.

In Modern Mzinku, the country is called ܚܸܦܵܣܝܼܵܐ ħepāsīyā within Hipasia, a borrowing of the Mashahith word. Mzinku speakers outside Hipasia generally use the older name ܡܫܹܗܵܐ mšēhā, related to the Mashahith ממשהה.

History

Geography

View of the Green Sea coast, seen from Silvia-D'shav

Hipasia is located to the southeast of the Green Sea in Arabekh. The capital, Yam-Yaroq (the Mashahith name for the Green Sea), lies in the Bay of Esparada. The coast of the country is mostly devoid of cliff except for close to the northeastern border. Two major rivers have their mouths on the coast of Hipasia: the River Defoqah which has its source in Biladia, and the River Teh, which has its source in NATION. The estuaries of these rivers are particularly fertile areas, and a significant proportion of the country's population lives on the cities of Tel Hai and Silbiyah-D'shav which were founded on them. These two cities, along with the capital, are the home to a slight majority of the permanently settled population of Hipasia. Over 80% of the total population lives in the littoral zone.

The south of the country consists largely of the Deromi Desert . The desert is mostly desolate except for permanent settlements founded on rivers, both permanent rivers such as the Defoqah and seasonal wadis such as that near the town of Maavar Umqa. Nomadic groups of Mzinku also live in the desert, sustaining themselves on herd animals, primarily camels, and by trading in the Mashahi-dominated towns, of which the largest by far is Eiden Hadash, formerly the capital of Hipasia's Southern region. Most Mzinku today are settled, however. The desert is a very flat shield zone, though rocky peaks can be found in the far south and to a lesser extent in the north east.

There are no major mountain ranges in Hipasia, though some higher regions form part of the foothills for mountain ranges in neighbouring countries. With the appropriate conditions and with proper telescopic equipment, it has been demonstrated that one can see uninterrupted across the entire country from the highest point at Givah Qantilah in the northeast.

Climate

Hipasia has a very uniform climate defined by two major zones: the littoral region in the north and the inland desert of the south. The parts of the north and northeast of the country which lie against the Green Sea have a significantly less arid climate than the central and southern regions.

The coastal area is classed as dry summer (also known as "Asur", though this term may be dispreferred outside Asura), or Aerh Csa climate, characterised by (as the name would suggest) hot and dry summers but relatively wet winters. Hipasia however is significantly hotter and dryer in summer than similar Csa regions of Asura, and even compared to other northern coastal regions of Arabekh such as many parts of Onza. However, on account of Hipasia being a very flat country, it receives slightly more rainfall in winter than many locations at a similar latitude, historically important in facilitating the development of agriculture in Hipasia. Snowfall is not unheard of in the littoral zone, though less common than it may be in other dry summer regions.

The central and southern regions of the country are classed as hot desert, or Aerh Bwh) climate, receiving very little rainfall, particularly in summer, and having very high temperatures throughout the year. Nighttime temperature can drop slightly below freezing, though mainly in winter. Snow in the desert zone is practically unheard of.

Nature

An ibex pictured near Shaar-Y'hav in central Hipasia

The majority of Hipasia is desert, and so the greatest variety of wildlife in the country is found amongst desert-dwelling creatures. Plant life in such regions is scarce and mostly found in proximity to water sources, as well as in plants growing on saline soil. In contrast, northern coastal regions which are far more fertile have relatively more variety amongst flora as well as very different fauna. This includes both native species as well as imported animals such as cattle, which has largely replaced goats as the primary livestock animal of Hipasia today.

Southern Hipasia has a similar climate to neighbouring regions such as eastern Biladia; endemic wildlife includes predators such as the bearded vulture, omnivores like the fennec and herbivores such as the ibex. Of plants, tamarix is common growing on saline soil, and near rivers various other trees and flowering plants flourish.

The coastal region, home to most of the country's population, constitutes a very different ecoregion to the desert zone. On the more fertile lands fed by the major rivers of Hipasia, not only native species but also introduced species of plants and animals thrive. Olive trees are widespread here and are one of the most important agricultural plants for the country. Cedars, formerly common, have been severely impacted by deforestation.

