Estland

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Auspicious Realms of the Crown of St. Kára
ᚼᛁᛚᛅᚠᛅᚾᛚᛁᚴ ᚱᛁᚴᛁᚦᛁᚱ ᛅᚠ ᚴᚱᚬᚾᚢᚱ ᛋᛅᚾᚴᛏᛁ ᚴᚬᚱᛅ
Heylavænleg Ríkiðir af Kránur Sankti Kára
Flag
Anthem: ᚬ ᚴᚢᚦ ᚠᛅᚱᛋ ᛚᛅᚾᛏᛁᚱ
Ó, Guð vors Landir
En:O, God of our lands
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Location of Estland on Bergora.
CapitalSaint Traisjaburg
Largest Krisuvik
Official languages Varangian
Ethnic groups (2010) No official figures
Demonym Estlandic
Estlander
Government Unitary Enlightened Monarchy
 -  Empress Anastasia IV
 -  Elder Thegn Herá Vebjørnsdotta
 -  Lawspeaker of the Fólkamat Torwí Álfarinsson
Legislature Stóraðung
 -  Upper house Hóramát
 -  Lower house Fólkamát
Formation
 -  Settlement c. 700 
 -  Jarldom c. 771 
 -  Kingdom 18 August, 1024 
 -  Empire 22 December, 1681 
Area
 -  9,807,792 km2
Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ",". sq mi
Population
 -  2016 estimate 1,576,000,000
 -  2010 census 1,481,061,270
 -  Density 160.69/km2
416.2/sq mi
GDP (PPP) estimate
 -  Total $36.119 trillion
 -  Per capita $22,918.19
GDP (nominal) estimate
 -  Total $34.600 trillion
 -  Per capita $21,954.57
Gini (2016)negative increase 24.8
low
HDI (2016).817
very high
Currency Kránur (₭/ESC)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +9
ISO 3166 code ES
Internet TLD .es

Estland (/ɛstlənd/ est-lənd; Varangian: ᛁᛋᛏᛚᛅᚾᛏ tr. Estland), officially the Auspicious Realms of the Crown of Saint Kára (Varangian: ᚼᛁᛚᛅᚠᛅᚾᛚᛁᚴ ᚱᛁᚴᛁᚦᛁᚱ ᛅᚠ ᚴᚱᚬᚾᚢᚱ ᛋᛅᚾᚴᛏᛁ ᚴᚬᚱᛅ tr. Heylavænleg Ríkiðir af Krónur Sankti Kára) and colloquially known simply as the Estlandic Realm (Varangian: ᛁᛋᛏᛁᚱᛁᚴᛁᚦ tr. Estíríkið) is a nation located within Greater Dienstad. The capital of the nation is Saint Traisjaburg and the largest city is Krisuvik.

The Estlandic government is a unitary enlightened monarchy functioning with a religious democracy with elements of direct democracy. The nation functions under a three-branched government, consisting of an executive, a legislative, and a judicial branch. Formed in 837 CE, the non-partisan, bicameral Stóraðung is the nation's legislature. It is split into the 80-member Hóramát, consisting of forty members of nobility and forty clergywomen, and the 300-member, non-partisan Fólkamát. Legally, the monarch serves as the head of both houses. The executive branch is controlled by ruling monarch, who has the ultimate say on all political matters in the nation. The monarch is assisted in this endeavour by a cabinet headed by the Elder Thegn, the civilian head of the Stóraðungr. The ruling Empress is Anastasia IV and the current Elder Thegn is Herá Vebjørnsdotta.

The islands of Estland have been settled by proto-Baltic and Finnic peoples since the 9th century BCE. Norse settlement of the archipelago began in the early 8th century CE. During the seventy-year colonisation, the Norse settlers, called Varangians, established petty kingdoms throughout the isles. Minor conflict with the indigenous peoples resulted in their assimilation with the Varangian colonists and the subsequent cultural genocide of aboriginal groups. In 771, Varangian chieftain Alrik Válgardsson founded the city of Krisuvik, subsequently founding the Jarldom of Krisuvik and is considered to be the first modern-day Estlandic state.

