Черэское Людовладство (Ceresnian)
|Anthem: (tr.) "Dzieržavnyj gymn Čereskogo Ludovładstva"
"State Anthem of the Ceresnian Republic"
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||Sloviac, Razarian|
|Ethnic groups (2013)|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Miłorad Odzdžovič|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Duchy of Ceresnia||1178|
|-||Principality of Transcozaria||1268|
|-||Kingdom of Ceresnia||1342|
|-||Union with Veirsia||1 March 1413|
|-||Grand Duchy of Ceresnia||3 August 1684|
|-||Kingdom of Ceresnia||9 March 1782|
|-||Ceresnian Commonwealth||23 May 1924|
|-||Silent Revolution||1 August 1947|
|-||Republic of Ceresnia||2 July 1976|
|-||Joined the Esquarian Community||1 January 2000|
327,610 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|Gini (2011)|| 34.8
|HDI (2015)|| 0.791
|Currency||Vara (ℬ) (CEV)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CE|
|a.||The .ec domain is also used, as in other Esquarian Community member states.|
Ceresnia (Ceresnian: Черэско, tr. Čeresko [ʈ͡ʂe'rɛsko]), officially the Ceresnian Republic (Ceresnian: Черэское Людовладство, tr. Čereskoje Ludovładstvo [ʈ͡ʂe'rɛskoje lʲudo'vɫ̪ad͡ztvo]), is a sovereign state in western Borea. It is bordered by Slovunia to the south, Kheratia to the southeast, and Razaria to the southwest. Ceresnia is a unitary state divided into 12 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 848,506 square kilometres with a largely hyperboreal climate. Ceresnia has a population of over 35.7 million people. Ceresnia's capital and largest city is Trafov. The country's other major cities include Grałov, Rogovsk, Targopol, Biełgorod, and Niemskov.
The presence of Čeres people, a Slavic ethnic group who originated in northwestern Borea, in the area of present-day Ceresnia can be traced back to the early 8th century AD. They organised the state into duchies. The duchies were united as one state of which Česłav became the first king by 975, elevating Ceresnia to the status of a kingdom by the Čeres Kingdom, and converting from paganism to Tastanism, which later evolved into the Ceresnian national faith of Mislitely. It retained its sovereignty for over three centuries, and was subsequently re-organised into a Duchy in 1178 and then a Principality of Transcozaria in 1268 after a Razarian invasion caused Costeny to arrive in Ceresnia. The Principality was disestablished following the 1342 re-establishment of Mislitely in Ceresnia by the Saroznyj dynasty who subsequently ruled Ceresnia for some three centuries, engaging in a personal union with Veirsia and later a union of the two kingdoms governed by one monarch. The union also saw the establishment of a constitutional monarchy.
In 1684, the two entities forming the union engaged in a war sparked by the abdication of King Viačesłav III, which Ceresnia won after the Battle of Holowska. The Saroznyj dynasty were overthrown and Veirsia was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Ceresnia, which granted Ceresnia the largest territorial claim in its history until Veirsia seceded in 1732 and a series of Veirsian uprisings sparked a second war which ended in a ceasefire granting Veirsia independence and reforming Ceresnia as a Kingdom. In 1866, Razaria launched an invasion of Ceresnia, and by 1869, the Razarian emperor acted as the monarch. By 1890, Ceresnia had became a puppet state of Razaria. Following the October Uprising, Ceresnia re-emerged from Razarian rule as a democratic state in 1924, de facto controlled by the military. In 1947, the Silent Revolution saw a dictatorship established in Ceresnia and Miečysłav Kazukov installed as head of state. The Gozar War saw an attempted Razarian invasion of Ceresnia and ended in a treaty which redrew Ceresnia's borders in 1960. In the aftermath of Kazukov dying in a plane crash in 1970, political tensions rose, with opposition emerging, and in 1976 a democratic state was established.