The rapid urbanisation of the littoral region has had a major effect on the biodiversity of the area, with a particular concern being deforestation. Although deforestation is an issue tracing back centuries, it accelerated rapidly during the mid-late nineteenth century. By the 1930s as little as 3% of the country was forested. As a result from the mid-twentieth century governments began to push for reforestation, and as of 2000 roughly 6.5% of the country was forested. Irrigation is an additional concern, needed for agriculture but posing a risk to the vital rivers which desert settlements depend on.

Politics

Hipasia is a unitary constitutional monarchy with an elective system for choosing the monarch, who is head of state. Although the monarch has considerable power compared to the constitutional monarchies of Asura, most political power rests with the Prime Minister and Knesseth, Hipasia's unicameral elected parliament. The current head of state is King Isaac II while the head of government is Prime Minister Jonah Lavan of the party Qehiloth. The structure of Hipasian government is codified in the Constitution of Hipasia, though as this is a relatively short document, a significant degree of the country's politics is based on custom and precedent rather than formal law.

Monarchy

Isaac II, King of Hipasia

Hipasia is one of a handful of the world's nations to have an elective monarchy rather than a purely hereditary one. There are three royal houses in Hipasia: the houses Estheri, Shalom and Rishoni, all of whom trace their lineage back to the direct descendants of the prophet Moses of Gan-Shalom. However, the house Rishoni has traditionally not proposed candidates to the monarchy, instead taking positions of religious office, particularly that of Magister Primate, the highest religious authority in the kingdom. In other words, only two dynasties take up the monarchy, those being the houses Estheri (descendants of the prophet's eldest daughter Esther) and Shalom (descendants of the prophet's youngest son Nahar). The reigning monarch is King Isaac II.

A significant part of the Constitution of Vrnallia is devoted to describing the process by which the monarch is elected. Each royal house selects from amongst its members no more than two suitable candidates for the throne, who then present their case to a Royal College. The Royal College of the Kingdom of Hipasia consists of delegated members of each royal house (including the house Rishoni), with a total of ninety members (that is, thirty from each house). This College convenes in the Palace of Shemesh in Tel Hai, which is the official residence of the Magister Primate (who however does not vote as a member of the Royal College).

If (in the event that either house puts forward more than one candidate) no candidate obtains more than 50% of the College's votes, the lowest-polling candidate is eliminated and a new vote is held. Once a candidate obtains 50% of votes, that person is elected as King- or Queen-in-Waiting, and planning begins for the formal process of coronation.

The Hipasian constitution makes no preference towards a monarch of any gender, though to date four of Hipasia's five monarchs have been male.

The monarch of Hipasia does not possess absolute power, with their power being restricted by the Constitution. However, compared with many modern monarchs, the Hipasian monarch still possesses a significant amount of governing power which the elected parliament either lacks or shares with the monarch. For example, as the symbolic head of Mashahism, the monarch has supreme political power in matters of religion (though as a non-denominational figure, their power is checked by the Supreme Court to ensure that no Mashahi denomination receives preferential treatment). Generally speaking, the monarch's active powers are mostly limited to religious and military matters and foreign affairs. However, the monarch also must agree to all bills passed by the Knesseth and has the power to force a debate on a given subject in the Knesseth (however, the monarch cannot introduce their own bills to parliament).

Parliament

The parliament of Hipasia is the Knesseth ("Assembly"), located in Yam-Yaroq. The Knesseth is a unicameral legislature, and the elected executive (Gavineth or "Cabinet") is drawn from its members. The 250 members of the Knesseth or MKs are elected by resident citizens over the age of twenty at most every five years, though more frequent elections are not rare. Elections use a parallel vote system, with 65% of seats in the Knesseth (163 members) given to candidates in Hipasia's parliamentary constituencies elected using FPTP voting and the remaining 35% divided (87 members) between Hipasia's regions where candidates are elected from closed lists using PR voting, with a threshold of 3%.

The government is conventionally formed by the largest party with an overall majority of MKs, or when no party has a majority, by a coalition of parties. The Prime Minister, head of the country's government, is generally the leader of the largest government party, though on rare occasions (twice in Hipasia's history) when the largest party has been temporarily leaderless another party's leader has been chosen as Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the second highest executive figure in the country, after only the King, with legal seniority in matters enumerated specifically to Parliament such as trade and healthcare. The Prime Minister holds joint legal responsibility for oversight of the military, though in practice monarchs generally defer their own duty in this regard to the PM in peacetime.