Political tensions in the 830s led to the creation of the Stóraðungr, one of the world's oldest parliaments, as a legislative and judicial assembly. Degradation of the Stóraðung's influence saw the annexation of outlying petty kingdoms by Krisuvik. From 1008-1024, a series of Wars of Unification were undertaken by Jarl Toland I of House Guderik to unify the archipelago under his banner. Following his death in 1022, he was succeeded by his son, Alrik II who continued his father's vision. Following the conquest of the Jarldom of Akureiri in 1024, Alrik II was proclaimed "King of all Varangians," thus starting the Varangish Kingdom. The colonisation of foreign territories in the late-17th century led to Varangian King Sólwyn I being proclaimed "Emperor of the Realms of the Crown of Saint Kára" on the Dísablot by the Hórgýður, claiming divine mandate that persists to this day.

The Estlandic economy is a mix of Nordic model, collectivisation, integralism, and corporatism combining extremely high rates of unionisation, use of various planning committees tasked with mediating labor disputes, establishing codes of regulation, controlling prices and planning the economy, a large public sector, and a cradle-to-grave welfare state. Agricultural and most manufacturing factories are collectivised and experience extensive unionisation by the workforce. The nation's economy is based on the exports of rare earth minerals, petroleum, commercial goods, pharmaceuticals, and gold. Combined, the REM and petroleum industry account for over one-third of the nation's gross domestic product.

Etymology

Hestía > Æstland > Eistland > Estland

~9th Century -ia suffix dropped in favour of -land

[æ:] > [ei]

Ei > E

History

Prehistory and Settlement

Unification

Varangish Kingdom

Industrialisation

Modern Age

Recent History

Politics

Main Article: Politics of Estland

Anastasia IV became Empress of the Estlandic Realm in 2013.

The modern Estlandic government is a syncretic between absolutism, direct democracy, and religious democracy. De jure, the nation is an absolute monarchy, under which Empress Anastasia IV acts as both the head of state and head of government and the Stóraðung is the only legislative assembly. In spite of this, the nation is a de facto constitutional monarchy where the monarch serves as the de jure head of the executive branch and the Stóraðung as the legislative branch. In effect, the monarch is reduced in its role to grant royal assent and to formally appoint and dismiss government ministers. The de facto head of the executive branch is the Elder Thegn, who serves as the head of a cabinet and advises the monarch.

The Stóraðung is the nation's legislative assembly, composing a total of 380-members split between two houses. The upper-house, called the Hóramát (High Meeting), is made of 80 representatives split evenly between forty nobles and forty clergywomen, and is merely an advisory body for the lower house. The Fólkamát is the 300-member lower-house and holds the actual legislative power for the nation.

The nation operates on an uncodified constitution based on ten fundamental laws introduced to Estland by the initial Varangian settlers, as stated in the Estirabák. The ten fundamental laws, called the Aldaløgin (Elder Laws), serve as the framework of the nation's constitution and is based on Germanic law. Changes to the fundamental laws require a majority in both houses of parliament, a public referendum, and the approval of the monarch.

Government

The Monarch is the chief authority of the Estlandic Realm. Constitutionally, the Elder Thegn and its associated cabinet is meant to serve as the top advisers to the monarch. De facto, the monarch has voluntarily, and publicly, given all legislative powers to the Elder Thegn, leaving the monarch with nominal powers. Despite this, royal assent is still required and is almost always given.

