Glanodel

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Glanish Commonwealth
Glansk Fristatens
Flag Great Seal
Motto: "En ud af mange."
"One out of many."
Location of Glanodel (green),
CDN member nations (light),
Other Asuran nations (dark grey)
CapitalVænholm
Largest Graylund
Official languages Lhedwinic (Glanish dialect)
Recognised national languages Lhedwinic, Newreyan, Vrnallian, Nausikaan, Oser
Ethnic groups Glanish (80.2%),
Newreyan (8.3%),
Vrnallian (6.5%),
Nausikaan (2.1%),
Oser (1.9%),
Other Lhedwinic (1%)
Demonym Glanish · Glens
Government Federal presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Katrine S. Hansen
 -  Chancellor Elias C. Jeppesen
 -  House Speaker Ebba V. Lund
Legislature Congress of the Commonwealth (Kongres Glanodæl)
 -  Upper house Council of State (Senatet)
 -  Lower house National Council (Nationalråd)
Establishment
 -  King's Day 1 February 954 
 -  Two Chambers Day 5 March 1158 
 -  Revival Day 5 March 1900 
Area
 -  236,326 km2
146,846 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 18%
Population
 -  2016 estimate Increase 14,869,859
 -  2015 census 14,019,103
 -  Density 62.92/km2
101.26/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
 -  Total $0.89 trillion
 -  Per capita $59,864
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
 -  Total $0.965 trillion
 -  Per capita $64,948
Gini (2014)negative increase 29.5
low
HDI (2014)Increase 0.930
very high
Currency Gælder (Gilder) (GO)
Drives on the right
Calling code +55
ISO 3166 code GLN
Internet TLD .gln

Glanodel (Glanish: Glanodæl), officially the Glanish Commonwealth (Glansk Fristatens), is a federal republic in Asura. It consists of 13, semi-autonomous cantons and the city of Vænholm is the seat of the federal government. The country is situated along the Northeast side of the archipelago Lhedwin and is bordered by Navack to the south, the Arctic Ocean to the north and west, and the Asuran Channel to the east. Glanodel is a mostly island, maritime country geographically separated into three areas by Norfeld defining its northern border and Sørfeld defining its southern, spanning an area of 118,163 km2 (73,423 sq mi). The Glanish population of approximately 10 million people is concentrated mostly within its major coastal cities, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centers Graylund and Ellesø.

The origins of the modern Glanish culture can be traced back to the emergence of the Dalish tribes at the start of the Iron Age which dominated most of the region now known as Glanodel. As a single, unified country, the nation owes its origins to the establishment of the Kingdom of Glanodel in 1158 with the crowning of King Ögri Vænström. From the 14th to the 17th century, the Northern Renaissance shaped much of modern Glanish political, economic, and social ideology. It also led to the emergence of the nascent, liberal-leaning movement which dominated national policy towards the mid-17th century until the Kingdom joined the union of the United Kingdom of Lhedwin alongside the Navack and Crylante. Lhedwinic occupation of Glanodel ended with the nation's liberation by the Grand Alliance in 1899. The subsequent ratifying of the Grundlov (National Constitution) on 5 March 1900, established the Glanish Commonwealth. Facing great challenges following the end of the Great War due in large part to war losses, a majority of the first half of the 20th century was spent on reconstruction, inspiring the name "Reconstruction Era". Glanodel emerged as a dominant manufacturer in the growing world economy throughout the 1930s and 40s. The 1950s saw the empowerment of unions, numerous economic reforms, and unemployment benefits, as well as publicly-funded pensions, universal health care, and greater investments in both public and private education.

In its current form, Glanodel's national legislature is the elected, bicameral Congress of the Commonwealth: composed of the Council of State (Senatet; upper house), presided over by Chancellor Katrine Hansen; and the National Council (Nationalråd, lower house), presided over by House Speaker Ebba Lund. Executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, presided over by Glanodel's head of state and government, Acting President Katrine Hansen.

The Glanish people enjoy one of the highest standards of living and the country ranks highly in numerous comparisons of national performance such as education, healthcare, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance, prosperity and human development. Glanodel is frequently ranked as one of the happiest countries in the world and has the world's highest social mobility rate with a high level of income equality and one of the world's highest per capita incomes. Glanodel also has one of the most ethnically diverse populations in Asura, with non-Glanish ethnicities making up roughly 45% of the nation's population. Glanish national identity is rooted in widely shared values of equality, the main inspiration behind its support of referendums and direct democracy. As guaranteed by its Constitution, Glanish citizens reserve the right to freely practice any religion they chose, with Trúathi and Alydianism being the two most commonly practiced religions.

The 21st century saw the rise of Glanodel as a major power in Lhedwinic foreign affairs and a minor power within Asuran politics. Since the nation's rise to economic power in the 1990s, Glanodel has held a consistent place as having the highest per capita income in the world and one of the most economically competitive nations in the world. Glanodel has also emerged as a primary contributor to the 's northern missions, along side Newrey, and is a key proponent in the formation of the Lhedwin Council and the CDN. Glanodel is often referred to by numerous multinational magazines, tourism industries, and news outlets as both one of the world's major "cultural hubs", as well as a "hub of debauchery and indulgence". Glanish cultural achievements are widely known and Glanodel is most commonly known around the world for its famous authors, critically acclaimed musicians and classical orchestras, and its internationally recognizable movies and television shows. In addition, Glanodel is known for having far-libertarian social policies especially in comparison to other developed nations, such as legalized public nudity and even prostitution, as well as a plethora of controlled substances approved for recreational use.

Etymology and name

Linguistic anthropologists still differ on the exact origin of the name "Glanodel" (Glanish: Glanodæl), especially regarding its relationship with the Glanish people and the unified Kingdom of Glanodel. Most historians agree that the name is a compound. While the word's suffix, del (dæl) is widely accepted as a reference to the Glanish lands and is most likely derived from the Old Lhedwinic word for "valley", the first half of the name, glano is the primary subject of debate.

Originally believed to be a devolved form of an early usage of the word glen, which also refers to a "valley" or even "fjord", most historians now believe the word originates from the Old Lhaeraidh term for "clean", glano(s). Around the start of the 10th century, Lhaeraidh traders regularly made excursions into Glanish territory and one of the most notable differences between the two peoples was the fact that Glens seldom engaged in body modification, tattooing, or body painting. Additionally, the fair, pale skin of Lhedwin natives only stood out even more so in contrast to the darker complexion of the Lhaeraidh. Thus, around the middle of the 11th century, Glanaidh became a widely used term among the Lhaeraidh to describe and refer to the people of modern Glanodel. Consisting of the prefix glano ("clean") and the suffix -aidh ("people" or "folk"), the term essentially translated to the "clean people".

By the start of the 14th century, the Lhaeraidh trading network had spread throughout much of the known world and the term became commonly used even outside of Lhaeraidh territories. As a result, historians believe that "Glanaidh" later became commonly used among Glanish traders as well to facilitate trade agreements. Most historians agree the terms Glansk (tr. "Glanish"; "that of Glanish origin") and Glanska (tr. "Glens"; "Glanish people") became widespread by the early 14th century.

History

Main articles: History of Glanodel
The Vænström ship is a well-preserved longship uncovered by the excavation of the burial mound of Bjarni Vænström, father of the first King of Glanodel, Ögri.

The origins of the modern Glanish culture can be traced back to the Dalish culture (Proto-Lhedwinic: Dalings; tr. "people of the Dales" or "people of the valley") of the Iron Age which came to dominate most of modern day Glanodel from 6th century BCE until the 12th century CE. Heavily influenced by the threat of the Fiorentine Empire and its harsh environment, the culture is notable for its abundant rock carvings, runestones, and longships. Dalish territorial expansion followed almost immediately after the collapse of the Empire and was facilitated by vessels which had originally served to defend Dalish lands from invasion. Glanodel had established influence throughout much of the Lhedwinic waterways during the 5th and 6th century and trade routes out of Glanodel soon stretched throughout much of the archipelago, and beyond.

Consolidation of Glanish lands beneath a single ruler began in the 9th century and involved extended conflicts between numerous chiefdoms ruled by jarls. King Ögri Vænström is generally considered the first Kingdom of Glanodel and was officially crowned in 1158. Throughout much of the 13th century, most contemporaries refered to Glanodel as an "anarchic society", as the nation remained relatively decentralized. In 1247, King Gærhialm established the Royal Truathist Church of Glanodel.

From the 14th to the 17th century, a period known as the Northern Renaissance shaped much of modern Glanish political, economic, and social ideology. It also led to the emergence of the nascent, liberal-leaning movement which dominated national policy until the accession of King Brendt III who, after enacting numerous conservative political and social reforms in opposition to public opinion, was forced to join the United Kingdom of Lhedwin in order to preserve his monarchy and prevent a full-fledged revolt.