The cabinet, formally a part of the privy council, is largely selected from the government by the Prime Minister. Hipasia's cabinet consists of MKs to whom executive roles are delegated and often a minister without portfolio. Occasionally, cabinet members may be drawn from outside the Knesseth, but since 1922 all such ministers have been ministers without portfolio.

The current government of Hipasia consists solely of the conservative Qehiloth ("Communities") party, which holds 141 seats in the Knesseth. The largest party in opposition is the social-democratic Miflaga Amamith ("Popular Party"). A number of other parties have more variable success in Hipasian elections, including a range of conventional parties such as Yehav ("Hope"), a liberal democratic party or the palaeoconservative Hofesh ("Freedom"), as well as the smaller religious parties Banim representing Traditionalist Mashahism and Ha'ahduth ("Unity") representing Conservative Mashahism.

Administrative subdivisions

Hipasia is divided into six regions (מחוזות m'ħōzōṯ): Yam-Yaroq-Silvia-D'shav Metropolitan Region (commonly called Capital Region), Greater Tel Hai Metropolitan Region, Esparada Coastal Region, Northwest Hipasia, Central Hipasia and Southern Hipasia. The larger regions of Northwest, Central and Southern Hipasia formerly had designated regional capitals, but these were abolished in 1996. Additionally, until 1962 the Capital Region was divided into the Yam-Yaroq Metropolitan Region and Silvia-D'shav Metropolitan Region. When the urban areas of these cities grew together, the administrative zones were merged. These regions contribute 35% of the members of Hipasia's parliament, the Knesseth, and have a small measure of devolved power, such as over policing. Regions are further divided into local government areas.

Hipasia has two types of local government areas: municipalities (מונתפּיות mūniṯippyōṯ), concentrated around larger settlements, and comarks (כמרקות komarqōṯ) which encompass a number of smaller settlements. The two divisions are functionally identical and are further divided into konseyōṯ (singular: כנסיה konseyo). Each konseyo elects a member to the municipal or comark council, the body responsible for local government. Councils in Hipasia are smaller than local governments in most countries, primarily as councils are not vested with significant power. Areas such as transport, which might be the responsibility of councils in other countries, are generally the direct responsibility of the Knesseth or the relevant region.

Law enforcement

Gendarmes on patrol in Yam-Yaroq

General law enforcement is the responsibility of regions, although the Capital Region Gendarmerie as a military unit is administered by the Knesseth. The police branches of other regions are civil entities and distinguished by the name פולתיה pōliṯīyå "police" as opposed to גורדיה gwardīyå "guard, gendermerie", though their functions are largely identical except that the CRG is also responsible for military policing and the protection of official figures and sites (like gendarmes in other regions). Other law enforcement bodies such as the External Security Service and National Crime Agency are the direct responsibility of the Knesseth. In addition, all armed police are under the jurisdiction of the Knesseth, forming part of the National Gendarmerie. Regular police do not carry firearms, though they may carry less-lethal weapons such as electroshock or gas-based equipment.

The national law enforcement bodies in Hipasia are as follows: the National Gendarmerie (including the Capital Region Gendarmerie), a part of the military responsible for armed policing; the National Crime Agency, responsible for coördinating police investigations across the country; the National Intelligence Service, responsible for surveillance and cybercrime; the Royal Border and Customs Service, responsible for border control and the investigation of crimes such as smuggling and the External Security Service, responsible for foreign intelligence and coördinating criminal investigation with foreign law enforcement groups. Collaboration between the various bodies is common with the National Crime Agency acting as the main liaison. For example, the investigation of a smuggling ring might involve the RBCS requesting the NIS to monitor certain individuals, with arrests carried out by the Gendarmerie while the ESS traces the place of origin of the contraband, all facilitated by the NCA.

Military

The Hipasian Armed Forces consists of four branches: the Ground Force, the Naval Force, the Air Force and the National Gendarmerie. The total of active troops numbers about 80,000 bodies. The military is legally answerable directly to the monarch, though in practice the daily running of the military is delegated to the Knesseth. Reforms in the 1960s in response to growing terror threats (inspired by Capetist reform in Midrasia) aimed to make the armed forces more self-sufficient, with the creation of a number of Hipasia-based suppliers such as KTVM Ltd. and Qodma Tekhniqa. A significant amount of supply today comes from DA-MP Arms, in which the semiprivate MLT Silvia Ltd. owns a 1% share.