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The Elder Thergn is the chairperson for the Þegnamát, a cabinet made up of twelve ministers, called Thegns who are the heads of their respective ministries. Collectively, the Þegnamát exists to give counsel to the monarch, which is done via weekly meetings and one-on-one appointments as necessary. The chairperson of the Þegnamát, the Elder Thegn, is elected by a majority vote of the Fólkamát and serves for up to eight-years. Thegns serving on the Þegnamát are nominated by the monarch, or with permission from the monarchy, the Elder Thegn. Nominations must be approved by the majority of nobles (21) and the majority of clergy (21) in the Hóramát before they are formally accepted as Thegns. Thegns serve as the head of their respective ministry for as long as they are deemed fit. The Þegnamát is made up of ten civilian Thegns and two military officers, who are the heads of the Ministry of National Defence and Preservation of Sovereignty and the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Armed Forces. Military officials serve for up to eight years and are honourably discharged for the duration of their time serving on the Þegnamát.

The Stóraðung is the nation's legislature and is split into an 80-member upper house and a 300-member lower house. Despite being bicameral, parliament is de facto unicameral since the upper house serves in a purely advisory role to the lower house. The upper house is split between landed nobility and priestesses while the lower house is composed of elected officials who serve for four years and can be re-elected twice.

The upper house of Parliament, called the Hóramát (Grand Meeting), is made up of forty landed nobility or representatives of appointed by the nobility and forty priestesses appointed by the Covenant. The Nobility are granted seats based on prestige, originally representing the original forty families who settled Estland in the early 8th century. Once granted a seat, the noble family retains the seat in the Hóramát until their respective house dies out, which has so far only happened twice. Himinnistic priestesses serve in the Hóramát for five years and can only serve once. Because the members of the Hóramát aren't elected by the populace, it holds no legislative power aside from amending the constitution. Instead, the Hóramát exists to advise the lower house and to present an interest group for both the Himinnistic Covenant and the nobility on legislation being discussed in the Fólkamát.

The lower house of Parliament is called the Fólkamát (People's Meeting), and is made up of 300 elected officials called goði (delegate). Goðar are elected on a basis of merit rather than party affiliation, due to political parties being outlawed. Goðar serve for four-year terms and can be re-elected up to two times. Additionally, goðar nominate and vote on a goði who will serve as the Elder Thegn. The Fólkamát acts as the de facto legislature for the nation. As such, it passes acts of parliament that apply in the entirety of the country. It is also responsible for adopting the state's budget, approving the state's accounts, ratifying treaties, declaring war, and appointing and dismissing members of the government. Draft acts, or bills may be initiated by members of parliament, the monarch or any citizen with signatures of support equivalent to 5% of the population.

Judiciary and Law

Main Article: Estlandic Law The Estlandic judicial system is based on customary law derived from Germanic law. It did not develop a case law like those found in common law systems, nor a comprehensive codex like the majority of civil law systems. The nation's constitution guarantees a trial within a reasonable time period. All criminal cases are done via jury trials, where the jury is selected from one's peers. Corporate crimes, land disputes, and familial disputes are done via bench trial.

The maximum penalty that can be enacted by the law is the death penalty. Life sentences are not handed out. The death penalty is often used for only the most heinous of crimes, including but not limited to treason, murder, and espionage and seditious acts. Historically, outlawry was used to carry out the death sentence but this has recently shifted to lethal injection and beheading.

The nation's judicial branch consists of the High Court for Justice and Order and its subsequent constituents. The High Court takes cases that impact the state as a whole. In addition to this duty, the High Court possesses the power of judicial review. It is made up of seven judges, who are nominated by the monarch and approved by both houses of parliament. All sitting members of the High Court serve for life.

Beneath the High Court for Justice and Order are district courts and corresponding appellate courts, which handle civil and criminal cases and appeals respectively. District courts are headed by a chief magistrate and can be assisted by up to three other magistrates depending on the severity of the case. Simple cases such as applying for a divorce may be handled by notaries or trained office staff. Appeals for rulings are viewed and handled by an Appellate Court, located in each ducal capital. The appellate court consists of a chief magistrate and a number of lay judges.