A photograph taken of the Graylund Trials in January, 1900.

Glanodel remained under Lhedwinic rule from 1668 until 1899 when Glanodel was finally liberated by the Grand Alliance, ending the Great War. Immediately following the end of the Great War, a provisional government which had been the key support behind the Resistance in Glanodel ratified a second Grundlov (the Second Constitution of Glanodel) on 5 March 1900, establishing the Glanish Commonwealth under a federal presidential form of government. Within a decade, Glanish politics became dominated by two major parties, the Liberal People's Party and Conservative Democratic Party, with fluctuating support among smaller parties.

Glanodel faced great challenges immediately following the end of the Great War and a majority of the first half of the 20th century was spent on reconstruction. These efforts were aided by reparations paid out of the Lhedwin Royal Treasury as the Lhedwin government was dissolved, and by aid from Newrey, among other nations. This period has come to be known as the Reconstruction Era. These funds were primarily used for importing goods from abroad. Starting from May of 1900, these imports were mainly much-needed staples such as food and fuel, but later the purchases turned towards reconstruction needs. 1901 to 1923 saw the fastest period of growth in Glanish history and gave rise to the modern Glanish economy. Glanodel emerged as a dominant manufacturer in the growing world economy throughout the 1930s and 40s.

Throughout the rest of the 20th century, Glanish politics became dominated by two major parties, the Liberal People's Party and Conservative Democratic Party, with fluctuating support among smaller parties. As the overall tax burden on the public rose between the 1920s and 30s, economic growth slowed but standards of living modernized and progressive policies dominated legislation throughout the rest of the 20th century. The late 1920s and the 1930s saw the empowerment of unions, numerous economic reforms, and unemployment benefits, as well as publicly-funded pensions, universal health care, and greater investments in both public and private education. These investments, as well as the restructuring of the tax system coupled with an effective model for redistribution of wealth resulted in high levels of income equality, per capita income, social mobility, and high human development. With the country's industrial base mostly restored, Glanodel emerged as a dominant manufacturer in the growing world economy throughout the 1940s and 50s.

A photograph of Newreyan-Glanish director Erik Williams with the Glanish actress Hertha Bæk at the set of the Glanish film Du er ikke værd (You're Not Worth It).

The 1960s saw one of the largest expansions of the entertainment industry in Glanodel. The late 60s and early 70s also saw the rise of Glanodel's extensive tourism industry which by the turn of the 21st century grossed over 4% of the nation's economy. While the late 60s also saw the emergence of the state oil company, Regoil, oil production did not provide net income until the early 1980s because of the large capital investment that was required to establish the country's petroleum industry. Around 1975, both the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked. Since then labor-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and shipping have largely been automated, or in a few cases outsourced.

The 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern Glanish history, especially when the communications infrastructure was equipped to provide internet. Beginning in 1994, Glanodel entered into numerous trade pacts with over 20 other nations throughout the world, the goal being to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the countries with whom Glanodel traded the most; trade among the partners has soared since these agreements went into force. Numerous international finance and economist magazines rank Glanodel as one of the largest economies in the world. At the turn of the 21st century, Inspirekom became the largest, multinational, entertainment company in the world and has since established more filming studios in more countries than any other.

Recent history

Nicoline Bertelsen, Glanish Secretary of Defense since 2017, has presided over the largest military expansion in Glanish history since its reestablishment after the dissolution of the United Kingdom.

Since the 1990s, Glanodel has experience rapid economic and population growth, both of which are closely tied to relaxed restrictions in areas of immigration and foreign investment. Glanodel has also made considerable expansions in areas of national defense, namely it military and as a result has come under some scrutiny by world leaders like the Former Prime Minister of Newrey.

From 2000 to 2010, internet access was expanded to the majority of the nation's territories, the energy market of the country was converted to nearly 18% renewable energy sources, unemployment fell 3.31% to just over 4% nationwide, and the national economy grew by roughly 43% to its current value of ₲0.783 trillion.

Glanodel was an important member of the Drago Entente for supporting peacekeeping efforts in Northern Asura and in the Lhedwin Isles, as well as a powerful member of the Asuran Community in pushing Lhedwinic nations' goals. In September of 2017, Glanodel advocated for the merging of the Aeian Community and Drago Entente to form the Commonwealth of Democratic Nations. On 29 October 2017, the Lhedwin Council was founded due in large part to the efforts of the late President of Glanodel, Nikolaj Svendsen.

On 20 January 2018, the President of Glanodel Nikolaj Svendsen died in a plane crash off the coast of Newrey. Former Chancellor Katrine Hansen succeeded Svendsen as the Acting President of Glanodel.

Geography

Glanodel comprises the land south of Norfeld, the long mountain range which runs from coast to coast through the Lhedwinic Island and defines Glanodel's north border and northeast of the Sørfeld mountain range which defines its border with Taeverland. The rugged coastline, broken by huge fjords and thousands of islands, stretches nearly 6,944 kilometres including the fjords and islands. Much of the eastern side of the country is dominated by mountainous or high terrain, with a great variety of natural features caused by prehistoric glaciers and varied topography, while the west side is mostly grasslands and fens (bogs). The most noticeable of its natural features are probably its fjords: deep grooves cut into the land flooded by the sea following the end of the Ice Age. The longest is Ileinskafjord at 204 kilometres (127 mi) in the city of Vallsberget in Ileinskali. Særlandfjord in the city of Notmarkskov in northern Særland is the world's second deepest fjord. Bors Lake between the cantons of Sumisetr and Helloreg is the deepest lake in Glanodel. Frozen ground can be found all year long in the higher mountain areas along Norfeld and Sørfeld, both of which stretch across the country, from coast to coast. The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate, sandstone, and limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations contain marine deposits.

Climate

Iglsø (or Igle Lake) is the largest lake in Glanodel and is located in South Sumisetr/Northeast Helloreg.

The whole of Glanodel lies in the boreal zone, characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. With coastal territories subject to both oceanic and gulf water currents and inland areas blocked from such effects by mountains, the temperateness varies considerably between the western and eastern coastal regions and the inlands, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. Glanodel receives consistent warm currents along its coasts which combine with the moderating effects of the sea to the north resulting in the unusually warm climate compared with other regions that share the same latitude. The interior provinces receive mostly warm weather as well, which has a climate well suited for agriculture. The rest of Glanodel's climate is suitable for cereal farming only in the easternmost regions, while the western regions are suitable for animal husbandry.

Winters in eastern Glanodel (when mean daily temperature remains below 0 °C or 32 °F) are usually about 100 days long, and in the inland the snow typically covers the land from about late November to April, and on the coastal areas, snow often covers the land from late December to late March. Even in the east, the harshest winter nights can see the temperatures fall to −30 °C (−22 °F) although on coastal areas, temperatures below −30 °C (−22 °F) are very rare. Climatic summers (when mean daily temperature remains above 10 °C or 50 °F) in eastern Glanodel last from about late May to mid-September, and in the inland, the warmest days of July can reach over 35 °C (95 °F). Although most of Glanodel lies on the taiga belt, the easternmost coastal regions are sometimes classified as hemiboreal. In contrast, the provinces of Norfell, Siwald, and Saerland have long and cold winters, and relatively warm but short summers. The most severe winter days can see the temperature fall down to −45 °C (−49 °F). The winter of the north lasts for about 200 days with permanent snow cover from about mid-October to early May. Summers in the north are quite short, only two to three months, but can still see maximum daily temperatures above 25 °C (77 °F) during heat waves. No part of Glanodel has Arctic tundra, but Alpine tundra can be found in the highest regions of Norfell.

A third of Glanodel lies within the Arctic Circle and the midnight sun can be experienced for more days the farther north one travels. At Glanodel's northernmost point, the sun does not set for 73 consecutive days during summer, and does not rise at all for 51 days during winter.

Biodiversity

Long believed to be a myth, the narwhal is a toothed whale that possesses a "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth. It lives year-round in the the Arctic waters of Ileinskali, Keledalr, and Særmark.

According to the Environmental and Ecological Research Institute, the territory of Glanodel can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the subarctic taiga, Sarmatic mixed forests, and Montane Birch forest and grasslands. Taiga covers most of Glanodel from the far eastern side of its northern regions, to the southwestern parts of Villradäl. The coasts of southern Hafland and most of Sørland are covered by mixed forests. In Feniland and Siwald, Montane Birch forests and grasslands are common.

Similarly, Glanodel has a diverse and extensive range of fauna. There are at least sixty native mammalian species, 248 breeding bird species, over 70 fish species, and 11 reptile and frog species present today, many migrating from neighboring countries thousands of years ago. Large and widely recognized wildlife mammals found in Glanodel are the brown bear, arctic wolf, wolverine, and elk.