Ceresnia remained a largely agrarian country until the re-establishment of democracy in the late 1970s, undergoing increasingly rampant industrialisation along with the self-described "shock therapy" reforms carried out by Viesłav Pierak in the mid-1980s. Ceresnian GDP growth has been substantial since its establishment, with one of the highest per capita incomes in Borea. The country provides state-funded welfare, free education, and a universal health care system for citizens. Ceresnia has developed an extensive history and a rich cultural heritage, including many historical monuments and protected areas. Today, Ceresnia is a developed country, maintaining high standards of living, quality of life, safety and economic freedom. Ceresnia has also become a member state of numerous supranational organisations including the International League, the Esquarian Community, Cenba, and the League of West Borean Nations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
The source of the name Ceresnia and the ethnonyms includes endonyms (the way Ceresnian people refer to themselves and Ceresnia) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Ceresnians and Ceresnia).
Endonyms and most exonyms for Ceresnians and Ceresnia derive from the Proto-Slavic root *čersъ, meaning 'through', most likely referencing the fact that Ceresnia lies between the major Gozar and Redar Mountain ranges.
Before this name was used, the lands encompassing the area covered by present day Ceresnia were known, from Ancient Argilian as 'Peragozarada', also referencing it as the land on the farther side of the Gozar Mountains. Similarly, neighbouring Razaria was known as 'Plevragozarada'.
In Antiquity, numerous nomadic cultures resided in the areas comprising modern Ceresnia, known in historic context as Peragozarada, but none did so permanently, as the area was still hyperboreal after the Ice Ages until the arrival of Slavic tribes.
The earliest known Neolithic cultures to rise in the area did so in the 6th millennium BCE, with cultures including the Ryčaniovaja culture, the Pradzovaja culture and the Buvarskaja culture. There have also been archaeological finds in these areas such as pottery and jewellery, and it is thought that these cultures were Banderkeramik and Baltic peoples.
In the northernmost areas of modern Ceresnia, several Yupik and various other Eskimo peoples resided in small settlements known as "yabs" and which historians speculate relied on ubiquitous ice architecture such as igloos, confirmed by numerous archaeological finds in the northern regions of Ceresnia. These peoples also most likely lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, collecting most food by foraging.
These peoples are closely related to the Kjeks who inhabit northeastern Ceresnia, and the Aalaaniaq peoples who inhabit Nunalik, both of which in turn are descended from the Proto-Aalaniaq people are likely the descendants of the Proto-Ka-Ama of Tuthina.
Genetic studies have shown centuries-old Slavic presence in the lands lying between the Gozars and the Redars, and the oldest haplogroup derived from the area, the R1a1a-M198 Y-DNA mutation, is estimated to be over 10,000 years old. These peoples originated in the areas nearby the Gulf of Gelyevich and arrived in modern-day Ceresnia after nearby native Monic peoples co-ordinated an expulsion of Slavs into the west.
Ceresnian people, known historically as the Čeres people, established multiple duchies in the between the Gozar and Redar Mountain ranges, including the Miedza duchy, the Miedzviedź duchy, the Cichaja duchy, various duchies in the Jurivy Mountains, and the Čraj duchy which was the major duchy of Transcozaria.
The Čeres peoples worshipped Slavic pagan gods such as Svarog, Perun and Sviatovit and built sacrificial idols to these gods, with most being located in the Jurivy Mountains which were considered sacred by the Slavic pagan religions. These pagan religions served as a basis to Tastanism, which gave way to Mislitely in the late Middle Ages, to which the majority of Ceresnians still adhere to today, however forms of "native" paganism based on early Čeres faith also exist.
Altogether, the Čeres peoples built over 15,000 fortified settlements made of wood known as gorods, with most being located on the Krabnaja and Voper rivers, and with some, however, lying in the Jurivy Mountains. The gorods were treated as separate nation states rather than cities.
