|Republic of Ceresnia
Republika Čereska (Ceresnian)
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||x, Cheranavian, Razarian|
|Ethnic groups (2013)|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|-||President||Jan Bukovič (acting)|
|-||Prime Minister||Mikolaj Vujčič|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Duchy of Cera||1178|
|-||Tsardom of Ceresnia||1268|
|-||Kingdom of Ceresnia||1342|
|-||Union with Cheranavia||1 March 1413|
|-||Grand Duchy of Ceresnia||3 August 1684|
|-||Kingdom of Ceresnia||9 March 1782|
|-||Ceresnian Commonwealth||23 May 1924|
|-||Communist Ceresnia||1 August 1947|
|-||Republic of Ceresnia||2 July 1989|
|-||Joined the Esquarian Community||1 January 2000|
327,610 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|Gini (2011)|| 34.8
|HDI (2015)|| 0.791
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CE|
|a.||The .ec domain is also used, as in other Esquarian Community member states.|
Ceresnia (Ceresnian: Čeresko [ʈ͡ʂɛrɛskɔ] ( )), officially the Republic of Ceresnia (Ceresnian: Republika Čereska), is a sovereign state in Northern Borea. Ceresnia is a unitary state divided into 12 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 848,506 square kilometres with a largely boreal climate. With a population of over 35.7 million people, Ceresnia is the thirteenth most populous member state of the Esquarian Community. Ceresnia's capital and largest city is Trafov. The country's other major cities are Gralov, Rogovsk, Targopol, Belogrod, Nemskov, Levopol, Kopanovo, Ždanov, Čjažov, Černiki, and Švitna.
The presence of Cerites, a Slavic ethnic group who originated in northwestern Borea, in the area of present-day Ceresnia can be traced back to the early 8th century AD. They organised the state into duchies. The duchies were united as one state of which Česlav became the first king by 975, elevating Ceresnia to the status of a kingdom by forming Cera, the first Ceresnian kingdom, and converting to Christianity. It retained its sovereignty for over three centuries, before being organised into a Duchy in 1178 and a Tsardom in 1268 after Orthodox Christianity arrived in Ceresnia from Velkia. The Tsardom was disestablished following the 1342 catholicisation of Ceresnia by the Sarozny dynasty who subsequently ruled Ceresnia for some three centuries, engaging in a union with Cheranavia.
In 1684, the two entities forming the union engaged in a war, which Ceresnia won. The Sarozny dynasty were overthrown and Cheranavia was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Ceresnia, which granted Ceresnia the largest territorial claim in its history for some 100 years until Cheranavia seceded in 1782 and a series of Cheranavian uprisings sparked a second war which ended in a ceasefire granting Cheranavia independence and reforming Ceresnia as a Kingdom. Ceresnia established itself as a democratic state in 1924 following the abdication of the King. In 1947, the Silent Revolution saw a communist state established in Ceresnia and Eduard Kazukov installed as head of state. In the aftermath of Kazukov dying in a plane crash in 1977, political tensions rose, with opposition parties, notably the Civic Movement, emerging, and in 1989 Ceresnia established itself as a presidential republic.
Ceresnia remained a largely agrarian country until the disestablisment of communism in the late 1980s, undergoing rampant industrialisation along with the "shock therapy" reforms carried out by Pavel Perak in the mid-1990s. Ceresnian GDP growth has been substantial since its establishment, with one of the highest per capita incomes in Borea. The country provides state-funded welfare, free education, and a universal health care system for citizens. With an expanding history, Ceresnia has developed a rich cultural heritage, including many historical monuments and protected areas. Today, Ceresnia is a developed country, maintaining high standards of living, quality of life, safety and economic freedom. Ceresnia is a member state of the Esquarian Community and Cenba.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
The source of the name Ceresnia and the ethnonyms includes endonyms (the way Ceresnian people refer to themselves and Ceresnia) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Ceresnians and Ceresnia).
Endonyms and most exonyms for Ceresnians and Ceresnia derive from the name of the Cerite tribes, which were the first Slavic tribes to inhabit Ceresnia. The tribes' name itself most likely evolved from the word "cera", which means skin or leather in Ceresnian. This probably originated from the leather tents that the Cerite tribes were renowned for building.
During Late Antiquity, numerous ethnic groups populated the region which came to be Ceresnia. The times and routes of the native Slavic settlers in these areas lack written sources, however Bandkeramik and Baltic cultures are said to have inhabited Ceresnia, confirmed by numerous archaeological finds.
Slavic peoples arrived in Ceresnia around the beginning of the 8th century AD.