Three of the more striking birds are the whooper swan, a large swan found throughout the arctic; the capercaillie, a large, black-plumaged member of the grouse family; and the European eagle-owl. The latter is considered an indicator of old-growth forest connectivity, and has been declining because of landscape fragmentation. The most common breeding birds are the willow warbler, common chaffinch, and redwing. Of some seventy species of freshwater fish, the northern pike, perch, and others are plentiful. Atlantic salmon remains the favourite of fly rod enthusiasts.

The endangered Teks ringed seal, one of only three lake seal species in the world, exists only in the Teks lake system of southeastern Glanodel, down to only 300 seals today. It has become the emblem of the Wildlife Preservation Programs.

Politics and government

Main articles: Politics of Glanodel, Administrative divisions, Constitution of the Glanish Commonwealth, Congress of the Commonwealth, Federal Government
The Herregård is a collection federal buildings positioned on an artificial island used as the seat of the Glanish Government, the Landsmeet, and Glanish Federal Supreme Court. This photograph was taken from the Skjelby peninsular, northeast of the island.

Glanodel is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world. Glanodel also has one of the highest ratings of government transparency in the world. According to its Constitution, ratified in 1900, Glanodel is a federal presidential republic wherein power is separated among the bicameral Congress (legislative), the Cabinet (executive), and the Supreme Court (judicial). Additionally, the federal government shares sovereignty with the country's 13 constituent states, referred to as kantons (tr. cantons), which exercise a high degree of autonomy, especially in areas such as education and law enforcement. The Constitution also outlines basic and political rights of individuals and citizen participation in public affairs, and defines the relationship between the federal and local governments.

Constitutionally structured as a representative democracy, federal legislative power is vested with Congress (Kongres Glanodæl; unofficially referred to as the Landsmót, tr. Landsmeet) which consists of two chambers: the Council of States (Senatet, upper house) and the National Council (Nationalråd, lower house). Historically, the Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet) and the Conservative Democratic Party (Borgerligt Demokratisk) have played leading roles in Glanish politics since 1956. Through referendums, citizens may also directly challenge any law passed by the legislature and through initiatives, introduce amendments to the federal constitution, thus making Glanodel a direct democracy. Additionally, while amendments can be proposed by Congress as well, they can only be ratified by a three-fourths majority referendum.

Chancellor Katrine Hansen at a press conference to announce the death of the late President Nikolaj Svendsen, accompanied by Minister Elias Jeppesen to left, prior to the swearing in ceremony naming Chancellor Hansen as Acting President and Minister Jeppesen as Chancellor of the Council of State.

The executive branch of the federal government consists of the Cabinet (Regering) which is composed of the President, Vice President, the heads of the 14 executive departments, and 9 cabinet-rank officials. As Glanodel's head of state and government, the President is considered the most powerful official within the government. Since 1964, the President is elected for a single, six year term by universal suffrage. Upon their election, the President appoints the members of their Cabinet, who are then approved by the Council of States.

Glanodel uses a civil law system where laws are created and amended by the legislature and the system regulated through the courts of justice of Glanodel. It consists of the Supreme Court of the Commonwealth (composed of 19 permanent judges and a Chief Justice), appellate courts, city and district courts, and conciliation councils. The judiciary is independent of executive and legislative branches. The Courts' strict and formal mission is "to regulate the Glanish judicial system, interpret the Constitution, and as such, implement the legislation adopted by the Congress." In its judicial reviews, it monitors the legislative and executive branches to ensure that they comply with provisions of enacted legislation. As per the Constitution, Supreme Court Justices in Glanodel are appointed by the President and must be confirmed by a Joint Session of Congress. All Justices serve a life term or until they resign or are deemed incapable of carrying out their duties.

Direct democracy and federalism are hallmarks of the Glanish political system. Glanish citizens are subject to three legal jurisdictions: the municipality, canton and federal levels. The federal constitution defines a system of direct democracy (sometimes called half-direct or representative direct democracy because it is aided by the more commonplace institutions of a representative democracy). The instruments of this system at the federal level, known as popular rights, include the right to submit a federal initiative and a referendum, both of which may overturn the decisions of the legislature. By calling a federal referendum, a group of citizens may challenge a law passed by the Congress. Similarly, the federal constitutional initiative allows citizens to put a constitutional amendment to a national vote.

Voting in general is perhaps one of the most important institutions to the Glanish population and, to an extent, even seen as sacrosanct. The federal constitution defines it as a civil right and while cantons do control when their elections are held and the locations and number of voting areas, cantons are prohibited from passing laws restricting voter registration or the free exercise of voting. Federal elections are usually held over a three day period whereby citizens can vote up to two days before the official election day. Federal election days are national holidays and canton elections are usually regional holidays with all but emergency services being shut down for most of the day.Main article:

Foreign relations and international institutions

Main Article: Foreign relations
In addition to serving as the nation's largest museum, and one of the largest museums in the world, Kulturarvbygning (the Heritage Building) is the headquarters of the World Educational and Cultural Organization.

Glanodel wields considerable influence in the Lhedwin Islands and is a middle power in international affairs. In recent years, Glanodel has gained widespread recognition as a major economic power, trading goods and services to nations across the world. The foreign policy of Glanodel is substantially influenced by its former vassal status under the United Kingdom, the later military occupation of Glanodel by the United Kingdom, and it subsequent liberation at the hands of the Grand Alliance in 1899.

Since the end of the Great War and due to residual skepticism towards the effectiveness of supranational military or political unions, Glanodel has attempted to maintain a policy of neutrality and avoided joining the International Assembly until 1990. Still, most Glanish citizens and a majority of the Glanish government and Congress do not support full entry into international political unions, though support for non-voting, non-binding participation in the Asuran Community has steadily increased since 2004. Glanodel has, however, been a strong supporter of international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes. There are high levels of support across Glanodel for globalization with the popular sentiment being "free trade prevent wars".

Glanodel maintains embassies in over 80 countries, with around 60 countries maintaining embassies in Glanodel, all of them in the capital, Vænholm. Glanodel's chief diplomatic official abroad and head of foreign relations is the Secretary of State, currently Lasse E. Mikkelsen who heads the executive branch officially responsible for foreign policies, the Department of State.

A large number of international institutions have their seats in Glanodel, in part because of its policy of neutrality. Glanodel is the birthplace of the Human Rights Group (Menneskerettighedsgruppe), the largest freedom of expression and speech advocacy group in the world, and the Universal Suffrage Group (Almindelig Valgret Gruppe), the largest political freedom and political inclusion advocacy group in the world; both of which are headquartered in Vænholm. Glanodel also hosts numerous International Assembly agencies and is currently under consideration for several Asuran Community agencies. Glanodel also hosts one of the Aeian Public Health Organization's headquarters. Many sport federations and organisations have offices located throughout the country, such as the Asuran Football Association and the International Ice Hockey Federation, both in Graylund, and the Winter Games Association in Vænholm. Glanodel also hosts the headquarters of the World Educational and Cultural Organization (WECO) which publishes reports on internationally recognized cultural events, sites, and structures.

Military

Main Article: Armed Forces of Glanodel

The Glanish Armed Forces numbers about 45,000 personnel, including civilian employees. According to current mobilization plans, full mobilization produces approximately 150,500 combatant personnel. Glanodel has conscription (including 6–12 months of training), including women as of 2002. The Armed Forces are subordinate to the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense (currently Emil S. Iversen). Glanodel's commander-in-chief is the President. The military of Glanodel is divided into the Navy, Air Force, Cyber Force, and the Home Guard. In military matters, however, the country has maintained a consistent policy of neutrality primarily in order to maintain trade opportunities. Glanodel has a relatively low national defense budget as a result of guaranteed independence from many members of the former Grand Alliance and a protectorate agreement between Glanodel and Newrey.

Law enforcement and crime

Glanish police officers carrying flowers to a memorial for fallen officers.

Law enforcement in Glanodel is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff's departments, with cantonal police providing broader services. The Graylund Police Department is the largest in the country. Federal agencies such as the Nationale Efterretningstjeneste, or NET, (Glanish National Intelligence Service, abbreviated DSIS) have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights, national security, and enforcing federal courts' rulings and federal laws. At the federal level and in almost every state, a legal system operates on a common law. Cantonal courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the cantonal criminal courts. Plea bargaining in Glanodel is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.

