Great War (Kylaris)
|The Great War|
Clockwise from the top: Soldiers of the Gaullican Sartoux Division march through occupied s'Holle, a heavily-damaged Negaran armoured war train, a Caeseni artillery gun provides counter fire amidst the war in Coius, a Kaxakh battle tank laden with soldiers, Nematsujin armour leaving the depots at Haixingwai, Federation combined naval-and-air forces prepare for Operation Ruby.
|Commanders and leaders|
|Main Alliance leaders||Main Entente leaders|
| a. From 1927 to 1935|
b. United Kingdom of the Svelts (1927-1932), Republic of the Svelts (1932-1935)
c. From 1929 to 1935
d. From 1929 to 1935
e. As leader of the Holy Nordic Empire
The Great War, also known as the Negaran Emergency, was a global conflict centred on Euclea that began on 7 June 1926 and lasted until the 12th of February, 1935. More than 37 million combatants and civillians died as a result of the war, worsened by the rapid pace of technological development employed by the belligerents in seeking an end to the conflict. The Great War saw the introduction of mechanised armies, atomic armaments, and air combat, and it remains the deadliest and largest conflict in Kylarian history to date.
The immediate cause of the war was the repatriation of international concessions by the Republic of Negara in the latter stages of the Negaran Revolution with the tacit backing of the Estmerish League. A number of Euclean states issued protests to Negara, but Gaullican attempts to form an international coalition to destroy Negara drew them into a war with Estmere. A complicated system of alliances and Euclean colonial territories allowed the conflict to expand into a global war.
As a result of the Great War, the Nusantaran Empire was conquered and disbanded by the Republic of Negara, East Hesia gained its independence, the Democratic International Treaty Organisation and the Community of Nations were established to regulate international affairs, and the first atomic powers emerged.
- 1 Background
- 2 Combatants
- 3 Coian Theatre
- 4 Euclean Theatre
- 5 Asteria Theatre
Tensions in Negara had already been building since the Negaran Civil War of 1905-1911, which itself came as a result of the devastating defeat of the Nusantaran Empire at the hands of the Euclean Powers in the Nusantaran War of 1862, with conflict between modernising and reformist forces both in the general population and the Imperial government leading to a general rebellion in the southern provinces which coalesced into the Republic of Negara. While Negara enjoyed widespread popular support in Euclea and among anticolonial elements in Coius, its ideological basis was centred around making Negara increasingly independent from the Euclean colonial powers, which soured relations with the imperialist Euclean powers.
By 1926 Nusantaran efforts to suppress domestic support for the Republican movement had resulted in a near breakdown of relations with Estmere. The Herpsworth government, aware that the Republic of Negara had a serious military advantage over Nusantara, and fearful of reprisals against Estmerish concessions which bordered Republican territories negotiated a secret agreement with the Negaran government whereby Estmere would provide tacit support to Negara in the case of another civil war, and would also openly support Negaran reclamations of the concessions of foreign powers, in return for an extension of the loans on certain key concessions, to which the Negaran government agreed.
The immediate cause of the war was the Kelang Incident, which on the 15th of May led to the resumption of hostilities between it and Nusantara. By the 22nd of May negotiations between the Imperial and Republican government had broken down, and as a result by the 30th Negara seized control of Gaullican and Raglanese territorial concessions along the coast. The Gaullican government delivered an ultimatum to Negara on the 31st on the condition of withdrawal from the coastal territories, and declared war on the 6th of June, leading to a Estmerish declaration of war on the 7th and triggering the Euclean alliance system.
