Chorea

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Chorea
趙國
Chogok

Flag Crest
Motto: 民導,自由,平和
Mindo, Jiyo, Bingho
Democracy, Freedom, Progress
Map of Chorea in Esquarium
Map of Chorea in Esquarium
Capital
and largest city
Olachoo
Official languages Chorean
Religion Shento
Txoism
Demonym Chorean
Government Parliamentary democracy
 -  Prime Minister Cho Ke-te
Unification
 -  Chorean Empire 1860 
 -  Allied Provisional Authority March 1, 1944 
 -  Republic of Chorea April 19, 1947 
 -  People's Democratic Republic of Chorea July 16, 1956 
 -  Current Constitution January 1, 1994 
Population
 -  census 26,853,512
GDP (PPP) estimate
 -  Total $274bn
 -  Per capita $10,231
Gini35.2
medium
HDI 0.925
very high
Currency Chon (C)
Time zone (GMT-4)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy AD
Drives on the right
Calling code +512
ISO 3166 code CHR
Internet TLD .cr

Chorea (Chorean: 趙國, Chogok) is a sovereign state in Western Esquarium located on the Chorean isthmus, populated by Chorean people. It borders Namor to the west and Kaskiria and Phazayazk to the east. It borders the Northern Sea in the north and the Bay of Chorea in the south.

Chorea began as a cluster of clans on the Chorean isthmus. In AD 527, the first independent Chorean kingdom was established. In 1713, Chorea was incorporated into the Antelopian Dynasty of Namor as part of the Province of Vetdong. In 1820, Vetdong won its independence from Namor. From 1834 to 1840, a civil war broke out between the Vetdongese government and Choreans in the Chorean isthmus, leading to total independence for Chorea. The Chorean Empire was founded in 1860, eventually becoming an industrial and military power with expansionist motives. Chorea initiated the Second Great War, but was outmaneuvered and defeated by the Allied Powers. The Chorean Empire ended in 1944, leaving the isthmus occupied by Allied forces. Allied occupation ended in 1947, and the Republic of Chorea took its place. Chorea officially became a Communist country in 1956 with the establishment of the People's Democratic Republic of Chorea. The PDRC ruled until 1993, when power was peacefully transferred to an interim government. The new and current constitution took effect in 1994.

Chorea is a parliamentary republic led by the Prime Minister. It has a quickly developing economy, greatly benefiting from the shipbuilding industry as well as international travel through the Chorea Canal.

History

Pre-Kingdom era

Chorean people are one of the Monic peoples. Like other Monic ethnic groups, the Choreans were first based in present-day Namor and emigrated elsewhere. The earliest Choreans were descendants of humans who emigrated and settled in the Chorean isthmus. According to Chorean legend, Yi Ba - considered by many to be the "First Chorean" - was the first founder of the Chorea. He took one hundred slaves from bondage and led them out of Namor to Chorea. Yi and the 100 freed slaves became the ancestors of the Chorean people.

Early Chorean society was organized into various clans. Each clan controlled its own territory and had its own leader. Powerful clans often clashed with each other, absorbing smaller clans in the process. By the second century BC, two clans dominated Chorea - the Cho and Yi.

In AD 259, the Kaku Dynasty of Namor invaded Chorea in the Far Eastern Campaign. The Yi clan brokered an alliance with Tiotio, the Kaku emperor, hoping to use Kaku influence to discomfit the Cho clan. This strategy succeeded, and the victorious Kakus allowed the Yi to partially govern the Chorean isthmus. Chorea became a province of the Kaku empire. The governor was of Kaku ethnicity; however, the civil servants and officials were mostly Yi clan Choreans.

But as it became increasingly difficult to govern the empire from Namo, the Kaku Empire was divided into smaller kingdoms, each led by a king who swore allegiance to the emperor. Chorea became a Kaku kingdom - in AD 514, Yi Kok, a Yi clan member who married the sister of the ruling king Samasiyan who in turn was the son of Kaku emperor Shabu, became king after Samasiyan was killed in a battle with Cho clan rebels. Yi became the first Chorean to assume the title of king.