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Two police officers in downtown Krisuvik.
The Estlandic Royal Police is the sole policing service for Estland. It is based in the Estlandic capital of Saint Traisjaburg and is an agency of the Committee of State Security. It itself is headed by the National Police Board, headquartered in Saint Traisjaburg. The Estlandic police jurisdiction covers the entirety of the Estlandic Realm, which is split into 97 disctricts. These districts are based on population density and historical crime rate and can vary in size from an entire Duchy to a single municipality.

The police's duty is to provide a full spectrum of police services, ranging from patrols and investigations to issuing documents such as passports and ID cards. More specialised and important functions, such as border and airport security, are provided by the State Police, an agency under the Ministry of National Defence and Preservation of Sovereignty.

Preservation of national waters falls under the jurisdiction of the Royal Coast Guard, an agency of the Ministry of National Defence and Preservation of Sovereignty. In times of war, the Royal Coast Guard is placed under the command the Revolutionary Navy.

Military

Foreign Relations

Economy

Geography

Estland is an archipelago of 17 major islands located primarily in northwestern Dienstad. Despite it's northerly location, the islands are wholly south of the Arctic Circle. The islands have a combined landmass of 9,807,792 square kilometres, making it one of the biggest islands in Greater Dienstad.

Sampalaa is the largest lake within Estland, covering an area of 4,400 m².
The Ritosaari Taiga is but one example of the temperate rainforests of Estland.
Estland contains over 150,000 lakes, most of which are over 500 m² (0.12 acres).Its largest lake, Sampala, covers approximately 4,400 m² and is one of the largest lakes in the region. The Estlandic Lakeland has the largest concentration of lakes within the nation. Estland is also home to approximately 100,000 islands. The largest of these islands, Blagimsteja, Rati, and Hlíð, are located off the southern coast. Of the total area, 10% is lakes, rivers and ponds.

The geography of Estland is the result of the area being covered by glaciers for millennia. The eroding effects of the glaciers have left Estland mostly flat with few hills and mountains. Its highest point is Skaarðí, with an elevation of 1,385 metres. The nation's lowest point, Hfaaleiri, has an elevation of 73.7 metres below sea level. The retreating glaciers have resulted in the formation of eskers. These ridges mark the edge of ancient glaciers. The most well known of these eskers are the Upsiir, which runs the entire width of the country in the south.

The terrain of Estland is marked by two ecological zones: the flat lowlands and coastal marshes along the entirety of the coast. The inland territory of Estland is marked by temperate rainforest, which give rise to an extensive logging industry. Approximately 35% of these temperate rainforests are protected as sanctuaries by being directed owned by the Crown itself.

Lowlands are used to describe the interior of the nation, and consists primarily of irrigated wetlands, rolling hills, and temperate rainforests. Over 62% of the nation's population inhabits the lowlands and the nation's three largest cities are also located there. The lowlands are home to over 65% of the nations farmlands and account for 85% of the nation's domestic agriculture production. The remaining areas of the lowlands consist of temperate rainforests. The rainforests, predominantly carniferous tree species including spruce, pines, and birch, are found mostly in the northern parts of the country.

The coasts are home to coastal marshes and sand dunes. These bands of sand dunes dominate the southern coast and outlying islands, making for a popular tourist attraction during the summer months. The islands of Blagimsteja, Rati, and Hlíð are sunny and warm year-round and are popular tourist destinations for vacationers.

Climate

In the Köppen climate classification, Estland falls entirely in the boreal zone (Dfb classification), characterised by warm summers and freezing winters. Due to the many lakes, temperateness within the nation. The coasts and immediate interior are dominated by a maritime climate, moderated by a warm oceanic current along the western and southern coasts. This results in hot summers where temperatures frequently exceed 30°C (86°F). The warm ocean currents moderate the extremes of winter, maintaining temperatures around 20°C (68°F).

The interior, east coast, and northern parts of the country have a continental climate, characterised by hot, humid summers where the annual temperature reaches 35°C (95°F) and frigid winters where the annual temperature drops to -12°C (10°F).