Grand Duchy of Ceresnia
After Razaria granted Ceresnia independence following the October Uprising, participants in the uprising formed a state council and provisional new state, a directorial parliamentary republic known as the Ceresnian Commonwealth or Ceresnian Republic, also referred to by historians as the Rogovsk Republic because the state council was initially seated in the city of Rogovsk.
Mikołaj Charačuk, a claimant to the throne who seeked to overthrow the directorial state council, unsuccessfully sparked the Bloody Uprising on 14 February 1924, with the help of Slovunian armies. On 15 February, with the assistance of the Slovunian government, he declared himself the Regent of Ceresnia and installed a globalist and left-wing ideology known coloquially as Charačukism, however internationally, except for Slovunia, the sole legitimate body of the Ceresnian nation was already recognised as the directorial republic.
The uprising failed as the newly mobilised Ceresnian army had thousands of new conscripts, and the much smaller Slovunian and pro-Charačuk forces had less men were poorly equipped. Within hours the government forces had overpowered Charačuk's men.
Following the unsuccessful Bloody Uprising, the provisional government was transformed into a democratic state with military commanders as the sole heads of state, known as the Reformation and led by Vitoš Gosałkov.
The military rule was aimed to be transition period before the appointment of a president, the establishments of which were later neglected by the Salvationist government causing long-term economic stagnation and political repression.
After the military forces assumed power in Ceresnia, Charačuk fled to seek refuge in Slovunia, which had previously unsuccessfully helped him in the Bloody Uprising, however in 1925 a similar military regime seized power through a coup in Slovunia, which recognised the new Ceresnian state and in January 1926 Charačuk was executed by the command of the new government of Slovunia.
General Bogdan Gorvenovič took over as Chief of state of the Ceresnian Commonwealth in February 1933 after Gosałkov was assassinated by a Ceresnian communist activist, Gregorij Tybachov. Gorvenovič's rule was characteristic for being neutral and provisional, and he sought to ban radical political organisations of all political leanings in order to prevent the destabilisation of the newly independent country. In 1940, Gorvenovič appointed Božydar Grochovič as President of Ceresnia; he served until 1947 when he died in office.
In March 1947, following Grochovič's death, the Silent Revolution began as the Salvationist Front launched a popular insurrection. As the national military was weakened by an economic crisis after the murder of Gorvenovič and was thus low in numbers, the Salvationists were able to launch an almost unopposed incursion into the city of Grałov, capturing it in a matter of hours. Shortly afterwards, several anti-governmental paramilitary groups and the Salvationists jointly attacked the capital city, Trafov, and captured it on 1 May 1947. Gorvenovič was captured by a mob of peasants and bakers led by the Salvationists and was shot.
On 8 May 1947, Miečysłav Kazukov declared himself as Chief of state and declared the reformation of the Ceresnian Commonwealth, which was now dominated by the ideology of Salvationism or National Salvationism, which relies on totalitarian and often authoritarian power, but does not have a specifically defined position on the left–right political spectrum. In a Salvationist state, power is held solely by one political party, with forcible suppression of any opposition.
After Kazukov's unexpected death in a governmental plane crash in Namo on 9 June 1970, the stability of the political situation in the country began to plummet. Sviatosłav Charševskij temporarily served as Acting Chief of state.
In the winter of 1970, major riots occurred all over Ceresnia, with key governmental buildings bombed, and guerillas attempting to assassinate officials. With Charševskij forced to take action, the government soon declared him as the General Secretary to avoid a coup d'état. During the revolts, Charševskij ordered the killings of thousands of people opposed to the governmental doctrine.
In 1972, an opposition group against the Salvationist Front was formed – the Civic Movement. Members of the Civic Movement, which was a right-wing political movement and later party, demanded for Charševskij to be put to trial for war crimes.