Chorean kingdom

The Kaku Empire collapsed in AD 525, and with it Yi Kok's legitimacy. A rebellion led by Cho Fan, a member of the Cho clan, dethroned Yi and won Chorea its total independence. Cho Fan proclaimed himself king, and once he took power he ordered the expulsion of all Kaku from Chorea.

The Cho clan held on to its power even though neighboring Namor was undergoing a period of strife and the Yi clan constantly threatened to retake power. Chorea managed to maintain internal stability by accommodating the Yi clan into the government, introducing a policy of isolation by banning foreigners from entering the country for a prolonged period of time, and remaining on good terms with neighboring Namor.

Namorese rule

In the 1600s, relations between the Cho and Yi clans reached a breaking point. The Yi allied with the Antelopians and overthrew the Cho clan, establishing a new kingdom under the rule of Yi Bangkao.

The Antelopians, who now ruled Namor, wanted to establish control over Chorea themselves. They did this by marrying Princess Trieu Minh to Yi Dai-dek, the king of Chorea in 1688. When Yi died in 1713, his son, the half-Antelopian and half-Choraen Nguyen Hao became king. Nguyen immediately turned control of Chorea to the Antelopian Dynasty, which named Chorea a province.

Antelopian Namor held on to Chorea by limiting the influence of Namorese in the new province and allowing Choreans to administer most of their domestic affairs, although the Namorese still held absolute power. This did not prevent sporadic uprisings against Namorese rule from occurring, such as in 1745 when a Chorean aristocrat, Cho Tu, led a revolt in response to the Antelopian authorities' decision to raise taxes on the local landlord population.

Independence

The Northern Sea side of the Chorea Canal. The canal is an integral part of the international maritime trade as well as a symbol of Chorean economic strength

Chorea broke away from Namor during the Chorean War of Independence from 1815 to 1820. King San became ruler of Chorea.

The independent Chorea had fair relations with Namor and other surrounding countries. King San ruled until his death in 1855. His son Cho Chen-ke became King Mei of Chorea.

Chorean Empire

Cho Dek-gu, emperor of Chorea from 1921 to 1944, was responsible for starting the western theater of the Second Great War

In 1860, King Mei broke with tradition by naming himself Emperor, thus founding the Empire of Chorea. This was a move that challenged Namor's regional clout, as the emperor in Namor was considered to be the only emperor and therefore the other monarchs could only call themselves kings. The Chorean Empire focused on industrialization and began trading with other countries for much needed raw materials.

Emperor Mei-Ti's son, Kua-Ti, ascended to the throne in 1883 and continued his father's ambitions for national power. Kua-Ti focused on militarization - he proposed the "Dai Cho Theory" in 1888 which stated that it was necessary for Chorea to militarize if it was to remain superior to other countries. Conscription was introduced, major industries (primarily the shipbuilding industry) began producing machines and weapons, and the government increased spending on the military. The Chorea Canal was built in 1892 for military and civilian purposes and was completed in 1900.

Chorean military strength was exhibited in 1905, when the empire went to war with the declining Antelopian Namorese. The Chorean military quickly outmaneuvered the Namorese and annexed the eastern part of Arra.

Allied forces entering Olachoo, Chorea, in 1944

Kua-Ti died in 1921, and was succeeded by his son, Cho Dek-gu (Emperor Kuang-Ti). Under Kuang-Ti's leadership, Chorea started the Second Great War by invading Namor. It also provoked conflict with Ainin and East Luziyca. Chorean rule in the occupied lands was known to be brutal and oppressive - civilians were killed regardless of whether they cooperated with the occupying authorities.

The Chorean military machine made significant gains in the late 1930s, but by the 1940s was on the defensive as Allied forces reorganized and formed a strategy to push back the Chorean advance. In 1943, Allied forces launched a major offensive against the Chorean isthmus itself, relentlessly pushing towards the imperial capital of Olachoo. Cho Dek-gu committed suicide in 1944, and on March 1 Chorea unconditionally surrendered.

Allied occupation

From 1944 to 1947, Chorea was administered by the Allied Provisional Authority in Chorea. The Canal Zone came under total East Luziycan control.