In 2015, there were 461 murders, a 3% decrease from the year prior. The murder rate in 2015 was 4.9 per 100,000 people. In 2001–2, Glanodel had above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of sexual assault compared to other developed nations. A cross-sectional analysis of the Aeian Public Health Organization from 2003 showed that Glanish "sexual assault rates were 6.9 times higher than rates in the other high-income countries." Gun ownership rights, which are still among the most relaxed in the developed world, is guaranteed by the Second Glanish Constitution and continues to be the subject of contentious political debate. From 1980 through 2008 males represented 54% of homicide victims and 73% of offenders. In 2012, Graylund had the highest crime rate in Glanodel, and Keledalr the lowest. The GNIS's Crime Reports estimates that there was a total of over 365,000 total crimes. While relatively low compared to global averages, Glanodel has one of the highest crime rates in Asura with most crimes committed related to theft or property damage. Glanodel has an incarceration rate of 78 per 100,000 residents and rehabilitation remains the primary focus of the Glanish prison system.

Capital punishment is officially sanctioned in Glanodel for exceptional federal and military crimes, but is expressly prohibited by the Constitution from being exercised by cantonal or lower courts. This being said, Glanodel has not performed an execution since 1967. This is mainly due to a Supreme Court decision in 1967 which ruled that, "only under exceptional circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed." As a result of this ruling, it became difficult for courts to impose executions. The last attempt made by a prosecution to impose the death penalty was in 1981.

Glanodel is a major transit and destination country for women and children from Arabekian, Asuran, Rennekkan, and Vestrim countries subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced prostitution. There was one report last year of a male teenager from Kavo rescued from the commercial sex trade in Glanodel. The government did not report any cases of forced labor during the reporting period, though the Glanish Anti-Trafficking Center highlighted that workers in domestic service, restaurants, hotels, factories, and agriculture, may be vulnerable to forced labor in Glanodel. There were unconfirmed reports of foreign children being forced to engage in organized street crime. The government released a report in 2010 about increasing evidence that “au pair” organizations could be used as front companies for human trafficking. The hundreds of unaccompanied foreign minors who arrive in Glanodel every year are particularly vulnerable to human trafficking.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Glanodel
Glanodel's central bank is officially referred to as the National Reserves Bank (or "the Reserve") and is headquartered in the Bank of Vænholm located in the nation's capital.

Glanodel has consistently ranked among the five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita and its economy is frequently ranked among the top ten in both stability and overall size compared with its relatively small population. Glanodel has an export-oriented developed mixed economy. Its currency is the Gilder (Glanish spelling: Gælder) (pronounced: gill-d-er) which is pegged at approximately 0.78 gilder to one USD and is derived from the Old Glanish term for "debt".

In terms of structure, the Glanish economy is characterized by a large service sector dominated by the financial, entertainment, insurance, and tourism industries, and a knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector. Copper and iron ore, hydropower, natural gas, petroleum, and timber constitute the resource base of the economy. Major primary and secondary industries include refined metals, paper and pulp products, petroleum products, and shipbuilding, as well as biotechnology, medical equipment, musical instruments, and pharmaceuticals. Glanodel's manufacturing sector accounts for 50% of output and exports, while exported services account for a third of exports, especially banking and insurance, entertainment, and tourism.

Labor protests in the streets of Graylund in 2014, organized in response to a local company attempting to export jobs.

As of 2012, the Glanish working population is just over 6 million and roughly half of all employed Glens belonged to a trade union. Glanodel has one of the highest ratios of tertiary degree holders in the world. The country ranks highly in workers' rights. GDP per hours worked was one of the highest as of 2013. Despite a market income inequality slightly above the Asuran average, Glanodel employs a very effective model of wealth redistribution which has led to one of the lowest wealth gaps in the world, evidenced by Glanodel's low Gini coefficient, and one of the world's highest minimum wages. While the government strictly enforces contractual obligations for employment, Glanodel does not have minimum wage legislation or legal requirements for vacation or parental leave. Thus, organized labor has played the biggest role in shaping wages, vacation time, and other benefits for Glanish employees. Additionally, no restrictions apply regarding overtime work, which allows companies to operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The level of unemployment benefits is dependent on former employment and at times also on membership of an unemployment fund, which is almost always administered by a trade union, and the previous payment of contributions. Glanodel is also considered to have one of the highest levels of social mobility in the world. Agriculture accounts for 2% of GDP and employment.

Compared to most Asuran nations, Glanodel has one of the lowest overall tax burdens and sports a predominantly private sector economy. Roughly 40% of the Glanish population own their homes, a relatively low percentage compared with most Asuran nations, with the majority of the population living in apartments, resulting in a high rate of internal migration. The federal budget had a size of 122.6 billion Glanish gælder in 2014, which is an equivalent 18.16% of the country's GDP in that year. This figure did not include regional budgets of cantons or the budgets of local municipalities. When included, total government spending is closer to 36.8% of GDP. The Glanish government's primary funding mechanisms are the value-added tax, a modest federal income tax, and corporate taxes, while its main expenditures are public education and universities, healthcare, and social welfare.

International Trade

Fish have been one of Glanodel's largest exports by quantity (though not by total value) since the 1700s.

Glanodel claims one of the highest numbers of multinational corporate headquarters in the world and benefits heavily from foreign investments, which its economy has grown increasingly dependent upon. The largest Glanish companies by revenue are the commodity trading companies of Altenergi, Bendixen, Ekstrakt, Glankraft, Glantrae, and Rentbrenn Glanodæl, as well as Avansvare (consumer electronics), Bio-Farma (pharmaceuticals, medical supplies), Hanson Group (music), Inspirekom (film), P&F Publishing (publishing), and Telekom (telecommunications). There are also other multinational companies such as Glanish Airlines (national airline), Graylund Insurance Group (insurance, and the Nørgaard Group musical instruments).

Globalization and free trade have retained strong support among the Glanish population since the mid-1900s. This is primarily due to the fact that most of the country's economic expansion since 1967 is the direct result of international trade and the opening of Glanish markets to foreign investors and consumers. Additionally, in contrast with its Lhedwinic neighbors, Glanodel does not engage in agricultural protectionist measures and as a result, has one of the lowest food prices among Lhedwin nations. While Glanodel is one of the smallest importers in the world by total amount and value of imports, Glanodel is one of the largest importers of goods as a percentage of GDP and the largest of Asuran nations.

Infrastructure and energy

Most metropolitan cities throughout Glanodel made considerable investments in public transportation and infrastructure between 2005 and 2008.

Glanodel's energy market is mostly privatized with some state ownership in key sectors like biofuel industries. In 2017, the nation's total electricity production reached 191.3 TWh, with petroleum and natural gas supplying the majority at 89.6 TWh. The second largest producer of electricity is hydropower which accounts for 17.3% (33 TWh). There is currently an ongoing effort by the government, as well as within many new commercial entities towards increased energy conservation, expanded use of green technologies, and the reduction of carbon emissions. Glanodel is also in the process of phasing out nuclear power plants from its energy grid. A process that is expected to be complete by 2025.

Glanodel has considerably large deposits of oil and natural gas along the coasts of Keledalr, Særmark, Fogilundr, and Ileinskali and is one of the largest net exporters of crude and refined oil and natural gas. Glanodel is also one of the top recyclers in the world, with 66-96% of recyclable materials being recycled, depending on the area of the country. Additionally, the country has for many years pursued a strategy of indirect taxation as an instrument of environmental policy, including energy taxes in general and carbon dioxide taxes in particular.

The Stavnsholt Igloo Resort in Eimivollr.

Transportation in Glanodel is highly influenced by its low population density, mountainous terrain, and long coastlines. While road, rail and air transport increased in importance at the turn of the 21th century, Glanodel's numerous and densely populated, coastal cities still maintain old water transport traditions. Due to the low population density, public transport is somewhat less developed in the rural areas of Glanodel, however public transportation in and around cities is fairly well developed.

Tourism

In 2016, Glanish tourism grossed between 4-8% of its economy. Glanodel's varied lanscape of mixed forests, fjords, labyrinths of lakes and inlets, rolling hills, and high snowcapped mountains, among numerous man-made attractions brought over 24 million visitors in 2012. Much of Glanodel is pristine and virgin as it contains 10 very large national parks as well as several smaller regional parks. It also has large, major urbanized regions with many cultural events and activities. Commercial cruises between major coastal and port cities play a significant role in the local tourism industry.

