Chen Minko Rebellion

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Chen Minko Rebellion
Part of the Volatile Century
Black Flag ambush.jpg
Kansist rebels during an ambush
Date 1872 - 1886
Location Namor
Result Hào victory
Belligerents
Flag of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.svg Hào dynasty
Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Kansist State
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.svg Kochan Flag of Afghanistan (1880–1901).svg Chen Minko
Casualties and losses
20 million civilian deaths

The Chen Minko Rebellion (秦敏柯武亂, Чен Минко Малун, Chen Minko Malun), also known as the Kansist Rebellion (全世武亂, Канси Малун, Kansi Malun) was a civil war between the ruling Hào dynasty and rebels led by Chen Minko that lasted from 1872 to 1886.

Chen, who founded the syncretic religion of Kansism, announced a rebellion after Hào authorities carried out mass killings of his followers. With the help of peasants and defectors from the Hào army, the Kansist rebels took over vast swaths of inland Namor, including Nozama City which became the capital of the self-proclaimed Kansist State. The rebellion eventually spread to every province in Namor Proper as the Kansists launched expeditions across the empire in an attempt to end Hào rule. At the same time, rebellions broke out in KHào and Tojav, where native inhabitants inspired by the Kansist uprising tried to expel ethnic Tuhaoese from their homelands.

At it peak, the Kansists controlled over half of Namor; however, reorganization of the Hào army and infighting between Chen and rivals among his ranks weakened the rebels. In 1879, Hào troops recaptured Nozama City. Chen spent the rest of his life on the run, leading rebels to conduct guerrilla warfare against pursuing Hào armies. The rebellion was considered over after the last Kansist stronghold in Gukmo - Chen's hometown - fell in 1886. However, Chen was never captured and his whereabouts after the rebellion remain a subject of debate; some say he committed suicide after a series of humiliating defeats, while Kansists claim he disappeared to avoid persecution and will reappear when Kansism is accepted as the universal truth.

The rebellion left behind a controversial legacy. Although it was viewed positively by peasants and inspired later movements such as the Double Fourth Revolution, the rebels were criticized by some intellectuals for their bigotry and ethnic nationalism.

History

Early years

After thousands of Kansists were killed by the Hào, Chen Minko posted a 10,000-character declaration, titled the Declaration of Expelling the Hào (除嚎宣, Zugaosan). In the declaration, Chen called the Hào dynasty a "wicked foreign regime," accusing it of "plundering the Kannei man and raping the Kannei woman for two hundred years." He drew from egalitarian ideas in the Aucurian Declaration of the Rights of the People to argue that the Hào dynasty was illegitimate. He concluded the declaration with a call to rebellion against the Hào, envisioning a future where all Tuhaoese would be expelled from Namor.

Peak

Decline

Continued resistance