Defendants in the Tekwu Trials awaiting their sentence

Under the APAC, many who worked in the former imperial government were put on trial in the city of Tekwu. In what became known as the Tekwu Trials, a number of top imperial government officials and generals were sentenced to death or life imprisonment for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The Allied Provisional Authority also disfranchised Choreans who served the imperial government, mainly soldiers, army generals and officials. When the Second Great War entirely ended in 1955, the APAC agreed to return sovereignty to the Chorean people in 1947. This was supported by many in Chorea, although some powers like Namor were concerned that returning control to a Chorean government would foster a return to militarism. Nevertheless, the Allied Provisional Authority terminated in 1947 and the Republic of Chorea took its place.

Republic of Chorea

The Provisional Authority was replaced by the Republic of Chorea Transitional Council in 1947. General elections were scheduled for and held in early 1948, with the Chorean National Party winning the government and the left-wing parties led by the Chorean Communist Party and the Chorean Social Democratic Party forming the opposition. Yong Sik-ho of the National Party became the first Prime Minister of Chorea.

The administration of Yong Sik-ko began a policy of granting amnesty to former imperial government officials. Yong promised that those who were involved in the war in any way and swore allegiance to the new government will not face trial for any crimes and regain the right to vote and hold public office. The amnesty was met with ambivalence among Choreans, but was opposed by the Communists. The issue of amnesty thus became a heated topic in the election of 1952.

The Communists won a majority in the 1952 election, and Cho Hai-ding replaced Yong Sik-ko as prime minister. Cho revoked Yong's amnesties and passed the Peace Act, banning anyone identified as having served the imperial government their relatives from voting or taking office. The law effectively disfranchised 1/6ths of the population. At the same time, Cho passed laws expanding the prime minister's powers, such as the Stability Act of 1955 which transferred the power to mobilize the Chorean army from Parliament to the Prime Minister, and gave the Prime Minister the power to postpone elections and declare a state of emergency. These measures were opposed by the National Party, which tried to garner more support among other opponents of Cho to win the election of 1956.

Cho Hai-ding postponed the election from 1956 to 1960 with approval from the Communist-dominated Parliament, sparking an outcry from the opposition. In 1956, thousands of people demonstrated against Prime Minister Cho. When Cho ordered police to break up the protests, protesters turned violent and instigated a full-scale rebellion. Rebels seized Olachoo and sent Cho and other Communists fleeing, and a provisional government was called. The rebellion seemed successful until the a military intervention led by Liberationist Namor invaded the country at the request of Cho, whom they regarded as the legitimate ruler of Chorea. The rebellion was crushed, the Canal Zone was seized from the East Luziycans and thousands were put to death for subversion. Restored to power, the Communists under Cho Hai-ding proceeded to suspend the 1948 constitution altogether and establish a new state.

People's Democratic Republic of Chorea

Flag of the People's Democratic Republic of Chorea (1956-1993)

Following the suspension of the 1948 constitution, the People's Democratic Republic of Chorea was formed. To show that the new government was "democratic," Cho Hai-ding allowed the Social Democratic Party to take part in national politics, although the Communist Party retained all power. The National Party and all other genuine opposition groups were banned.

Under the PDRC constitution, term limits for the prime minister were abolished. The prime minister may serve unlimited consecutive four-year terms provided he is re-elected. Cho Hai-ding was re-elected in 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980 and 1984, serving seven complete terms as prime minister (he did not finish his eighth term, which was legally due to end in 1988, as he died in 1986).

Cho Hai-ding tried to develop Chorea's postwar economy with a new economic policy called the Popular Development Program. Under this policy, Chorea traded with Communist and non-Communist countries alike. The Chorea Canal remained open - 60% of the profits went to the populace and 40% went directly to the government, which in turn used it to build roads, schools, hospitals and other basic infrastructure. This helped quicken Chorea's economic growth, and by 1965 it had become one of the most developed nations in the Communist bloc. The Communists gained some public support.

Chorea's economy stagnated in the 1980s as a result of the Recession of 1980. In 1986, Cho Hai-ding died, and Premier Le Dai-wong succeeded him as Prime Minister and General Secretary of the Party. The government was unable to deal with the problems caused by the recession, leading to calls for political change.