Glanodel is also a popular tourist destination due to its legalization of prostitution and its numerous and well known red-light districts, as well as the legalization of numerous recreational drugs, many of which are not legal in most countries such as several club drugs, ecstasy, LSD, and marijuana.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Glanodel

Following the 2017 National Census Report published on 20 January 2017 by the Census Bureau, the population of Glanodel is 10,039,373. This equated to a 5.38% growth rate for the country between the 2015 estimate and the 2017 census. Despite the country's relatively low, total fertility rate (0.96 children born per woman), the high growth rate appears to be sustained by very high immigration. Considered one of the youngest, developed countries, the median age of Glanodel is 29.8 years, with 0.97 males per female. The high percentage of younger citizens/permanent residents is mainly attributed to the fact that the average age of immigrants into Glanodel is between 17 and 31. The number of Down Syndrome children born in Glanodel is very low, with most DS pregnancies being aborted since 2005. Glanodel's population is frequently one of the happiest countries in the world. This has been attributed to the country's highly regarded education and health care systems, and its low level of income inequality.

Glanodel is the most diverse nation in Lhedwin and one of the most diverse in Asura with over half of its population having at least one immigrant parent. There are no official statistics on ethnic groups, but an estimated 71% of the population was of at least partial Glanish descent, defined as having at least one parent born in Glanodel and having Glanish citizenship. The remaining 29% were of a foreign background, defined as immigrants or descendants of recent immigrants (with or without citizenship). Of that 29%, most originated from other nations along the archipelago of Lhedwin (approximately 1,243,251), with Asuran nations are the second most common source of foreign born citizens (approximately 856,462). Of the 29% of Glanish residents who were of a foreign background, roughly 73% were foreign residents, or legal Glanish residents without citizenship. Accounting for around 21.2% of the total population, it is one of the largest proportions non-citizen residents in the developed world, most being from Asura.

As of 2014, immigration into Glanodel is mostly from other Lhedwinic nations and nations in Asura, with notable proportions from Rohstian and Terncan. A 2016 estimate indicated that roughly 48% of the Glanish population had one close ancestor (at least within three generations) of foreign descent. Of that 48%, the most common regions of origin were Lhedwinic at 19% of the total population and Asuran at 17%. Vrnallians (7.2% of the total population), Lhaeraidh (7.1%), and Newreyans (5.9%) make the largest single portions of the population.

A poster used by the Liberal People's Party during the 2016 Presidential Campaign movement "Glanish Diversity".

As opposed to most developed nations of the time, there was a net stagnation in Glanodel's population during the 19th century as a sharp rise in the birth rate due to industrialization was negated by high emigration from Glanodel as many Glanish refugees fled Lhedwinic rule. Beginning in the 1920s and continuing until around the 1980s, Glanodel experiences several population booms due to a wide variety of factors such as re-industrialization, new technologies in life sciences and healthcare, and high levels of immigration.

In 1929, the anthropologist Ögge Edström conducted a study on racial ethnicities around the world, later known as the "Racene i Nord" ("The Races of the North"). Rooted in racial separatism and racial purity, this study has been a popular cornerstone of Glanodel's Nationalist Party (Rødulve), as well as many other far-right populist movements in Asuran nations. While most of its findings have been largely disregarded among social scientists today, many evolutionary biologists and geneticists still use some of its findings to further modern understanding of human evolution. Additionally, the study's findings align with traits commonly associated with the "Glanish ethnicity". Among the physical traits which can be traced back to the first settlers of Glanodel are light-colored hair, light-colored eyes, fair skin, long and narrow skulls, and tall stature. One common trait among many natives which is even referred to at times as "Glanish hair" because of how common platinum blonde hair is among Glanish people. In fact, the belief that most of the Glanish people have very light blonde hair is not entirely false considering roughly 56% of the population has very light blonde hair, around 20% have hair that is almost white. The second most common hair color being red or auburn. Freckles are also a very common trait among the native population.

Metropolitan Areas

Largest cities in Glanodel

Graylund
Graylund
Broskov
Broskov

Rank Core City Canton Urban Population Municipal Population

Ellesø
Ellesø
Vænholm
Vænholm

1 Graylund Østbjorth 461,570 738,512
2 Ellesø Særland 433,814 694,102
3 Vænholm Sørland 410,495 656,792
4 Broskov Særland 372,060 595,296
5 Sognberg Østbjorth 361,664 542,496
6 Sortvinger Sørland 358,757 609,886
7 Dover Hafland 263,698 556,437
8 Brosta Sørland 256,536 436,111
9 Søgfoss Østbjorth 253,975 431,757
10 Borsholm Villradäl 249,297 573,383
11 Öreberg Hafland 157,758 205,085
12 Filholm Siwald 153,656 199,752
13 Bilstrup Villradäl 97,553 117,063
14 Helsingvik Hafland 92,974 130,163
14 Bustadmon Fogilundr 89,772 98,749
Source: Statistics Glanodel (2015; Municipal data: 2014)

Language

Lhedwinic is the de facto national language of Glanodel, with the lexicon and grammar of the Glanish dialect being the educational standard. Lhaeraidh, Newreyan, Vrnallian, Nausikaan, and Oser are all recognized minority languages throughout the country. Lhedwinic belongs to the group of languages which encompass much of Northern Asura that share a common ancestor, usually referred to as simply Northern tongues. The languages of Lhedwin, with the exception of Vrnallia, are so closely related that it is possible for Glanish, Nausikaan, and Taeverlandic speakers to understand each other with relatively little effort. Lhedwinic Sign Language was officially recognized as a minority language in 2011. In education, its use for Glanodel's deaf community is regulated by the National Curriculum Guide.

A large majority (86%) of Glanodel speaks at least a second language; however, three languages is fairly common. Secondary languages vary by region and the foreign nations with which they most frequency trade. Current estimates of the most commonly spoken, second languages in Glanodel are Common Iscandrian, Lhaeraidh, Midrasian, Newreyan, Oser, Terncan, and Vrnallian.

Religion

A line graph generated by the Glanish Census Bureau to illustrate the decline of religious Glanish citizens since 1960.

In January 2016, 10.6% of the population of Glanodel were members of Trúathist church, making it the largest religious group in the country, while 9.1% of the population are members of members of an Aptaran church. Alydianism, mostly among Newrey-Glanish population, also has a sizeable following as of 2012.

Trúathi was officially adopted as the state religion in the 9th century and remained the officially recognized religion of Glanodel until the 17th century. In 1668, however, Luhenye Aptar was officially adopted as the state religion of Glanodel as part of the Glanish Vassalage Act. This remained the state religion until Lhedwinic rule was abolished and Glanodel regained independence at the end of the Great War. While efforts were made by both major religious, political parties to reinstate some nationally recognized religion, it was decided on 5 March 1900 that the Second Glanish Constitution would include the complete separation of church and state and local governments would be prohibited from officially recognizing religious institutions or passing laws regarding the infringement of the free expression of religious beliefs. Originally serving as a Trúathist place of worship, and later as an Aptaran church, the Cathedral of Vænholm located on the property of Herregård, has since served as a multidenominational place of worship and is often used for the weddings and funerals of public officials and occasionally foreign dignitaries and the public.

According to a 2012 survey conducted by the Census Bureau, 24% of Glanish citizens said that they "believe there is a God", 43% say that they "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 33% say that they "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".

Education

The first building of Stibanken University opened in 1602 and is one of the most highly sought after colleges in the world.

The Glanish education system provides access to primary, secondary, and higher education. All public college education in Glanodel is free of charge; there are no tuition fees to enroll in courses. Primary school is known as the folkeskole. Attendance at pre-school is not compulsory, but all Glanish children are required to go to primary school for 10 years, from the age of 6 to 16. There are no final exams, but pupils in primary schools can choose to go to a test when finishing ninth grade. The test is obligatory if further education is to be attended. Pupils can alternatively attend a private independent school (friskole), or a private school (privatskole) – schools that are not under the administration of the municipalities, such as religious schools. Those who do can opt out of free public education and instead, receive vouchers for private education, a benefit which is also available for those who opt out of free public college education.

Education in Glanodel is overseen by the Department of Education. Following graduation from primary school, all Glanish youth are required to attend the National Service Academy from the age of 16 to 18. The institute is a military academy. Its mission is "to give all Glanish youths a basic set of survival skills which will equip the upcoming generation with the means to protect, feed, clothe, and shelter themselves in almost any circumstance". While this training is now optional as of 2011, only 2% of all students in Glanodel have opted out of the program. Additionally, around 85% of all of those who opt out chose to participate in the adult version of this training which is offered within 5 years of graduating secondary school.

For secondary school, Glanodel provides many opportunities to its citizens. The Gymnasium (STX) attaches importance in teaching a mix of humanities and science, Higher Technical Examination Programme (HTX) focuses on scientific subjects and the Higher Commercial Examination Programme emphasizes on subjects in economics. Higher Preparatory Examination (HF) is similar to Gymnasium (STX), but is one year shorter. For specific professions, there is vocational education, training young people for work in specific trades by a combination of teaching and apprenticeship. It is a government priority to keep the attendance in secondary schools high, with 98% of youths since 2012 graduating from secondary school, at least. Glanish universities and other higher education institutions offer international students a range of opportunities for obtaining an internationally recognised qualification in Glanodel. Many programmes may be taught in the English language, the academic lingua franca, in bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, Ph.D.s and student exchange programmes.