- Confederation of Leagues
- Confederate Werania
- Estmerish League
- Federation (from 1929 to 1935)
- Gaullican Free Army (from 1929 to 1935)
- Kingdom of Hellenos
- Kaxakh (from 1929 to 1935)
- Lusitana (from 1927 to 1935)
- Mariana (from 1928 to 1935)
- Republic of Negara
- Risorgimentian Revolutionary Front (1927-1935)
- Sveltlana (from 1927 to 1935)
- United Kingdom of the Svelts (1927-1932)
- Republic of the Svelts (1932-1935)
- Republic of Wacoa (1929-1935)
- Wazovian Resistance
- Zhen Dynasty Songguo (from 1927 to 1935)
- Gurham Dynasty Fars (from 1930 to 1935)
- Celestial Isles (from 1929 to 1935)
Combat in the Coian Theatre started with the Kelang Incident, where Negara claimed that Nusantaran troops violated the ceasefire line in the city of Kelang by having military police patrols cross the Red Bridge. These claims were initially rejected by Nusantara, but the latter country soon changed its stance to asserting sovereignty over the whole city, upon which skirmishes broke out along the entirety of the Negaran-Nusantaran border. The 22nd of May saw an exchange of declarations of war between the Negaran and Nusantaran authorities. As the Euclean territorial concessions in Negara had officially been loaned with extraterritorial rights, Negara considered them Nusantaran territory, and on the 22nd of May the Negaran XVth and XVIIth Brigades were ordered to seize Kota Serang, Tangerang, and Kota Panaitan, which belonged to Gaullican and Raglan respectively. As Estmere had recognised Negaran legal sovereignty over their concessions, these were left in peace by the Negaran authorities, but the Estmerish concession of Magetan was briefly seized by Nusantara. Of these, only Kota Panaitan managed to provide resistance, as the island-city could not immediately be seized by Negaran forces, but ultimately a joint Estmerish-Negaran naval bombardment led to the local garrison's surrender.
Although skirmishes had taken place along the whole border for some time, Nusantara had failed to mobilise army units in the West, and as a result these were quickly overrun by attacking Negaran troops. Fighting in the East was much fiercer, but the broad frontages and slow movement of troops meant that overall the fighting remained much more mobile and less deadly than in the early period of the Euclean fronts.
The Negaran campaign is often noted for the lack of major naval engagements. Despite the strategic significance of the Negaran Sea as shown by Battle of the Hesian Bight, neither the Estmerish nor the Gaullican navy fought a major engagement south of Biyadh. Ultimately the presence of local Estmerish naval arsenal coupled with the relative modernity of the Negaran navy allowed the Democratic Alliance greater control of local sea lanes.
Songguo and Nematsu
- Main article: Second Nematsujin-Songhua War
Songguo, under the leadership of the Zhen Dynasty, was slow to enter the war. Songguo had long had a rivalry with Nusantara (though they were hardly fans of the Negaran regime), but Songhua leadership was unwilling to commit too soon to a war that could prove disastrous. Additionally, Nusantara's alliance with Gaullica provided a perfect opportunity to seize back the long-coveted prefecture of Baishadao, which Gaullica had seized decades before but which was now vulnerable thanks to Gaullica's embroilment in the Euclean theater. Songhua forces began to mobilize in mid to late 1927, and on December 16th Songguo entered the war with a sneak attack on Baishadao, seizing the city from its scant few Gaullican defenders. Hundreds of thousands of Songhua troops also launched a sneak attack on the Nusantaran rear, sending Nusantaran high command scrambling for a response.
They found one, in the form of Nematsu. Nematsu and Songguo had had a contentious relationship since the Hong Dynasty, but the First Nematsujin-Songhua War had inflamed tensions between the nations in modern times, and Nematsu harbored tremendous imperial ambitions and was loosely aligned with Gaullica and Nusantara. Following the Songhua attacks, the Nematsujin Imperial Navy and Nematsujin Imperial Army mobilized and launched a massive attack on Songguo. Songhua high command had prepared inadequately for such an eventuality despite the harsh lesson of the first war, and the Songhua fleet was almost completely destroyed, as was a large portion of the airport. The army holding Baishadao surrendered rather than destroy the beautiful city fighting- which, while posterity remains grateful to them, was an action that earned the commanders and officers who survived being Nematsujin prisoners a death sentence from their own government upon their return at the end of the war. Haixingwai, however, was the site of a ferocious battle in which Songhua troops were ultimately defeated. Large areas of the country were taken by Nematsu and several resistance fronts rose up against them, beginning a long and horrifically bloody land war. This brutal guerrilla warfare and war of attrition would continue for much of the war, and included horrific massacres of Songhua civilians by Nematsujin troops such as the Rape of Qingzhou.