Two factions rose to prominence within the Communist Party - one led by Le that favored economic nationalism and protectionism and another led by De Guk-ying that supported economic reforms. The schism caused the party to formally split in 1990, into Le's People's Party of Chorea and De's Democratic Party. At the same time, with the fall of communist governments throughout Esquarium, protests against the government increased, but were tolerated into the 1990s.

Fall of communism and Present Day

In 1992, a referendum was held on whether to restore the 1948 constitution, retain the People's Democratic Republic or draft a new constitution. A majority voted in favor of drafting a new constitution, and in 1993 the People's Democratic Republic ceased to exist. General elections put the Democratic Party in power, and De Guk-ying became the Prime Minister in 1994.

De Guk-ying abolished all tariffs to ensure free trade. This helped boost Chorea's economy, and starting 1996 the country began experiencing economic growth; however, the lack of tariffs also made domestic businesses less competitive. De was re-elected for a second term and served until 2002.

Yi Wen-chin of the Democratic Party and succeeded De as Prime Minister in the 2002 election. He was initially popular and continued De's policies, but by the time of his second term his popularity was dropping due to problems caused by the latest recession. The People's Party made a comeback in the 2010 election, with Cho Ke-te, grandson of Cho Hai-ding, elected Prime Minister. Cho imposed a tariff on all foreign goods and promoted "Chorean control over the Chorean economy." He also promised to introduce direct election of the Prime Minister by the year 2018.

Geography

Map of Chorea and its provinces

Chorea is located on the Chorean Isthmus, the largest isthmus in Esquarium. It borders Namor in the west and ??? in the east. It borders two bodies of water; in the north, it shares a border with the Northern Sea, while in the south it borders the Bay of Chorea.

Administrative divisions

Chorea is divided into four provinces - Shang Chon, Cho Nan (South Chorea), Cho Bak (North Chorea), and Gok Ben. Olachoo, the capital of Chorea, is national capital territory.

Province Capital
Shang Chon (善春) Shang Chon
Cho Nan (趙南) Tekwu
Cho Bak (趙北) Chong Shang
Gok Ben (國邊)  Sinmeizu

Politics

Cho Ke-te, the current Prime Minister of Chorea

Chorea is a parliamentary republic. Although the prime minister is the head of state and government and wields a considerable amount of power, much of the decision-making falls within the responsibilities of the Parliament. This is due to fears that the prime minister may abuse power and cause unacceptable changes to the constitution, as it happened during the 1950s.

Prime Minister

The Prime Minister of Chorea serves both as the head of government and the head of state. The prime minister is not directly elected by the populace, but by the National Electorate. Critics say the National Electorate does not reflect popular opinion, especially during close elections. The current Prime Minister, Cho Ke-te, has promised to introduce a electoral reform package that will enable direct election of the prime minister in 2018.

If a Prime Minister is elected, he/she may serve for two unlimited consecutive four-year terms.

Parliament

The House of Parliament in Olachoo, Chorea

The Chorean Parliament is unicameral. There are 40 seats in Parliament, 10 from each province. Parliament passes legislation that is then passed on to the prime minister for approval. Unlike the prime minister, Parliament is directly elected by the populace.

Three political parties are represented in Parliament - the center-leftist People's Party, center-rightist Democratic Party, and the far-left New Communist Party.

Judicial

The High Court of Chorea is the highest court in the country and makes up the government's judiciary. The court is made up of five justices who are chosen by the National Electorate.

Foreign relations

Chorea is a constitutionally neutral country. The constitution forbids the government from declaring war, participating in military conflicts outside of Chorean territory, or joining political or military alliances.

Military

During the Chorean Empire, Chorea had one of the largest standing armies in Esquarium. The Chorean Imperial Army was disbanded following Chorea's surrender, and the Allied Provisional Authority began a nationwide weapons confiscation program. The Republic of Chorea was constitutionally barred from maintaining a military, although it was allowed to have a security force capable of keeping domestic order.