In 1974, the founder and chairman of the Civic Movement, Viesłav Pierak, brought Charševskij's case into court. The case was however put on hiatus until November 1975, when the court found Sviatosłav Charševskij guilty of war crimes, however he was not ousted due to this being planned for the coming year. On 1 January 1976, Charševskij's body was found in his residence at 12 Ulica Chmielnaja, and his death was ruled a suicide. Bolesłav Popkov was designated as his acting successor.
With Bolesłav Popkov serving as Acting Chief of state until 16 March 1976 came talks with the Civic Movement and the following first and only democratic election in the history of the Ceresnian Commonwealth. The only candidates were Popkov himself and Aleksander Miedza. Miedza won by a landslide, gaining 87,4% of popular vote.
On the day of his inauguration on 2 July 1976 Miedza announced, in order: the disestablishment of the Ceresnian Commonwealth; the establishment of the Ceresnian Republic; the demolition of 12 Ulica Chmielnaja; the disestablishment of the Salvationist Front. On 2 July 1979, after serving three years of his first term, Miedza gave up his duties to Viesłav Pierak, Chairman of the Civic Movement.
In 1984, the August uprising resulted in ethnically Ceresnian lands in Veirsia being reclaimed by a former Ceresnian military leader, Radomir Novak, and declared as a de jure independent state, the Ceresnian Borderland Republic, with unilateral support from Ceresnia, which resulted in the Second Ceresnian-Veirsian War. After Novak was assassinated in 1989, the Treaty of Holowska ended the war and seeked to establish a political and cultural union between Veirsia and Ceresnia. In 1991, the Slavonic Council was established to serve this purpose.
After the definite introduction of democratic elections and a presidential republic, Ceresnia experienced an increase in human rights, political freedoms, internet freedoms and economic standards. Ceresnians voted to join the Esquarian Community in 1999. Ceresnia became a full member on 1 January 2000.
In 2016, long-time former president Viesłav Pierak once again won the presidency, however it was discovered by opposition press that Perak had manipulated the election results in his own favour, triggering a political crisis that would last for months until finally resulting in Pierak being impeached and removed from office. After Pierak's impeachment, opposition leader Gregorij Gołovič was elected president in a snap election.
One of the northernmost countries of Esquarium, Ceresnia is located in West Borea, and shares a 347 kilometre (216 mi) border with Veirsia to the east, a 401 kilometre border (249 mi) with Razaria and 552 kilometres (343 mi) with Slovunia to the south. In the north is the Hyperborean Ocean coast, which stretches from the Bay of Charatna across the Gulf of Močar to the Voper Lagoon. The coast is characterised by numerous coastal lakes (former bays cut off from the ocean), the largest being Lake Močar.
The northern regions of Ceresnia, known as the Niziny (lowlands) are characterised by a lower altitude, taiga and tundra biome and harsh winters, with average temperatures of −25 °C (−13 °F). The south west and south east regions of Ceresnia are hilly, with the Gozar Mountains in the west and the Redar Mountains in the east, including the Jurivy Mountains in the extreme south east corner of Ceresnia.
Ceresnia lies between latitudes X and X, and longitudes X and X. Ceresnia generally has a hyperboreal climate, and a polar climate in the northernmost regions. The land is mostly made of hard granite and other igneous rock, but clay and sedimentary rocks are also widespread throughout Ceresnia, particularly throughout the lowlands.
Ceresnia also contains numerous lakes, particularly in its lowland regions; the largest lake in Borea, Lake Lotvan, is located in Ceresnia, and the second largest lake in Borea, Lake Bratvan, marks the country's border for 65 kilometres. There are also several thousand islets in Ceresnia, however only two islands, Myslicie, located in the Hyperborean Ocean near the Voper Lagoon, and Rozumna, located further out in the ocean.
The west and extreme south east regions of Ceresnia are predominantly agricultural, the north being particularly more forested. 59% of Ceresnia's total land area is covered by forests. The highest population density in Ceresnia is in the Trafov Oblast, as well as the Grałov Oblast and the Pagodian metropolitan areas.