Health

As of 2015, the Glanish biotechnology corporation, Bio-Farma is a world leading innovator in cybernetic, artificial limbs.

Glanodel employs a combination of both single-payer healthcare and private insurance whereby the majority of major operations, treatments for major illnesses, and medical expenses resulting from pregnancy, as well as most expenses resulting from long term, continued care for chronic diseases and other medical expenses considered particularly burdensome financially are all covered by a universal healthcare system which is financed primarily through taxes levied by cantonal governments. Additionally, nearly all medical expenses in general are covered by under the single-payer system until the age of 17.

Private insurance is then used to supplement the costs of regular, preventative care (i.e. regular doctors visits, minor dental procedures, optometry, and ophthalmology), for individuals over the age of 16, and is most commonly paid for as part of an employee benefits package, though individual plans are purchased by some citizens. Citizens can also opt out of the public healthcare program and purchase full coverage through a private provider, receiving a tax deduction each year as "compensation" for not benefiting from the program. Around 18% of the Glanish population has completely private health insurance.

The nation's healthcare system is organized and managed on three levels: federal, cantonal, and municipal. At the national level, the Department of Health and Social Welfare establishes principles and guidelines for care and sets the political agenda for health and medical care. The Department along with other government bodies supervises activities at the lower levels, allocates grants and periodically evaluates services to ensure correspondence to national goals. Responsibilities for managing the delivery and primary mechanism for funding are decentralized to the cantonal governments. Municipalities are primarily responsible for the management of government-owned or -subsidized hospitals.

Glanish citizens are among the world's healthiest and physically active people, with 81% considered "in good health". Although it is a growing problem, obesity is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. Glanodel has many campaigns for health and well-being, and outdoor activities and local sports are commonplace. Infant mortality is one of the lowest in the world, and the proportion of the population that smokes is lower than the Asuran average. Almost all women choose to terminate pregnancies of children with Down Syndrome in Glanodel. As of 2012, Glanodel has a life expectancy of 81 years at birth (79 for men, 83 for women), up from 75 years in 1990. Since the 1900s improvements in public health occurred as a result of development in several areas such as social and living conditions, changes in disease and medical outbreaks, establishment of the health care system and emphasis on public health matters. Vaccination and increased treatment opportunities with antibiotics resulted in great improvements within the Glanish population. Improved hygiene and better nutrition were factors that contributed to improved health. The biggest health concerns for Glanodel as of 2014 are drug abuse, alcoholism, and alcohol-related traffic accidents, collectively amounting to half of all years of life lost.

Additionally, Glanodel has a very low level of pollution, thanks to an overwhelming reliance on cleaner hydroelectric energy, a low population density, and a high level of environmental consciousness among citizens. The amount of toxic material in the atmosphere is far lower than most industrialized countries.

Glanodel is a major developer of medical equipment and pharmaceuticals. Bio-Farma is currently the largest corporation in Glanodel involved in medical research. In recent years, Bio-Farma has made numerous innovations in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. The Brondum Group is the second largest medical research company in Glanodel and is the dominant innovator of medical equipment technology, producing supplies for countries around the world.

Culture

Frihedsstatuen (Statue of Liberty) is perhaps one of the most recognizable symbols of Glanodel and its support for the emphasis of personal liberties.

There are two major events attributed with having the greatest impact on contemporary Glanish culture. The first event was the end of Lhedwinic rule in Glanodel at the start of the 20th century. This newfound sovereignty, as well as a newly elected, liberal democratic government inspired a strong romantic nationalist movement centering around the reclamation of a national identity separate from a Duchy of the Lhedwinic United Kingdom. This movement is still visible in the country's literature, music, and media. The second was the sharp spikes in immigration and tourism which began in the mid-20th century and plateaued at roughly 24.8 million visitors total in 2010. This widespread exposure to foreign cultures and an ever-growing, ever-diversifying population has led to a broad national identity centering more around acceptance, cooperation, and pride in diversity.

Liberalism, especially freedom of expression and speech, as well as a prevalent aversion to the notions of social engineering, or the efforts of others to shape the social behaviors and morality of the society or population as a whole, are perhaps two of the most defining characteristics of Glanish culture. Egalitarianism, social tolerance, and strong cultural and historic ties to its Lhedwinic neighbors, such as Navack, Cyrlante, and Nausikaa are also key aspects of Glanish life. An emphasis on individualism and some Template:Social Darwinism principles are also visible aspects of Glanish culture.

Since the mid-20th century, Glanodel has been considered a "cultural superpower" and numerous, international magazines oriented towards travel have dubbed Glanodel the birther and center of a "Modern Renaissance". As a result of strong government and private support for exhibitions, cultural projects, and artwork, as well as sweeping popular support for the arts, and the Glanish entertainment industry (the largest entertainment industry in the world), Glanodel is known around the world for its cultural products such as literature, music, movies, television, and to a lesser extent, its electronics and related media, which are the most widely distributed cultural exports in the world.

Human rights

The first female President of Glanodel, Margrete Thrane, elected in 1930 and reelected in 1936.

Glanodel has historically been one of the most socially liberal countries in the world and social policies (laws aimed at shaping public moral and behavioral norms) have never received much support from the Glanish public. Thus, legislation and policies adopted to protect or grant rights to groups such as women, minorities, and LGBT citizens were seen as redundant for many years due to the fact that the rights of these individuals were never legally abridged.

Prior to Lhedwinic rule in Glanodel, the First Glanish Constitution was amended in 1224 to grant absolute primogeniture to the Glanish throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, took precedence in the line of succession. In 1930, the sixth President of Glanodel was the first female President, and one of the first, elected, national female leaders in the world.

Glanodel has been known throughout much of modern history as one of the most "gay-friendly" places in the world. While never being illegal in Glanodel, same-sex sexual activity was guaranteed protection under freedom of expression by a unanimous Supreme Court decision in 1933. Since 1977, the age of consent is 15, regardless of sexual orientation or gender. The largest LGBT rights organization in Glanodel is the LSK (Landsforeningen for seksuelle og kønsminoriteter; National Organization for Sexual and Gender Minorities) and since its founding in 1948, has been the primary proponent of LGBT rights in the country. Same-sex marriage has been legal in all 13 cantons since 1962 when the national Supreme Court ruled in LSK v. Særland that any government's refusal to grant the basic legal and financial institution of marriage to any, two, consenting adults is in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the 2nd Article of the Constitution, making the nation the first to guarantee same-sex marriage. The rights of same-sex couples to jointly adopt has been guaranteed since the Supreme Court decision in the 1998 case LSK v. OGV. While gays and lesbians have always been allowed to serve openly in the military, since the 1933 Supreme Court decision, their right to do so has been guaranteed constitutionally. Public displays of affection between people of the same sex are very unlikely to provoke ire or even be acknowledged by passersby. Lesbians wishing to have access to artificial insemination do not provoke the sort of scandals that can occur in other societies.

A photograph of a Glanish (left) and a Newreyan soldier, taken in 1900 two days after the official end of the Great War.

Glanodel's largest city, Graylund is one of the most popular destinations in the world for LGBT travelers. The main gay and lesbian festival of the year is Graylund Pride, a large, carnival-like bash that occurs on a Saturday in early August. There's also the Graylund Gay & Lesbian Film Festival, held each year in October. In addition, Graylund has been host to numerous "Out Conferences" which are regular gatherings of international LGBT rights organizations.

Glanodel has also been one of the strongest promoters of human rights internationally and has hosted annual Freedom Forums in Vænholm for the last two decades. Glanodel was also one of the first nations to legalize abortion, prostitution, and recreational drug use. In fact, many of the controlled substances that are legal for recreational use are still not legal in many countries, such as several club drugs, ecstasy, LSD, and marijuana.

A noteworthy exception to the generally left-leaning politics of Glanodel was the Supreme Court's Glaseret v. LSK ruling in 1974 which stated that, "while federal and cantonal agencies are bound by the Constitution to serve all citizens equally without discrimination, the government does not have the authority to compel private organizations to do the same. Thus, any private, or partially private companies reserve the right to refuse service and employment on any grounds they see fit." This being said, most public polls indicate that it is very rare (almost nonexistent) for a private company based in Glanodel to refuse employment for any reason other than a lack of credentials or refuse service for any reason. Additionally, most companies, in cooperation with unions, have a company mandated anti-discrimination policy.