In the later stages of the war, however, the Nematsujin war machine began to break down under the sheer numbers of the Songhua. By mid-1932, Songhua forces from various factions had finally reorganized to some extent and formed a joint command, coordinating enough to retake the imperial capital of Dongjing. With grudgingly-accepted donations of materiel from Negara and Asteria, Songhua forces began rolling the Nematsujin Imperial Army back. The intervention of the Kaxakh fleet and its successful actions against the Nematsujin Imperial Navy allowed Songguo to reclaim nearly all of its territory by 1935 and push to help liberate Cheonhae and even begin preparing for a land invasion of the Nematsujin Home Islands. An extremely harsh peace was imposed on Nematsu, which turned over huge quantities of military hardware to Songguo and Kaxakh and paid a vast indemnity.
The Songhua theatre is often considered separate from the rest of the war, and the action there is also referred to as the Second Nematsujin-Songhua War.
- Main article: Operation Ruby
Invasion of Hennehouwe
Gaullica and Werania
- Main article: Gaullican Invasion of Werania
Invasion of Rhaetia
- Main article: Great War in Rhaetia
The two quasi-states of the Raetic Mountains north of Caesena - the Rhaetian Confederation of Leagues and the Saephian Sapüner Order - had long built-up tensions between each other and the two states that neighbored Rhaetia - the Third Solarian Empire and the Balaguari Social Republic. Initially, the Confederation remained neutral; while Qosgu Pajje, the Supreme Master of the Sapünern, struck alliance agreements with Balaguar and Solaris.
The Rhaetian War began on the 12th September 1926 with a Solarian invasion of the Moesa valley in southwestern Rhaetia soon followed by a Balaguari invasion in the southeast on the 16th. Most Rhaetian resistance consisted of blocking mountain passes and damage roads and railways. The Confederate government - instead of directing it towards the invading armies - decided to send the bulk of the Rhaetian Army into Saephia, figuring that defeating the Order would mean the Confederation would be able to take back the whole of Rhaetia with a Democratic victory in the War. The resulting Battle of Aschera saw the forces of the Sapüner Order decisively defeated by the Rhaetian Army, forcing the Pajje to flee to Balaguari territory.
The invading armies eventually crossed the Raetic Mountains over the Alvra Pass on 30 September, forcing the Confederate government to flee to Aldingham on 13 October. The whole of Rhaetia had been formally annexed by the invaders on 25 October, partitioned between Balaguar and Solaris. The Order was unable to wield as much influence following the military humiliation of Aschera, and the Pajje was forced to run an underground government in the Saephian mountains.
In the southern half of Rhaetia, annexed by Solaris, a collaborationist Rhaetian government received limited powers. ...
Sveltlanan Civil War
- Main article: Sveltlanan Civil War
The Sveltlanan Civil War began when Nationalist revolutionaries throughout the Stornö archipelago seized what is now the Republic Building (then known as the Palace of Communications) and declared that the Empire had ceased to be the governing body of the Svelts, and that it was now time to unite the fractious Nordic Empire, composed by dozens of fractured polities, into a single nation-state.
Much of the country, including several divisions from the military, agreed that the Empire was a corrupt, obsolete and alien structure and joined the revolution against Raglan. However, considerable amounts of the Raglanese Armed Forces remained loyal to the Emperor and the Empire.
Operation Eubert: the Gaullican invasion of Kaxakh
- Main article: Operation Eubert: The Gaullican Invasion of Kaxakh
Battle of the SkiesOne of the first battles in Euclea during the Great War took place in the skies. Miles above the land below, a fierce battle was fought between the joint Democratic Alliance air forces (the Commonwealth Air Fleet, the Svea Flygvapnet and others) and the Entente air forces (L'Armée de L'Air, the Caesenan Imperial Air Force and the Imperial Raglanese Air Force).Sveltlanan Civil War.
Asteria Joins the War
When the War first broke out in Euclea, the Federation of Asteria declared strict neutrality, which was not unprecedented due to the nation's known isolationism. President Richard Parker, today recognized as one of Asteria's best presidents, made an effort to maintain economic connections to the Euclean countries, but following the fall of most of mainland Euclea, it became apparent that this was not indeed possible. After the invasion of Werania, and the initiation of the air war over Estmere the Asterian Economy began to suffer. Most of the nation's top trade partners were either defeated by the fascists, or at war with them, and the only trade any countries were willing to offer was military supplies- which would give the impression that the Federation was choosing sides. President Parker's Asteria First Acts of 1924 were beginning to be reversed by early 1926, and the unemployment rate once more began to rise.
