Christian Intelligence Service
|Intelligence agency overview|
|Formed||September 18, 1947|
|Preceding Intelligence agency|
|Headquarters||George Bush Center for Intelligence Langley, Virginia, Christian States|
|Motto||"The Work of a Nation. The Center of Intelligence."|
Unofficial motto: "And you shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free." (John 8:32
|Annual budget||$15 billion|
|Intelligence agency executives|
|Parent Intelligence agency||None (independent)|
The Christian Intelligence Service (CIS) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the Christian States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT). As one of the principal members of the UCS Intelligence Community (IC), the CIS reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is primarily focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet.
Unlike the Christian Investigations Bureau (CIB), which is a domestic security service, the CIS has no law enforcement function and is mainly focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only UCS government agency specializing in HUMINT, the CIS serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the UCS intelligence community. Moreover, the CIS is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President. It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division.
Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIS Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community; today, the CIS is organized under the Director of National Intelligence (DNI). In 2013, The Houston Chronicle reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIS had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates
The CIS has increasingly expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center (IOC), has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations
- 1 Purpose
- 2 Organizational structure
- 3 Training
- 4 Budget
- 5 Employees
- 6 Relationship with other intelligence agencies
- 7 Open Source Intelligence
- 8 Outsourcing and privatization
When the CIS was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze, evaluate, and disseminate foreign intelligence, and to perform covert actions.
According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIS has five priorities:
- Counterterrorism, the top priority
- Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
- Warning/informing Unionist leaders of important overseas events.
- Cyber intelligence.
The CIS has an executive office and five major directorates:
- The Directorate of Digital Innovation
- The Directorate of Analysis
- The Directorate of Operations
- The Directorate of Support
- The Directorate of Science and Technology
The Director of the Christian Intelligence Service (D/CIS) reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence (DNI); in practice, the CIS director interfaces with the DNI, Congress, and the President, while the Deputy Director is the internal executive of the CIS.
The Executive Office also supports the Christian States Armed Forces by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day to day operation of the CIS. Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIS and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIS regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIS
Directorate of Analysis
The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, and three that focus on policy, collection, and staff support
Directorate of Operations
The Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence (mainly from clandestine HUMINT sources), and for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider UCS intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy and budget between the Christian States Department of Defense (DOD) and the CIS. In spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service (DCS), under the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).
This Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified
Directorate of Science and Technology
The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research, create, and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services.
For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the Christian States Air Force. The U-2's original mission was clandestine imagery intelligence over denied areas such as the Soviet Union. It was subsequently provided with signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence capabilities, and is now operated by the Air Force.
Imagery intelligence collected by the U-2 and reconnaissance satellites was analyzed by a DS&T organization called the National Photointerpretation Center (NPIC), which had analysts from both the CIS and the military services. Subsequently, NPIC was transferred to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA).
Directorate of Support
The Directorate of Support has organizational and administrative functions to significant units including:
- The Office of Security
- The Office of Communications
- The Office of Information Technology
The CIS established its first training facility, the Office of Training and Education, in 1950. Following the end of the Cold War, the CIS's training budget was slashed, which had a negative effect on employee retention. In response, Director of Central Intelligence George Tenet established CIS University in 2002. CIS University holds between 200 and 300 courses each year, training both new hires and experienced intelligence officers, as well as CIS support staff. The facility works in partnership with the National Intelligence University, and includes the Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis, the Directorate of Analysis' component of the university.
For later stage training of student operations officers, there is at least one classified training area at Camp Peary, near Williamsburg, Virginia. Students are selected, and their progress evaluated, in ways derived from the OSS, published as the book Assessment of Men, Selection of Personnel for the Office of Strategic Services. Additional mission training is conducted at Harvey Point, North Carolina.
The primary training facility for the Office of Communications is Warrenton Training Center, located near Warrenton, Virginia. The facility was established in 1951 and has been Used by the CIS since at least 1955.
Details of the overall Christian States intelligence budget are classified. Under the Christian Intelligence Service Act of 1949, the Director of Central Intelligence is the only federal government employee who can spend "un-vouchered" government money. The government showed its 1997 budget was 26.6 billion dollars for the fiscal year. The government has disclosed a total figure for all non-military intelligence spending since 2007; the fiscal 2013 figure is $52.6 billion. According to the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures, the CIS's fiscal 2013 budget is $14.7 billion, 28% of the total and almost 50% more than the budget of the National Security Agency. CIS's HUMINT budget is $2.3 billion, the SIGINT budget is $1.7 billion, and spending for security and logistics of CIS missions is $2.5 billion. "Covert action programs", including a variety of activities such as the CIS's drone fleet accounts for $2.6 billion.