Originally seen as a sub-culture to the dominant Glanish culture of the region, the Olre people were the subject of discrimination and abuse for many centuries, especially during the rule of the United Kingdom of Lhedwin throughout the 18th and 19th century. When Glanodel gained independence from Lhedwin at the start of the 20th century, the new liberal government enacted policies officially recognizing and protecting the Olre people. This being said, Glanodel has been greatly criticized by some of the international community for its efforts in recent history to exploit the Olre people for tourism and for continual encroachment upon traditionally Olre lands.

Music

A performance of the popular band Ravn, accompanied by an musical ensemble. Ravn is one of the most popular big band groups from Glanodel.

Music from Glanodel is arguably the most widely recognizable, enjoying global distribution. Glanodel also has one of the most diverse musical cultures in the world, primarily due to influences from its immigrant population. The most commonly identified genres which originate from Glanodel are: big band and cabaret, classical, club or dance music, folk and country, heavy metal, and rock.

Perhaps what Glanodel is most well known for, Glanish big band and cabaret music are well defined genres. Often featured prominently in popular tourist destinations as live musical entertainment and the most widely sold musical styles from Glanodel, big band music receives the most attention while cabaret, especially burlesque, is a popular style for tourists of the Glanish night life. Glanish big band music typically consists of approximately 12 to 25 musicians and contains saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section, along with vocal performances by solo artists or multiple singers. These shows have become extremely popular for Asuran tourists and concerts occur frequently throughout Glanish performance venues. Cabaret shows in Glanodel are typically night time shows featuring music, song, dance, recitation, and/or drama. First becaming popular in the 1920s, Glanish cabaret has evolved to feature ribald comedy (lewd jokes) and striptease (even male striptease as of the late 1970s), and are usually sponsored in late night dining and drinking establishments.

Lead singer Búi Leifsson of the band Sund, one of the most widely recognized folk music bands from Glanodel.

Country and folk music are perhaps one of the more unique styles of music to emerge from Glanodel. These musical styles often consist of ballads and dance tunes, among others, with generally simple forms and harmonies accompanied by mostly string instruments such as electric and acoustic guitars, dobros, fiddles (violin), and banjos (a four- or five-stringed instrument with a thin membrane stretched over a frame or cavity as a resonator adapted from a Kavoene instrument), as well as harmonicas. Originating mostly from rural, agrarian communities in Glanodel with strong, Newreyan influences, country songs often focus on the struggles of the working class, religion, nationalism, and conservatism and typically emphasize the virtues of life in a small, rural community rather than densely populated, urban cities.

Metal, rock, and club music from Glanodel are among the most popular musical styles within the younger generations of Glanodel and are the most popular within the night life in Glanodel. Ubiquitous, featured performances throughout Glanodel's pubs and live street performances in popular, public venues and in fairs are the most common examples of Glanish, rock and metal musical expressions. Club music, or dance music as it's less commonly known, is also popular within Glanish night life and includes a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals. An adaptation within the rock genre, emo is also a popular style of rock music from Glanodel characterized by more expressive, often confessional, lyrics and is known for frequently addressing social and mental health issues like depression, self-harm, and suicide.

Glanish orchestras are among the most well known in the world, such as this orchestra hall in Graylund known as Graylundhal.

Classical music also received widespread engagement from the Glanish population and the Royal Glanish Orchestra, reinstated in 1903, is among the world's oldest orchestras. Glanodel's most famous classical composer is William Bergius, especially remembered for a group of nine symphonies called Symphonic Harmony. Ganish people have distinguished themselves as classical musicians, and the Matine Classical Festival has acquired an international reputation. Glanodel has more opera companies than many nations, with the Vollrat Richardsson Company being the most well known and performing in opera houses around the world.

Glanodel's music industry is the largest and most lucrative in the world, with many of of the world's largest recording companies originating from and still headquartered in Glanodel. The Hanson Group is the largest musical entertainment company in Glanodel and the world and has recording studios around the world and recording artists from across the globe. Another notable feature of Glanish musical entertainment is the recent revival of the vinyl record, which was re-popularized by the Hanson Group in 2012 and has steadily scene its production rise since 2013.

Media

Sten Bentsen is one of the most widely recognized news anchors from Glanodel. He anchors Sidste Nyt (Today's News) which is a nationally and internationally broadcast news network within the NDN company.

The two major broadcasters in Glanodel are the NDN (National Daglige Nyt; National Daily News), which is state-sponsored, and InfoCen Grupp, which is completely commercial and privately run. The major broadcast television networks are all commercial entities. Cable television in Glanodel offers hundreds of channels catering to a variety of niches. Glanish citizens listen to radio programming, also largely commercial, on average just over three-and-a-half hours a day.

While handwritten fly sheets reporting on the news had been used in Glanish cities since the 1540s, "mass media" in Glanodel arose in the early to mid-1700s. As more commoners took seats in Congress, a large construction project of numerous printing presses throughout Glanodel's major cities began in 1746. With an increasingly wealthy middle class, many private citizens began constructing their own printing presses and by the 1820s, local publishing companies began to form throughout many of the cities in Glanodel. However, most free press was suppressed by the Lhedwinic government between 1840 and 1870, and most printing shops were demolished to provide resources to the war effort during the Great War. Then, in 1918, Theodor Rosenquist, the "father of Glanish journalism", began a state paper after receiving a loan from the government during the reconstruction efforts projects, and modernization brought in new features and mechanical techniques. By 1920, the first liberal, factual newspapers reappeared. The total circulation was 500,000 daily by 1921, more than doubling to 1.2 million in 1925. Although most newspapers in Glanodel have turned to electronic distribution in lieu of printed media, Glanodel remains one of the largest consumers of printed media in the world.

Glanish news programming is primarily composed of hundreds of small local broadcasting companies, with a few commercially ran, news companies which broadcast nation wide, as well as the large news division produced by NDN. Public support for strict regulations on the nature of funding for privately-run news broadcasting resulted in legislation in 2003 which gave legal definition to news companies and have thus prevented large news conglomerates such as those common in many other countries. In 1999, state-sponsored television broadcasting lost its monopoly on cable providers and as of 2014, only 5% of the population is not connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Glanodel also started in 1999 and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in 2007.

Cinema and television

Bor i Synd ("Living in Sin"), a show centering around gay, lesbian, and transgender teens engaged in the night life of Graylund.

Glanodel's postwar re-industrialization also saw the emergence of modern Glanish cinema. The first Glanish cinema company, the Ottesen Filmography Company, was founded in 1910 by the inventor of the first motion camera, Stig Ottesen. The company's second owner, Nicklas Birch, innovated the first commercial uses for sound film. The reemergence of patronage is primarily attributed with the success of the early Glanish entertainment industry and Glanish cinema is no exception. The establishment of the Glanish Film Institute in the 1960s was the initial catalyst that spawned the emergence of modern Glanish cinema. In 1962, Ottesen Filmography was renamed Ottesen Studios after the construction of a massive filming studio was completed in the city of Blåby in south Østbjorth. At the same time, paperwork establishing Ottesen Studios as a subsidiary of the Glanish, multinational, entertainment company, Inspirekom. In 1967, Axel Pictures and Philms Motion Pictures merged to form Axel Films, becoming the second largest film studio in Glanodel, and one of the largest in the world.

Since the 1980s Glanodel's cinematic industries have maintained a steady stream of product and has become the most widely distributed cinema in the world. Today, Glanish cinema is dominated by the products of Inspirekom, Axel, and Imaginary Productions which emerged in the 1990s. There have been three big internationally important waves of Glanish cinema: the patriotic, historical films of the 1920s which centered around retellings of the Rauthmál and focused on "reclaiming Glanish nationalism"; the Ottesen Studios films of the 1960s and 1970s centering around the science fiction and steampunk genres; and lastly, the "low-production movement of the late 1990s, pioneered by the Imaginary Productions filming company where hand-held cameras were used to dynamic effect in a conscious reaction against big-budget studios. The widely known director, producer, and screenwriter Sone Hellberg is generally attributed with starting this movement. He was also the founder of Imaginary Productions and is still its primary shareholder and CEO. He has received most credit for pioneering techniques which helped create the "found-footage" genre. Glanish films have been noted for their realism, moral themes, sexual frankness and technical and graphic innovations, despite having intentionally low-budget productions. Glanish films are popular world-wide, especially throughout Asura. Glanodel's numerous filming companies also have filming studios around the world and one of Glanish cinema's advantages over many other countries is that movies, television, and other entertainment goods are regularly produced in other languages. This is made possible because of the fact that most Glanish residents speak more than one language.

Literature

A copy of one of the pages in the Thu'um.