Ceresnia's general geological structure has been shaped by glaciation, which also shaped major West Borean mountain ranges such as the Gozars and the Redars. The melting of glaciers also created numerous lakes scattered among the northern Ceresnian lowlands.
A large part of the Ceresnian landscape contains soils made up mostly of sand or loam, but some upland areas consist of loess or older rocks such as limestone, like the Jurivy, and others contain granite or basalt, mostly in the Gozars, such as the Charatačany and Chruščany, Pridziurovie mountains, Siestry and Machuty mountain ranges and uplands.
There are 90 mountains over 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) above sea level in elevation located in Ceresnia, one of the most numerous counts of mountains of this height in Borea, as Ceresnia houses parts of two major mountain ranges.
The highest point of Ceresnia, Stara Baba, lies in the Chruščany mountains in the Gozar mountain range, at 2,689 metres (8,822 ft) above sea level in elevation. The lowest point in Ceresnia, at 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) below sea level, Černyj Doł, is located at the mouth of the river Voper, and is also the coldest place in mainland Ceresnia on average excluding the islands of Rozumna and Myslicie.
The highest mountain range in Ceresnia overall is the Chruščany, the second highest being the Siestry, with the highest peak being Ščatovatnica at 2,490 metres (8,169 ft) above sea level in elevation. The third highest mountain range is the Miroviany, with the highest peak being Bavicka Gora at 2,011 metres (6,598 ft) above sea level in elevation. Other notable uplands include the Vołosate hills, the Pridziurovie mountains, the Pogory, the Miłosive mountains, and the Charatačany.
In terms of phytogeography, Ceresnia lies in the polar, hyperboreal, and boreal regions. The territory of Ceresnia also belongs to many distinct ecoregions, including the taiga and the tundra in the north, West Borean mixed forests and continental forests, and an area of conifer forest spanning the Jurivy Mountains in the south east.
Many animals in Ceresnia are species unique to the region, such as wisent, which can be found almost exclusively in the woodlands of western Ceresnia, and the Borean lynx, which can be found in various forests across Ceresnia and is the only wild cat native to West Borea.
Ceresnian forest species also include, most notably, the brown bear, Ceresnia's national animal, but also the grey wolf, the moose, and game animals such as roe deer and red deer, pheasant, and wild boar.
In the northernmost regions of the Ceresnian lowlands, there are populations of the polar bear, mostly in nature reserves, national parks or other protected areas, and the animal has been listed as protected. Over time, the polar bear has also become an ubiquitous subject in national folklore, similarly to the national animal, the brown bear.
Overall, there are 102 mammal species and 352 bird species in Ceresnia. As of 1999, there are 232 species that are now protected. Ceresnia houses 8 Esquarian Heritage Sites, 12 national parks and 29 nature reserves.
About 3000 species of fungi have also been recorded in Ceresnia, of which 30% are lichen-forming species. 4% of these fungi are extinct, 6% are endangered, 15% are vulnerable to endangerment, and 8% are rare species. A red list has also been established for these fungi.
Most of Ceresnia has a hyperboreal climate, with some southern regions having a temperate climate and some northernmost areas in the Northern Lowlands having a polar climate. Summers are relatively warm, with average temperatures ranging from 12 to 20 °C depending on the region. Winters are harsh and cold, with average temperatures of around −10 °C in the south and up to −25 °C in the north. Precipitation falls throughout the year, predominantly as snow in the winter.
Mainland Ceresnia is located below the Hyperborean Circle, however the island of Rozumna in the Hyperborean Ocean lies within it and the midnight sun can be observed there. The average annual precipitation is 800 mm (31.5 in) on the coastline, 900 mm (35.4 in) in the highlands and 600 mm (23.6 in) in the east. Snow falls each year, and it can snow from September to May. Sleet can also fall in June or August.
|Record high °C (°F)|| 11.5
|Average high °C (°F)|| −4.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| −3.9
|Average low °C (°F)|| −6.5
|Record low °C (°F)|| −48.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)|| 35.0
|Source: Ceresnian Department of Meteorology|
Government and politics
Ceresnia is a unitary semi-presidential republic as was established by the 1993 Constitution, and was previously a parliamentary republic from 1989 to 1993 as defined by the Small Constitution of 1989. The President is head of state and the Chairman of the Council of the State (Prime Minister) is the head of government.