A DA-MP Arms Comandanti-class patrol vessel in use by the Hipasian Naval Force

The Hipasian Ground Force and National Gendarmerie are both infantry groups but with distinct roles. The Ground Force is a conventional infantry while the Gendarmerie is responsible for armed policing. These two branches together make up almost 75% of Hipasia's military strength. The National Gendarmerie is divided into the Capital Region Gendarmerie, which operates in the Yam-Yaroq-Silvia-D'shav Metropolitan Region, and the Civil Guard which operates elsewhere. The two are not identical, as the CRG is responsible for regular policing within its jurisdiction while the Civil Guard operates alongside conventional civil police. The Ground Forces meanwhile are divided into four infantry corps, three armoured corps, as well as combat engineering and infantry intelligence corps.

The Naval Force operates primarily within the Green Sea region, though occasionally also in the Opal Ocean. Formerly the navy operated in the Asur Sea region, but the last operation conducted there was a training exercise in 2006. Due to the importance of the Green Sea and the coastal region to Hipasia, the Naval Force is well funded, though due to the size of the area it is also relatively small compared to the navies of some similarly-sized countries. The Hipasian Naval Force occasionally cooperates with the navy of Onza, though Hipasia is not a part of the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations and does not formally cooperate with the Drago Entente's anti-piracy operations.

The Air Force is the smallest of the branches and is not as relatively well-funded as the others. The Hipasian military essentially lacks effective long-range aerial capability, with no refuelling or transport craft in the Air Force. The capabilities of the force is deemed appropriate for responding to potential threats from other Arabekhi nations, as well as threats within Hipasia itself. The Hipasian Air Force is almost entirely supplied by KTVM Ltd., a semiprivate company focussed on aeronautics.

Foreign relations

Economy

Demographics

Ethnicity

Trilingual road sign in Silva-D'shav. Top to bottom: Mashahith, Mzinku, Golushish

Hipasia is an ethnically heterogeneous country with most of the population falling into one of the primary ethnic groups. The largest group is the Mashahim; strictly speaking there are multiple Mashahi ethnic groups (arisen from social divisions within the diaspora communities) which are officially grouped together as one for reasons of national unity. The primary Mashahi groups are the Maravim, primarily from western Asura; the Bashrim, primarily from eastern Asura and western Catai; and the Nesherim, who originate in Arabekh itself. Mashahim form an overall majority within the population, being roughly 77.5% of the population. Of this, about 50% are Maravim, 35-40% Bashrim and up to 10% Nesherim. The lack of official distinction means that precise data is unavailable.

The next most numerically significant group is the Mzinku, an originally nomadic people of the Deromi Desert, although today most of the population is settled, having abandoned nomadism in favour of permanent or seasonal settlement. The Mzinku are ethnolinguistically close relatives of the Mashahim. The Mzinku people are still mainly found in southern Hipasia, but due to internal migration can also be found numerously in northern cities. Mzinku people make up around 14% of the population; because of this, translations into the Mzinku language is found on all official publication, including on road signage and public information displays. Despite this, it does not have official status. Mzinku people have long faced various forms of prejudice from the Mashahim majority, leading to the introduction of legal protections for Mzinku people.

A significant minority is non-Mashahi Veleazans, who make up over four percent of the population and who almost all reside in northern cities. These Veleazans originally spoke Veleazan proper, while Mashahi Veleazans usually spoke Golushish; however, the Veleazan population today tends to have adopted Golushish itself. Non-Mashahim usually write the language in accordance with Veleazan conventions while Mashahim write it using the Mashahith alphabet. Signage in the the Yam-Yaroq-Silvia-D'shav region wherein most non-Mashahi Veleazan people reside exclusively uses the Mashahith alphabet to write the language.

Religion

Religion in Hipasia (2016 census)

  Liberal Mashahism (28.21%)
  Orthodox Mashahism (5.73%)
  Irsad (11.52%)
  Alydianism (3.39%)
  Mzinku religion (0.60%)
  Other religion (0.54%)
  Irreligious (9.17%)

Religion in Hipasia largely correlates to ethnicity. Generally speaking, religious Mashahim practice Mashahism, religious Mzinku practice Irsad and religious Veleazans practice Alydianism. Hipasia is officially a Mashahist state, with the monarch theoretically acting as the spiritual head of Mashahism, although in practice some denominations of Mashahism reject this. However, the right to free private religious practice is enshrined within the constitution.