Glanish literature dates back to the early 5th century with the establishment of the Addindirin cult and its leader, Addindir's final work, the Thu'um ("The Voice"), which was later used as the basis for the standardization of the Lhedwinic language in the 16th century. Education also saw extensive improvements and expansion in the late 16th century and with the popularization of secular ideals in the 17th century, this period saw several notable, Glanish authors further develop the Lhedwinic language. It was also around this period that Glanodel's reputation of skilled authors and poets began with writers such as the political theorist and satirist Albin Ohly. Being the author of both Hjärtat av en nation ("The Heart of a Nation") and Staten och Folk ("The State and the People"), Ohly is generally associated with his political activism during the early 16th century. However, many authors and historians today consider him to be responsible for originating the subjects and themes commonly associated with one of the two prominent genres in Glanish literature, social satire.

Since the start of the 1900s, however, literature and publishing have become even more important and widely recognized as a significant part of modern Glanish culture. Perhaps the most famous writer in Glanish history is Edith Lundstrom (1910-81), the author of the most famous series of books to come from Glanodel, the Battle of the Five Kings. Written between 1937 and 1949, Lundstrom took heavy inspiration from Glanish history during the Rauthmál and Glanish myths and legends, as well as tales from old Trúathist traditions. The series of four books is attributed with starting the fantasy genre and is still one of the best selling book series in history. Today, book publishing is one of the seven major industries of Glanodel and one of its main cultural exports.

Architecture

A residence used by the President of Glanodel located in Graylund known as Olesengodser (Olesen Estates).

Glanish architecture was established around the 16th century during the Glanish Renaissance as a burgeoning upper, commoner class could afford to hire their own architects, a privilege originally reserved for the wealthy nobility. Prior to that, wooden houses were the most commonly used forms of architecture until the end of the 15th century when a slow transition began focusing on half-timbered properties, structures using heavy squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs (larger versions of the mortise and tenon joints in furniture). This form of architecture was actually so durable and effective that many of the structures from the late 1500s and early 1600s are still standing and in use, though with some modernization such as being outfitted with electrical wiring.

Starting in the 17th century, symmetry and regularity became primary concerns of most architects, often enhanced by a projecting central section on the main façade. This remained the focus of most building endeavors in Glanodel until in the 1800s when a style of architecture known as historicism appeared. With the arrival of Historicism, special importance was attached to high standards of craftsmanship and proper use of materials. Historicism remained the primary style used throughout the country from the later half of the 19th century until the the early 21st century. Many of Glanodel's oldest public buildings are good examples of the historicist style such as the buildings in Herregård.

Cuisine

Glanodel enjoys a very diverse food culture with cooking traditions influenced by food cultures throughout Asura since the 12th century, and several new traditions being imported from around the globe since the mid-20th century.

Like that of the other arctic countries, Glanish cuisine was traditionally simple. Fish (particularly herring), meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Spices were sparse. Famous preparations include Glanish meatballs, traditionally served with gravy, boiled potatoes and lingonberry jam; pancakes; lutfisk; and the smörgåsbord, or lavish buffet. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage, and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance. Glanodel is known for enjoying an open-minded drinking culture. Buying alcohol is legal in shops at the age of 16, and in bars at 18. There is no minimum drinking age. However, teens are traditionally allowed to begin drinking as 13- to 14-year-olds. The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming (a fermented fish) in northern Glanodel and eel in southern Glanodel. Glanish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, others perhaps a century or less, are still a very important part of Glanish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Glanish cuisine adopts many international dishes. In August, at the traditional feast known as crayfish party, kräftskiva, GLanish people eat large amounts of crayfish boiled with dill.

However, since the end of the Great War, and especially since the rise in immigration and tourism since the late 60s and early 70s, Glanish foods have greatly diversified, mostly made possible with the rise of free trade and importation of foreign ingredients. Restaurants with food traditions traced back to nations across Asura are very common, and dining establishments with food traditions from Ternca, Cheonsam, Den Helder, and Rosht are becoming increasingly common as of 2010.

Sports

A photograph taken in 2014 of the winners of the national hockey championship game, the Broskov's Killer Whales.

Sports are very popular in Glanodel. Local, community teams are a regular occurrence in most towns and local sporting events are sponsored by local businesses through snack bars and advertisements and are held in stadiums and fields maintained by local sponsors, subsidized by the local government. The two main spectator sports are rugby and ice hockey. Thereafter, football, golf, track and field, and the team sports of basketball and bandy are the most popular.

Since the 14th century, Skanderborg, Sørland has become a center for sports culture in Glanodel. It currently houses the largest ice hockey stadium in Glanodel, the Hure Stadium. Sports have been popular in Glanodel since the 1980s with a decision made by the Department of Education to fund a nationwide effort to encourage more physical activity among Glanish youths. This resulted in numerous sports leagues forming across the nation in the 1990s as star athletes began to graduate from primary school and large companies saw the opportunity to promote their products through sponsoring teams and sporting events. Rugby became the dominant sport in 2001 when the Glanish National Hockey League was formed, and within the first two years it managed a profit of over $25 billion. This explosion in popularity resulted in more funding for the GNHL which was directed into the expansion of the organization. Now the GNHL has offices and stadiums in most major cities. In recent years, Glanodel has won numerous international tournaments and rugby is currently the national sport. Glanodel's numerous beaches and resorts are popular locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking and a broad-range of other water-themed sports.

The Glanish national men and women's ice hockey teams, known as Hvide Ulve (White Wolves), is regarded as one of the best in the world. The team has won the World Championships several times, placing them among the top five of highest, all-time medal count. Hvide Ulve also came in first place in and won the most medals in in the 2016 Winter Games. In 2006, Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year. The Glanish national rugby team is the most successful international rugby team, holding the record for the most consecutive international championships and currently has more Rugby World Cups than any other nations. The Glanish national football league (Glankse Landesliga, or Telekom Landesliga) is also fairly successful, though not receiving as much popular support as ice hockey or rugby. The top Glanish football teams are the Bjergsted IK (#4), F.C. Særland (#2), Skanderborg Spækhuggere AC (#3), and F.C. Sørland (#1).

Other big sports events include several championships of curling, athletics, skiing, bandy, figure skating, and swimming. Other popular sports include golf, mostly popular among the older demographic; tennis, in which Glanodel is successful on a professional level; and indoor sports such as badminton and various forms of gymnastics.

Hygge

Similar to other Lhedwinic cultures, a fundamental aspect of Glanish culture is hygge. Hygge, meaning "snug", is a concept that evokes "coziness", particularly when relaxing with good friends or loved ones and while enjoying good food. Yule, when loved ones sit close together on a cold, snowy night, is a true moment of hygge, as is grilling a pølse (Glanish sausage) and drinking a beer on a long summer evening. It is suspected the concept of Hygge is part of the reason Glanish people score high on happiness and while this traditional aspect of Glanish society has slightly diminished in importance over the last decade, state-sponsored efforts to encourage this notion have successfully maintained a desire for it. This government program, known as Holde os Hygge (Keep us Cozy), is one of the only social policies intended to influence the social behaviors of Glanish citizens that the country has ever enacted.

Yule

Artists depiction of a Yuleaften family gathering.

Possibly the most widely known and oldest holiday of Glanish society is Yule (Glanish: Jul), from the Old Dov jól for "midwinter". Midwinter celebrations have been an important part of even the earliest Dovish cultures and over time, the term became specific to this celebration by the mid-16th century after Trúathist leaders pronounced it an official holiday. While the day of Yule is often seen as the main day of celebration and festivities, in Glanodel, the most important day of the holiday season is Yule Eve, the day before Yule, (Glanish: Juleaften) when families come together, usually in the evening, when a traditional dinner is served. The next morning can be spent in various ways but most often it is the time when preparations are made for the evening.

The menu is usually white and browned potatoes, red cabbage and brown sauce (gravy) accompanying either roast duck or goose depending on the size of the family. "White potatoes" are ordinary boiled potatoes without their jackets and "browned potatoes" are caramelised white potatoes. Some families enjoy a special Glanish version of roast pork, called flæskesteg complete with crackling or maybe a special sausage called medisterpølse. For dessert, ris à l'amande is served, a name that suggests a foreign origin – but it is Glanish. Sometimes it is confused with rice pudding, since they share the main ingredient (rice). However, the second main ingredient stands out, and that's whipped cream. Ris à l'amande needs to be prepared a day in advance, and then on serving, chopped almond and vanilla can be added, among other things. It is served cold, with hot cherry sauce. An unchopped almond can also be added and hidden in the dessert. The person who finds it in his portion receives a small prize. Afterwards, the candles on the Yule tree are lit and the family dances around it singing songs and carols and subsequently exchange presents.

While this season has become somewhat commercialized within the past few decades, it does not appear to have diminished public sentiments towards the holiday itself. Yule has also become a very popular time of year for winter tourists who take advantage of holiday sales that most businesses have during this time.