The executive branch consists of the president, a vice president, the prime minister, and the Council of the State (cabinet). The government of Ceresnia is based on the separation of powers amongst the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The legislative power is held by the bicameral National Assembly of Ceresnia. Parliamentary elections are held every five years.
The Ceresnian Armed Forces are split between three branches; the Ceresnian Land Forces (Черэские Сухопутные Силы, Čereskije Suchoputnyje Siły; the Army), the Ceresnian Maritime Forces (Чэреские Морские Силы, Čereskije Morskije Siły; the Navy), and the Ceresnian Aerospace Forces (Черэские Поветрно-Космичные Силы, Čereskije Povietrno-Kosmičnyje Siły; the Airforce). Overall, the Ceresnian Armed Forces have roughly 734,900 personnel, of whom 285,900 are active, 441,000 are reserve, and 8,000 comprise paramilitary groups.
Furthermore, the military maintains the Ceresnian Border Guard (Черэская Граничная Страж, Čereskaja Graničnaja Straž), with its main aim being deterring armed incursions into Ceresnian territory, preventing the illegal crossing of the border and the transporting of weapons and explosives, and monitoring navigational procedures within Ceresnia's territorial waters.
Most of Ceresnia's service members are conscripts, with conscription currently being enforced for all male citizens aged over 18 for a period of 12-24 months depending on placement. Conscientious objectors are not recognised by the government; citizens may only be exempted from compulsory military service on medical grounds. Females are exempted from conscription but may serve in the military voluntarily.
General Drogomir Chyrščałkov is head of the Ministry of Defence and Gregorij Gołovič serves as Commander-in-Chief ex officio as President of Ceresnia. As defined by the 1980 Constitution of Ceresnia, the military remains subordinate to all civilian government organs, with the military not maintaining a role in the politics of Ceresnia since the Silent Revolution of 1947.
A member of Cenba, Ceresnia's military participates in its exercises and deployments. Despite this, Ceresnian involvement in Cenba missions is minute. As of 2016, Ceresnia currently spends roughly 3% of its gross domestic product on military expenditure.
Ceresnia's economy receives a fair income from tourism. After joining the Esquarian Community in 2010, the number of tourists in Ceresnia almost doubled.
Some of Ceresnia's most visited landmarks include x
Energy in Ceresnia is dominated by nuclear power, comprising about 50 percent of the country's total power needs. In 2015, 51.1 percent of electricity was produced by nuclear power; 40 percent by combustion and steam coal power plants; and 8.9 percent from renewable sources such as hydropower. Prior to its closure due to a nuclear accident, the largest power resource in Ceresnia was Grobyłchov Nuclear Power Plant, which was also one of the largest plants of Esquarium, located by the lake Bratvan.
Ceresnia is planning on gradually reducing its dependence on the highly polluting brown coal as an energy source and focusing on the more popular and growing market for nuclear energy. However, after a nuclear accident occurred at the Grobyłchov plant, activism in support of renewable energy increased.
Natural gas is procured from Luziycan companies, mainly Luznafta, extracted from rifts in Luziyca imported by a major pipeline. Gas consumption, approximately 90 TWh between 2010 and 2012, is almost triple electricity consumption.
Northern Ceresnia has some gas and oil deposits, the products of which are transported to neighbouring Veirsia via a minor pipeline. However, no other countries rely on Ceresnia as a source of gas and oil.
Following the Grobyłchov disaster, the Ceresnian government is seeking another low-polluting energy source apart from nuclear power.