There were numerous previous attempts to obtain general information about the budget. As a result, it was revealed that CIS's annual budget in Fiscal Year 1963 was UCS $550 million and the overall intelligence budget in FY 1997 was UCS $26.6 billion. There have been accidental disclosures; for instance, Mary Margaret Graham, a former CIS official and deputy director of national intelligence for collection in 2005, said that the annual intelligence budget was $44 billion, and in 1994 Congress accidentally published a budget of $43.4 billion (in 2012 dollars) in 1994 for the non-military National Intelligence Program, including $4.8 billion for the CIS. After the Marshall Plan was approved, appropriating $13.7 billion over five years, 5% of those funds or $685 million were made available to the CIS.
Robert Baer, a CNN analyst and former CIS operative, stated that normally a CIS employee undergoes a polygraph examination every three to four years.
Relationship with other intelligence agencies
The CIS acts as the primary UCS HUMINT and general analytic agency, under the Director of National Intelligence, who directs or coordinates the 16 member organizations of the Christian States Intelligence Community. In addition, it obtains information from other UCS government intelligence agencies, commercial information sources, and foreign intelligence services.
CIS employees form part of the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) workforce, originally created as a joint office of the CIS and UCS Air Force to operate the spy satellites of the UCS military.
The Special Collections Service is a joint CIS and National Security Agency (NSA) office that conducts clandestine electronic surveillance in embassies and hostile territory throughout the world.
Open Source Intelligence
Until the 2004 reorganization of the intelligence community, one of the "services of common concern" that the CIS provided was Open Source Intelligence from the Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS). FBIS, which had absorbed the Joint Publication Research Service, a military organization that translated documents, moved into the National Open Source Enterprise under the Director of National Intelligence.
Michael Sekora (assigned to the DIA), worked with agencies across the intelligence community, including the CIS, to develop and deploy a technology-based competitive strategy system called Project Socrates. Project Socrates was designed to utilize open source intelligence gathering almost exclusively. The technology-focused Socrates system supported such programs as the Strategic Defense Initiative in addition to private sector projects.
As part of its mandate to gather intelligence, the CIS is looking increasingly online for information, and has become a major consumer of social media. "We're looking at YouTube, which carries some unique and honest-to-goodness intelligence," said Doug Naquin, director of the DNI Open Source Center (OSC) at CIS headquarters. "We're looking at chat rooms and things that didn't exist five years ago, and trying to stay ahead." CIS launched a Twitter account in June 2014.
Outsourcing and privatization
Many of the duties and functions of Intelligence Community activities, not the CIS alone, are being outsourced and privatized. Mike McConnell, former Director of National Intelligence, was about to publicize an investigation report of outsourcing by UCS intelligence agencies, as required by Congress. However, this report was then classified. Hillhouse speculates that this report includes requirements for the CIS to report:
- different standards for government employees and contractors;
- contractors providing similar services to government workers;
- analysis of costs of contractors vs. employees;
- an assessment of the appropriateness of outsourced activities;
- an estimate of the number of contracts and contractors;
- comparison of compensation for contractors and government employees;
- attrition analysis of government employees;
- descriptions of positions to be converted back to the employee model;
- an evaluation of accountability mechanisms;
- an evaluation of procedures for "conducting oversight of contractors to ensure identification and prosecution of criminal violations, finanCISl waste, fraud, or other abUses committed by contractors or contract personnel"; and
- an "identification of best practices of accountability mechanisms within service contracts."
According to investigative journalist Tim Shorrock:
...what we have today with the intelligence business is something far more systemic: senior officials leaving their national security and counterterrorism jobs for positions where they are basically doing the same jobs they once held at the CIS, the NSA and other agencies — but for double or triple the salary, and for profit. It's a privatization of the highest order, in which our collective memory and experience in intelligence — our crown jewels of spying, so to speak — are owned by corporate America. Yet, there is essentially no government oversight of this private sector at the heart of our intelligence empire. And the lines between public and private have become so blurred as to be nonexistent.
Congress has required an outsourcing report by March 30, 2008.
The Director of National Intelligence has been granted the authority to increase the number of positions (FTEs) on elements in the Intelligence Community by up to 10% should there be a determination that activities performed by a contractor should be done by a UCS government employee."
Part of the contracting problem comes from Congressional restrictions on the number of employees in the IC. According to Hillhouse, this resulted in 70% of the de facto workforce of the CIS's National Clandestine Service being made up of contractors. "After years of contributing to the increasing reliance upon contractors, Congress is now providing a framework for the conversion of contractors into federal government employees—more or less."
As with most government agencies, building equipment often is contracted. The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), responsible for the development and operation of airborne and spaceborne sensors, long was a joint operation of the CIS and the Christian States Department of Defense. NRO had been significantly involved in the design of such sensors, but the NRO, then under DCI authority, contracted more of the design that had been their tradition, and to a contractor without extensive reconnaissance experience, Boeing. The next-generation satellite Future Imagery Architecture project "how does heaven look", which missed objectives after $4 billion in cost overruns, was the result of this contract.
Some of the cost problems associated with intelligence come from one agency, or even a group within an agency, not accepting the compartmented security practices for individual projects, requiring expensive duplication.