|Second Ceresnian Republic
Druga Republika Čereska
"Svóboda, Vera, Rodina"
"Freedom, Faith, Homeland"
"Peoples of Ceresnia"
and largest city
|Ethnic groups||91% Ceresnian
|Government||Left-leaning parliamentary republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Barbara Talarova|
|-||President of the Mir||Stefania Haračak|
|-||Chief Justice||Alkazai Gogotov|
69,254.00 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2009 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|-||Per capita||42,549.78 vr|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.847
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CE|
|a.||The .ec domain is also used, as in other Esquarian Community member states.|
Ceresnia (/sɛɹɛzɲə/ ser-es-niə; Ceresnian: Čeresko [tʂɛrɛskɔ]), officially the Second Ceresnian Republic (Ceresnian: Druga Republika Čereska), is a parliamentary republic in the continent of Velkia in northern Esquarium, bordered by Luziyca to the north; Baisel to the east; Graznia to the west; and the Central Ocean to the south. The total area of Ceresnia is 111,454 square kilometres (69,254 sq mi), making it the 15th largest country in Esquarium. With a population of over 35.7 million people, Ceresnia is the 14th most populous country in Esquarium and the 11th most populous member of the Esquarian Community. Ceresnia is a unitary state divided into 7 administrative subdivisions.
The presence of Cerites in the area of present-day Ceresnia can be traced back to the early 8th century AD. They organised the state into a duchy. Ceslaus became the first king by 975, elevating Ceresnia to the status of a kingdom by forming Cera, the first Ceresnian kingdom. It retained its sovereignty for over three centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Dobromir and Slavorad, before making place for the Tsardom of Ceresnia, which again lasted for some five hundred years. Following the downfall of the Tsardom, Ceresnia gradually elevated itself to the status of an Empire by the year 1755 and remained this way for some 160 years until a peaceful revolution seized power and created a republic in Ceresnia. This state, however, was short-lived, due to the fact that in early 1922, another monarchy would be declared in Ceresnia; the Kingdom of Ceresnia, which would be an economically stable state that some could argue was the peak of Ceresnia stability in accordance with the international arena. This was interrupted by the Silent Revolution, which left Ceresnia unofficially divided into a northern state known as the Ceresnian Free State, administered by a democratic government, and an autonomous southern state known as the Ceresnian People's Autonomous Republic, administered by a Marxist–Leninist government.
In 1947, South Ceresnia would invade North Ceresnia and declare a fully independent Ceresnian People's Republic. The operation, carried out by the United Ceresnian People's Party's demand, was led by Eduard Kazukov, who was the self-declared General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party. Kazukov would then proceed to lead the country for 32 years – the longest a Ceresnian head of state ever ruled – until dying in a governmental plane crash in which 8 other Ceresnian officials also died. After Kazukov's unexpected death, the stability of the political situation in the country began to plummet. Zigfrid Urban temporarily served as acting General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party from June to August 1977. In August, Robert Gnapov was chosen to become the next General Secretary. After Gnapov's abdication in February 1980, Tomaš Pisk took over his duties. Pisk was generally regarded as a controversial figure due to his gross human rights violations and the reintroduction of the death penalty during his tenure as General Secretary. In November 1980, a mere eight months after inauguration, Pisk was shot in the left underarm. Pisk was put on medical leave, with duties transferred to Zigfrid Urban. In late December, Pisk's condition worsened, forcing him to completely give up his office to Urban. At first, however, Urban did not accept this order, with some documents specifying the position as vacant from 16 to 21 December. On 18 December, major riots occurred all over Ceresnia, with key governmental buildings bombed, and guerillas attempting to assassinate officials. Ceresnia was in anarchy for three full days.
With Urban forced to assume office and take action, the government soon declared him as the General Secretary to avoid a coup d'état. On 23 December, Urban declared martial law, which was in action for two whole months, until 23 February 1981, when the situation was determined to be completely stabilized. However, some witnesses suggested that thousands of people were killed during martial law, by Urban's command. In 1982, an opposition party for the United Ceresnian People's Party was formed – the People's Movement. Members of the People's Movement, which was a right-wing party, demanded for Urban to be put to trial for war crimes. In 1984, the founder and chairman of the People's Movement, Pavel Perak, brought Urban's case into court. The case was however put on hiatus until November 1988, when the court found Zigfrid Urban guilty of war crimes, however he was not ousted due to this being planned for the coming year. On 1 January 1989, Urban's body was found in his residence at 12 Ulica Hmenna; it is presumed that he committed suicide.
With Albert Popkov serving as acting General Secretary until 17 February 1989 came the first and only democratic election in the history of the Ceresnian People's Republic. The only candidates were Popkov himself and Oleg Meda. Meda won by a landslide, gaining 87,4% of popular vote, and declared that his office would be renamed from "General Secretary of the Central Committee of the United Ceresnian People's Party" to "President of the Ceresnian People's Republic". On 14 February 1991, after nearly two years of presiding over the country, Meda gave up his duties to Pavel Perak, and announced, in order: the disestablishment of the Ceresnian People's Republic; the establishment of the Second Ceresnian Republic; the demolition of 12 Ulica Hmenna; the disestablishment of the United Ceresnian People's Party.
Ceresnia joined the Esquarian Community in 2000, once again elevating its prominence on the international arena. In 2015, the party Left seized the status of the major coalition partner in Ceresnia's government from the People's Movement after the 2015 general election.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
The source of the name Ceresnia and the ethnonyms includes endonyms (the way Ceresnian people refer to themselves and Ceresnia) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Ceresnians and Ceresnia).
Endonyms and most exonyms for Ceresnians and Ceresnia derive from the name of the tribe of the Cerite tribes, which were the first Slavic tribes to inhabit Ceresnia. The tribes' name itself most likely evolved from the word "cera", which means tree bark in Ceresnian. This probably originated from the wood huts that the Cerite tribes were renowned for building.
- Main article: History of Ceresnia
- Main article: Geography of Ceresnia
- Main article: Politics of Ceresnia
Law enforcement and emergency services
- Main article: Economy of Ceresnia
Science and technology
- Main article: Demographics of Ceresnia
- Main article: Culture of Ceresnia