Various denominations (usually called branches from Mashahith ענפים‎ ʕănåp̄īm) of Mashahism exist within Hipasia, and there is no official preference given to any particular forms over another. All non-secular government services are legally bound to non-sectarianism. Branches typically encompass a number of sub-branches (ענפי ענפים "branches of branches"). The major branches by number of followers are Conservative, Liberal, Autochthonous and Orthodox Mashahism. The branch of Autochthonous Mashahism is not considered by some Mashahim to be a true branch as it is simply an umbrella term for the varieties of Mashahism practised by the Nesherim. Because of the connection between Mashahism the religion and Mashahim the people, it can be considered an ethnoreligion. However, although it is typically non-proselytising, it is possible to convert to Mashahism. A Mzinku group called the Gerayim (גריים) is the largest community to have converted to Mashahism, numbering about three thousand people; they practice a variety of Autochthonous Mashahism which they call himnuṯan (common Mzinku ܗܝܡܢܘܬܢ haymanuṯan "our faith").

Most Mzinku people practice Irsad, specifically the Rafada denomination. However, some Mzinku have converted to Mashahism or Alydianism while others practice traditional religion. Although religious freedom is upheld by the Hipasian constitution, the threat of Irsadic terror has led to mistreatment of many practitioners of Irsad, with harassment by law enforcement being a particular issue. Although Irsadic terror is generally low in Hipasia, most terror offences are in fact committed by non-Hipasians; in the most prominent such incident, the bombing of the Otél Luz d'Oro, the perpetrators had all entered Hipasia illegally. Other practitioners of Irsad are mostly found in immigrant communities from other parts of Arabekh such as Onza. These groups more frequently practice Malufi Irsad.

The Veleazan community is almost entirely Alydian. Additionally, many Mashahim have converted to Alydianism, being the religion of about 2.3% of the ethnic populace. Although some Mzinku practice Alydianism, it is otherwise found mainly amongst immigrants. Traditionally Veleazans primarily practised Puritanism, but today most Alydians in Hipasia are of the Orthodox denomination.

Minor religions include native religions amongst the Mzinku which are scarcely practised today as well as religions brought by immigrants such as Ksaiism and Triskaidekatheism. These are statistically negligible. The self-identified irreligious make up roughly ten percent of Hipasians depending on the method of measurement. Actual atheists are not separated from non-denominational theists; estimates place atheism at as much as 6% of citizens. Others identifying as irreligious include Mashahists who do not align with any particular tradition, and practitioners of unorganised religions.

Languages

Mashahith is the sole official language of Hipasia, but two additional languages are recognised as national languages. The more spoken of these two languages is Mzinku, spoken across the country due to internal migration but originating in the south and southeast of the country where the Mzinku population is focussed. Although the language has no official status and so Mzinku speakers must use Mashahith for most official business, public information is translated into Mzinku as a matter of course. This includes government publications, official signage on roads and buildings, and transport information. Less widely spoken is Golushish, a divergent dialect of Veleazan which was brought by Mashahim from Veleaz but has largely been replaced by Mashahith. Golushish remains strong around Silvia-D'shav, which historically had a significant number of Veleazans, and in some other scattered communities in the north. Road signage here frequently includes Golushish.

Mashahith was made the official language as part of efforts to unite the Mashahi people without favouring one of the contemporary vernacular languages such as Golushish or Deitsch. Such efforts date back to about a century before Hipasia was founded, as calls for a Mashahi state grew. Although in common use as a literary language, it was rarely spoken and never natively, making its imposition on Hipasia a sort of language revival. There are numerous differences between this planned form of Mashahith and the modern dialect of Emeqith spoken in Biladia.