The People's Democratic Republic of Chorea revoked the constitutional ban on maintaining an army and established the Chorean People's Army (CPA). From the 1960s to the 1980s, the CPA received armaments support from Liberationist Namor. In 1994 the Chorean People's Army was renamed to the Chorean Armed Forces.

The Chorean Armed Forces consists of three branches - the Army, Navy, and Air Force.

Demographics

Language

Chorean is the official and national language of Chorea. A Monic language closely related to Namorese, written Chorean was based off of the Namorese Tzihan script, with each character representing an object, action or idea.

Population

Almost everyone in Chorea is an ethnic Chorean. There is a small ethnic Namorese community living in the western part of the isthmus as well as in the Olachoo Namortown.

Religion

A temple dedicated to Balam Na in Tong Fang Chio, Chong Shang

The main religions in Chorea are Buddhism and Shento, an indigenous religion influenced by Txoism. Due to the influx of Namorese culture into Chorea in past history, nowadays Buddhism and Shento are considered mutually inclusive.

Before the introduction of Buddhism and Txoism, Shento was the sole religion in Chorea. When Buddhism came to Chorea, the Chorean population incorporated some elements from it into Shento, thus explaining the worship of Buddhist and Shendo figures side by side. Some of the Chorean gods are variants of Namorese gods, including Son Nu (Nushen) and Balam Na (Fengna).

A very small Christian minority exists in Chorea. Christianity is traditionally unpopular due to its monotheism and "foreignness" to Choreans. Chorean Christians have been persecuted by the Chorean Empire, the Communist government and, at present, radical nationalist groups.

Infrastructure

Health

Chorea has a universal healthcare system, a legacy of the Communist era. The basic health needs of all citizens are covered by the state; however, more advanced and sophisticated healthcare is in the hands of the private sector.

Education

Like most countries, public education in Chorea is free and universal. It is compulsory for all Choreans to complete primary and secondary education, while tertiary education is optional. Chorea has one of the highest university attendance rates, with 90% of people who finish secondary school proceeding to continue their education in the tertiary level.

Chorean children are first enrolled in a preschool before entering primary school, which lasts from Grades 1-5 including kindergarten. Then, they advance to secondary school, which lasts from Grades 6-12.

Transportation

Transportation in Chorea is facilitated by air, rail, road and water networks. The Chorean Empire was responsible for developing the country's road networks, which to this day remains more or less unchanged. Expressways connect all parts of the country.

Most Choreans own an automobile, as most people drive to get to work. In the cities, people also ride buses, subways and other forms of public transportation to commute.

Chorea is accessible by air - both Olachoo and Tekwu have international airports. The flag carrier of Chorea is Chorean Airlines, which until 1997 was state-owned.

Because Chorea is bordered by two major bodies of water, water travel is an integral part of transportation. There are ferry links with nearby Namorese port cities. Ferry services in Chorea are dominated by the company ChoChan.

Culture

Inside a Yi association building in Tekwu

Clans

Clans play an important role in Chorean culture and social life. Clans have warred for power in Chorea since ancient times.

The most powerful clans today are the Cho and Yi clans. Members of the Cho clan usually jabe the surnames of Cho, Fan, Te or Le, while those with the surnames Yi, Zan, Won and Zin mostly identify themselves as belonging to the Yi clan.

Clans provide economic and social support to its members by forming societies whose membership is restricted to clan members. They also play a big role in defining political differences - the Cho clan is more likely to support the People's Party and the Yi clan tends to support the Democratic Party.

Media

Since 1993, Chorea's press has been liberalized. There are two major television networks, 22 radio stations and over 100 newspapers and magazines.

TV Chorea (TVC) and the Chorean Broadcasting Service (CBS) are the two prominent television networks in the country. While TVC is focused more on domestic happenings and is targeted at a domestic audience, CBS is also directed at overseas Choreans in Namor and focuses on both domestic and international news.

Of the 22 radio stations in Chorea, 16 of them are owned by CBS. The rest are privately-owned.

Newspapers in Chorea include the Olachoo Times (奧樂邱時報), Chorea Post (趙國郵政報) and the Isthmus Daily (乍峽日報).