Tsardom of Ceresnia
Grand Duchy of Ceresnia
Kingdom of Ceresnia
On 8 May 1947, Silent Revolution (…) which left Ceresnia unofficially divided into a northern state known as the Ceresnian Free State, administered by a democratic government, and an autonomous southern state known as the Ceresnian People's Autonomous Republic, administered by a communist government. In 1947, South Ceresnia would invade North Ceresnia and declare a fully independent Ceresnian People's Republic. The operation, carried out by the United Ceresnian People's Party's demand, was led by Eduard Kazukov, who was the self-declared General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party. Kazukov would then proceed to lead the country for 32 years – the longest a Ceresnian head of state ever ruled – until dying in a governmental plane crash on 9 June 1977 in which 8 other Ceresnian officials also died.
After Kazukov's unexpected death, the stability of the political situation in the country began to plummet. Zigfrid Urban temporarily served as Acting General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party from June to August 1977. In August, Robert Gnapov was chosen to become the next General Secretary. After Gnapov's abdication in February 1980, Tomaš Pisk took over his duties. Pisk was generally regarded as a controversial figure due to his gross human rights violations and the reintroduction of the death penalty during his tenure as General Secretary. In November 1980, a mere eight months after inauguration, Pisk was shot in the left underarm in an assassination attempt, the perpetrator of which remains unknown. Pisk was put on medical leave, with duties transferred to Zigfrid Urban. In late December, Pisk's condition worsened, forcing him to completely give up his office to Urban. At first, however, Urban did not accept this order, with some documents specifying the position as vacant from 16 to 21 December. On 18 December, major riots occurred all over Ceresnia, with key governmental buildings bombed, and guerillas attempting to assassinate officials. Ceresnia was in anarchy for three full days. With Urban forced to assume office and take action, the government soon declared him as the General Secretary to avoid a coup d'état. On 23 December, Urban declared martial law, which was in action for two whole months, until 23 February 1981, when the situation was determined to be completely stabilized. However, some witnesses suggested that thousands of people were killed during martial law, by Urban's command.
In 1982, an opposition party for the United Ceresnian People's Party was formed – the Civic Movement. Members of the Civic Movement, which was a right-wing party, demanded for Urban to be put to trial for war crimes. In 1984, the founder and chairman of the Civic Movement, Pavel Perak, brought Urban's case into court. The case was however put on hiatus until November 1988, when the court found Zigfrid Urban guilty of war crimes, however he was not ousted due to this being planned for the coming year. On 1 January 1989, Urban's body was found in his residence at 12 Ulica Hmenna. He committed suicide by disinfectant ingestion. Albert Popkov was designated as his acting successor.
With Albert Popkov serving as Acting General Secretary until 16 March 1989 came talks with the Civic Movement and the following first and only democratic election in the history of the Ceresnian People's Republic. The only candidates were Popkov himself and Oleg Meda. Meda won by a landslide, gaining 87,4% of popular vote, and declared that his office would be renamed from "General Secretary of the Central Committee of the United Ceresnian People's Party" to "President of the Ceresnian People's Republic".
On the day of his inauguration on 2 July 1989 Meda announced, in order: the disestablishment of the Ceresnian People's Republic; the establishment of the Republic of Ceresnia; the demolition of 12 Ulica Hmenna; the disestablishment of the United Ceresnian People's Party. On 2 July 1992, after serving three years of his first term, Meda gave up his duties to Pavel Perak, Chairman of the Civic Movement.
After the definite introduction of democratic elections and a presidential republic, Ceresnia experienced an increase in human rights, political freedoms, internet freedoms and economic standards. Ceresnians voted to join the Esquarian Community in 1999. Ceresnia became a full member on 1 January 2000.
In 2016, long-time former president Pavel Perak once again won the presidency, however it was discovered by opposition press that Perak had manipulated the election results in his own favor, triggering a political crisis that would last for months until finally resulting in Perak being impeached and removed from office.
One of the northernmost countries of Esquarium, Ceresnia
Law enforcement and emergency services
Ceresnia's economy receives a fair income from tourism. After joining the Esquarian Community in 2000, the number of tourists in Ceresnia almost doubled.
Some of Ceresnia's most visited landmarks include x
Energy in Ceresnia is dominated by nuclear power, comprising about 50 percent of the country's total power needs. In 2015, 51.1 percent of electricity was produced by nuclear power; 40 percent by combustion and steam coal power plants; and 8.9 percent from renewable sources such as hydropower. The largest power resource in Ceresnia is Hrobylska Nuclear Power Plant, which is also one of the largest plants of Esquarium, located by the lake Bratvan.
Ceresnia is planning on gradually reducing its dependence on the highly polluting brown coal as an energy source and focusing on the more popular and growing market for nuclear energy. Natural gas is procured from Evroseian companies, mainly Evronefta, extracted from rifts located near the Hladraga inlet and imported by a major pipeline. Gas consumption, approximately 90 TWh between 2010 and 2012, is almost triple electricity consumption.
South Ceresnia has some gas and oil deposits, the products of which are transported to neighboring Cheranavia via a minor pipeline. However, no other countries rely on Ceresnia as a source of gas and oil.
Science and technology
Largest cities in Ceresnia
Statistical offices in Ceresnia (2013)
Ceresnia has a universal health care system for all citizens.