Infrastructure

Energy

Hipasian energy sources (Q2 2018)

  Oil (60.2%)
  Natural gas (10.7%)
  Coal (0.9%)
  Wind (7.2%)
  Solar (5.6%)
  Tidal (1.1%)
  Imported (14.3%)

Hipasia uses an array of sources to generate energy, though oil is the principal provider, accounting for about 60% of generation. However, there is also a large renewables industry, with the flat terrain of southern Hipasia being of great use in generating wind power and the low rainfall benefitting solar power. Natural gas and tidal power contribute to most of the remaining supply. Energy imports provide almost 15% of supply, primarily coming from Onza.

Access to oil supplies in the Deromi Desert and offshore natural gas from the Green Sea have allowed Hipasia to avoid the use of heavily-polluting coal, which provides less than one percent of energy. The use of oil, however, has led to concerns raised over Hipasia's emissions. Notably, Hipasia has not ratified any international agreements to reduce emissions.

The use of renewable energy sources, which is partially government-funded, was driven largely by a strong push towards self-sufficiency beginning in the 1980s when energy imports peaked at 40%. The growth of the industry was also stimulated by wild fluctuations in the export prices of oil in the 1990s which led producers to seek alternative sources of income. The first major renewable project in Hipasia was the construction of the photovoltaic B'khor-Hashemesh farm just outside Eiden Hadash in southern Hipasia, with the first wind farm being the Alkiyon farm west of Tel Emeth. By 2000 over ten percent of energy was renewable-derived; by 2010 this had almost doubled.

Hipasia exports a small amount of energy, although energy exports have been steadily falling along with oil extraction and usage. Oil is the main export, primarily to other Arabekhi nations as well as Asuran nations. However, most energy produced is used within Hipasia itself.

Health

Healthcare in Hipasia is generally provided privately, though universal coverage is provided to certain groups through the National Wellbeing Scheme, wherein state subsidies cover the full cost of using private medical services. Additionally, the Royal National University of Yam-Yaroq's Royal University Hospital provides coverage both to its students as well as to beneficiaries of the NWS without cost; as a part of RNUY this is mostly government-funded. All children prior to and while attending mandatory education (ie. up to around the age of sixteen years) as well as active members of the armed forces benefit from this scheme automatically, and coverage can be extended to the following groups conditionally: retired pensioners; attendees of non-mandatory education; those whose work includes significant health risks. This includes all surgery and consultations, but does not cover the cost of prescriptions. However, lifelong debilitating illnesses such as epilepsy can have prescriptions subsidised by up to 90% of the full cost. This public system is provided entirely through taxes.

All healthcare provision except for that of the Royal University Hospital is handled privately, and absent any subsidy from the NWS must be paid in full by the user. There are some government controls on healthcare pricing to prevent gouging and ensure a minimum standard of care. Despite this, healthcare can frequently be out of reach of lower-earning families, with 15% of Hipasians preferring to seek cheaper treatments to minor issues from outside the health service and up to 4% reporting having performed self-surgery, principally stitching injuries. Generally healthcare is of a good quality, particularly by Arabekhi standards, though services may be seriously lacking in rural areas; a government report in 2013 found "severe expansion" of medical access in the Deromi Desert was necessary following a series of deaths from cholera in the towns of Beth-Garma and Aravath Haqla and the discovery that both towns lacked medical facilities.

Culture

Names

Hipasian names legally consist of three elements - a given name, a patronymic, and a family name. The given name is granted by the parents of a child at birth, though there are legal processes to change the given name. The patronymic consists of בן "son of" or בת "daughter of" followed by the father's name. Some Hipasian feminists have argued that this is sexist, and that children should be free to use a matronymic if they wish, or that the system should be abolished outright.

The family name is inherited from the father. Traditionally, when a woman marries, she adds her husband's name to her own family name. Thus, when Zara Katan married Moses Estheri, she became Zara Estheri-Katan. More recently, some men chose to adopt their wife's family name in the same manner, and thus his children carry their mother's family name as well as their father's.

Many Mashahith people migrating to Hipasia through the right of return choose to change their family name to a more Mashahith-sounding word. This is often done with a direct translation (eg. a name meaning "smith" becomes נפּח Napah), or a simple phonetic adaptation (eg. the Veleazan name Velázquez becomes בלסכה Belaskeh).

This naming system is also used by the Mzinku people, who traditionally did not have family names. Family names were adopted by the Mzinku when the Kingdom of Hipasia was founded, and generally reflect the occupations or given names of family elders during the early 1900s. An example of a Mzinku name is Ashur bar Lazar Tagari.