Transport in Ceresnia is provided by means of road, marine, rail and air travel. Ceresnia's road network is among the densest in West Borea, however less dense in its northernmost areas. The highway network is among the largest in Borea, notable for one of the first ring roads, the A10 which encompasses Trafov, built in 1965.
The largest Ceresnian airports are Trafov–Zamietno Airport and Grałov Vitoš Gosałkov Airport, both hubs of Ceresnian Airlines, Ceresnia's flag carrier. Other major airports include Rogovsk, Ždanov and Ciažov.
The port of Groznica is one of the largest container ports in Borea and the northernmost, and is also notable for being the location of an Aininian naval base intended for special use in the Hyperborean region. However, transport is crippled during winter as the port freezes over.
Ceresnia also houses a large part of the Transborean Railway network. Railway transport accounts for a fair portion of Ceresnia's freight transport, alongside marine transport.
Much of Ceresnia's cities have developed urban transport systems such as buses, trolleybuses, trams, and metro systems. There are two metro systems in Ceresnia, the Trafov Metro and the Grałov Metro, respectively. The former is one of the most developed systems in West Borea, opened in 1987, while the latter opened in 1999.
Ceresnia has a well developed communication infrastructure. The country has 35.7 and 34 million SIM cards. The largest mobile network, Delta, covers approximately 90% of the country's territory. Ceresnia's fixed phone network is currently being modernised, despite a rapid decrease in its usage since the early 2000s.
The Ceresnian postal service is operated by the state-owned public company Čereskaja Słaćnia (Ceresnian Post), and was first launched in 1647 to establish new postal routes from Ceresnia to Razaria and other neighbouring countries, including Lecia and Luziyca; this makes it one of the oldest postal systems in Borea.
After the abolition of monarchy and establishment of a new Ceresnian state in 1924, the postal service saw a fledgling new development as package deliveries and various other services were first introduced.
Science and technology
Historically, Ceresnia has had prominent achievements in the fields of science and technology. The Kholodov Prize has been awarded to 19 Ceresnian laureates, including Ludomir Kotskij, who developed the modern periodic table of the elements in 1940.
Another notable Ceresnian working in the field of research and development was Bogna Malinova, an outstanding mathematician who went on to form the Rogovsk School of Mathematics along with other leading Ceresnian and Veirsian mathematicians such as Mirosłava Kraśnievaja, Radosłav Chruščovskij and Wjewsćechlaw Wejowćejski, which granted Ceresnia a fledgling new movement emerging in mathematical progress.
Despite Ceresnia having a developed education system, many scientists studied and worked abroad until the fall of communism in 1989.
Ceresnia spends a fairly large amount of its direct budget on research and development, about $20.9 billion in 2014, which accounts for 4.9% of its gross domestic product. It has remained an integral part of the Ceresnian economy.
Transnational corporations are attracted to Ceresnia as a possible investment because of its easy availability of a highly qualified labour force, large number of universities, and vast and free market. Nearly 30 research and development centres and 3000 researchers have made Ceresnia one of the largest research and development hubs in Borea alongside global leaders such as Luziyca and Namor.
Largest cities in Ceresnia
Statistical offices in Ceresnia (2013)
Throughout antiquity, Ceresnia was dominated by Slavic pagan religions. Ceresnia adopted Tastanism after the unification of its duchies in 975 by King Česłav.
Healthcare in Ceresnia is similar in quality to other developed countries; Ceresnia has a free universal health care system for all citizens, however citizens are still required to buy health insurance privately from insurance companies. In 2014, life expectancy at birth was 77.8 years for men and 78.1 years for women – higher than the overall Esquarian average.
The main cause of death in 2011 was heart disease, at 39%, followed by cancers, at 31%; in 2005 about 58,000 Ceresnians had been infected with viral immunodeficiency syndrome and 19,000 had died from the disease. According to a 2010 survey, 43% of Ceresnian adults are smokers – smoking has been cited as a major health issue and the government has taken measures against it by launching several campaigns against smoking.