Within the Federal Government, fierce debate sparked over whether or not to take sides in the War - in the form of military supplies and economic support. Many members of the Conservative Party believed that the only way the Federation could maintain economic stability was through selling military supplies to either side in bulk, though much of the Liberal Party clung to Asterian Isolationism, believing it was a "Euclean War", and that it was not Asteria's place to intervene. In a poll taken in June of 1927, 69% of Asterians believed in remaining neutral, while 22% were in favour of taking sides, and the others were undecided. Despite heavy opposition to intervention in the conflict, President Parker convinced Congress to approve the Lend-Lease Act in September of 1927, which opened trade between the Federation and the Democratic Alliance. On the 21st of November, 1927, the first cargo fleet, carrying hundreds of tanks, trucks, planes, and thousands of weapons and munitions, departed from the West Coast of the Federation, bound for Estmere.
While the Lend-Lease Act was a trade agreement explicitly between the Federation and Estmere at first, they quickly became the main supplier of military supplies and natural resources to the Alliance, which inevitably brought retaliation by the Entente. The result was a line of Naval defenses, mainly Gaullican U-Boats, known as the Vehemens Wall. From 1927 all the way to 1934, the Coalition dominated the central seas of the Vehemens, sinking more than 11,000 Federation and Estmerish Cargo Ships bound for Alliance countries. Though, despite many engagements with Coalition Naval Forces, the people of the Federation were still reluctant to declare War, but with each passing day, they were pulled closer and closer to the Euclean conflict.
Though, the event that secured Asteria's eventual involvement in the War came in early 1928, when Estmere asked the Federation to continue its ongoing occupation in Glytter. Glytter was previously secured by the Estmerish to prevent it from falling under Entente influence and to secure Glytter's warm water ports. With the war demanding Estmere's full military strength, they could no longer maintain a sufficient occupational force in Glytter, and passed the responsibility onto a mostly-neutral Federation. In April, 1928, 60,000 Federation Army and 25,000 Marine Corps personnel moved in to replace the Estmerish occupiers, while an entire Fleet was sent to Glytter, along with multiple air divisions. The increased presence led to the establishment of resistance groups and tensions erupted following the Snarksburgh Massacre on November 12th, 1928. The Snarksburgh Massacre sparked a small-scale conflict known as the Glytteronian Insurrection, or Quasi-War, which would force the Federation to bolster their military presence in Glytter.
As feared by the Fascists of Gaullica, the Federation's close proximity to the conflict on the Euclean mainland increased the demand to lend aid to Alliance forces, especially in Werania. Starting in August of 1928, the Federation began shipping supplies to Werania using their large "Euclean Defense Fleet", as well as dropping supplies into battle via airplane- an act which angered Gaullica, so much as to begin targeting Federation supply craft. But still, they remained neutral.
But eventually, the tensions between the Federation and Gaullica reached a breaking point. In January of 1929, the Gaullican War Machine began to shift Westward in preparation of Operation Eubert, the imminent invasion of Kaxakh. Though, the Gaullicans feared that the Federation would use this shift in focus to coordinate a massive assault on Gaullican-occupied Euclea, and would thus put in motion plans to cripple the Federation War Machine long enough to win the War against Kaxakh. These plans would start with the assault on nearly every Federation Naval Vessel - civilian or not. The result was the Nantucket Incident - the sinking of a civilian cargo ship said to be carrying relief supplies to Glytter. Though in reality, the SS Nantucket was not manned by civilians, but more than 700 Federation Army Members that were being deployed to Glytter for a new strike against resistance. While it was common for Federation ships to be sunk by Gaullican Naval Forces, the death of Military and the ability for the Gaullicians to know their movements would be a sign that the Federation Military ignored.
Twelve Days later, on the morning of January 29th, 1929, the Federation would come under attack by Naval and Air Forces of Fascist Gaullica, at Saint Mary Harbor, in Caipitilbonn. The attack, known as the Battle of Glytter, was a highly successful and devastating attack on various Asterian Military Assets - mainly focused around the Federation 2nd Fleet, which was docked in the Harbor. In the attack, more than 4,000 Asterians would be killed, along with most of their Fleet, ultimately crippling the Federation War Machine in Euclea and allowing Gaullica to launch their invasion of Kaxakh. The following evening, the Federation would would declare War on Gaullica, and eventually Raglan and Caesena, bringing the reluctant nation into the world's most destructive conflict.
- Main article: Juanan Revolution