Estland receives on average 851 mm (33.5 in) of precipition annually. The dominant form of precipitation of snow, which falls in the interior and northern portions of the country during the autumn, winter, and early-spring months. Rain is the dominant form of precipitation for remaining portions of the country.

Administrative Divisions

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A map of Duchies of Estland.

Estland is a unitary state, divided into 10 first-level administrative duchies. The duchies are administrated through directly-elected ducal assemblies. The ducal assemblies elect a Ducal Governor, who serve for four-year terms. Additionally, the Sovereign and government are represented in every duchy by a Jarl, who effectively acts as a governor for the duchy. The Jarls are traditionally heritable positions. The Jarls are landed, given a Ducal Estate where they live for the entirety of their lives. Once a Jarl passes, the Sovereign selects the next Jarl for the duchy, the only stipulate being that the successor must be a member of the same house.

Duchies are subdivided into 419 second-level counties (Filkir), which in turn are administrated by directly elected municipal council, headed by a Filksman and a small executive cabinet.

217 settlements have city status in Estland. In most cases, the city borders are coterminous with the borders of their respective municipalities. Often, Estlandic city counties include large areas that are not developed; for example, Krisuvik county contains large forests, located north and south-east of the city.

The duchies of Estland are:

Duchy (Iárlsríkið) Administrative centre Most populous county
Öland vapen.svg Norðureijar Ilbro Ulsva
Gotland vapen.svg Akureiri Kjest Sandnes
Västmanland vapen.svg Kalamark Svalbard Thfera
Dalarna vapen.svg Jorvik Stapi Hedegard
Värmland vapen.svg Vebomark Vatnes Roest
Blekinge vapen.svg Astmar Vinhjalm Helgafell
Västra Götaland vapen.svg Skaðinei Dostjorna Vejgard
Jämtland län vapen.svg Akureiri Jokulsa Jokulsa
Halland vapen.svg Njórðafik Krisuvik Krisuvik
Norrbotten län vapen.svg Vestanmir Arnberg Viilaupa

Demographics

Main Article: Demographics of Estland

Ethnic groups

Main article: Estlanders

Language

Main Article: Languages of Estland

Largest Cities

Women

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Female officer cadets of the Royal Navy on parade in Eldansvik Square.

Education

Religion

Main Article: Himinnism

Health

Immigration

Culture

Estlandic culture has its roots in Old Norse culture that was brought over by the Varangians. Due to its geographic isolation, Estland was partially spared from the cultural changes experienced in Scandinavia and other Germanic areas. The Varangian language is a direct descendent of Old Norse and is considered to be language's closest living relative. Christianisation did not occur in Estland, as a result of this, the majority of Estlanders still practice Himinnism, a syncretic religion incorporating aminism, ancestor worship, and the polytheistic characteristics of North Germanic Paganism.

Egalitarianism and communitarianism are central elements of Estlandic society. Women are considered to be wholly equal to men, with legislation in place to ensure equality, and had in some cases been historically superior to men. Community and family are important aspects of Estlandic culture, with approximately 91% of those surveyed claiming they know someone they could rely on in a time of need and a mere 8% reported "rarely" or "never" socialising with others. High level of social cohesion is to a long history of harsh survival in an isolated environment, which reinforced the importance of unity and cooperation.

Estland utilises a unique naming system, underwhich everyone is addressed by their first name with patronyms and/or matronyms being the closest equivalent to family names. Names most be approved by the National Institute for Names so that they are suitable for integration into the country's language and culture.

Literature

  • Sagas
  • Modern literature

Music

  • Historical folk music
  • Rock
  • Trance and Electronic music

Art

  • Cinematography
  • Paintings
  • Sculptures
  • Architecture

Cuisine

  • Traditional foods
  • Seafood and grains
  • Hydroponic grown vegetables
  • Alcohol

Sport

  • Association football
  • Ice hockey
  • Traditional sports

References