In 2015, the Ceresnian government spent 12.3% of its gross domestic product on healthcare.
Ceresnia has one of the largest percentages of graduates in Esquarium, at about 39.3% of the population. Education in Ceresnia is regulated by the Ministry of National Education. Compulsory education starts in elementary schools, however children can optionally enrol into preschools beforehand.
Children enrol in elementary schools at the age of six. Compulsory education consists of seven grades of elementary school which have been enforced since 1989. Later, students attend either gymnasiums or vocational schools for another five years, which end with a dorosłość (maturity examination), and can be followed by higher education, leading to budovnitstvo (first cycle qualification; engineer), gospodstvo (second cycle qualification; master) and eventually učeństvo (third cycle qualification; doctor).
There are 20 universities in Ceresnia – 17 public universities and 3 private universities. According to a 2012 census, 914,207 students attended university during the school year. Notable universities in Ceresnia include the University of Rogovsk, the oldest university in Ceresnia, founded in 1480; the Saroznyj University in Trafov, the largest in Ceresnia; the Vitoš Gosałkov University in Grałov, the second-largest; and the University of Biełgorod.
|University of Rogovsk||Trafov Saroznyj University||Grałov Gosałkov University||University of Biełgorod|
Literature first arose in Ceresnia under the influence of late Pagan and early Tastanist religious beliefs, and was initially written in the Mstic script until the end of the 13th century, when Cyrillic became predominant. Early Ceresnian literature was often authored anonymously and its most popular genres included hagiographic works, epistolary novels, prayer books and historiographical works. Poetry was also common, often appearing in the form of liturgies and religious chants, and later as a form of entertainment for Ceresnian knights and gentry.
17th century Ceresnian literature was greatly influenced by the improvement of general education and schooling and introduction of education on literature and poetry in Ceresnian schools, which led to a great increase in the number of Ceresnian poets, including Vołodzimir Tragovič, Želisłav Červieńskij and Śvietosłav Zastavovič. Humanist literature also began to arise in the late 17th century, with such writers including Mścivoj Kołodziejskij and Dobrogost Jaroševskij.
The Ceresnian Enlightenment first began in the second half of the 18th century and often dealt with political matters and were authored by such writers as Ludomir Bałchackij, Dobrosłav Plitvič, and Vitoš Vijevič. Satiric literature was very popular and its authors included Radomir Mročkovskij, Bronisłav Miedźviedziovič and Božydar Bobrichovskij. A significant trend in 17th century Ceresnian literature were also works referring to early and Pagan literature and ancient myths. These works fell out of favour following the Razarian invasion of Ceresnia, when Cositene literature was popularised.
After Ceresnia regained its independence in 1924 and Razarian censorship no longer limited works from being published, there arose a brief but steady period of the publications of many new works including novels by authors such as Aleksander Skarževskij and Gregorij Žyivinovič, and poetry by writers such as Jevgienij Pytoš and Andriej Karčyścian. However, with the advent of the Salvationist regime following the Silent Revolution, the mass censorship of many works resumed and less creative literature was being produced. However, writers such as Žyvinovič and Pytoš were still popular during this period.
Contemporary literature was established in Ceresnia in its current form in the 1970s following the fall of the Salvationist regime, has many differing genres and deals with various topics. Renowned novelists and writers of the contemporary era include Saša Korieniovskij, Gregorij Požalstovič, Bogna Mieržyševskaja, and Miečysłav Pułnievskij.
|January 1||New Year’s Day||Новый год, Novyj god||Marks the first day of the calendar year.|
|June 21||Sobotki||Купальская ноць, Kupalskaja noć||Marks the summer solstice, derived from a pagan festival.|
|September 21||Kołovoz||Коловоз, Kołovoz||Marks the fall equinox.|
|December 21||Kolada||Коляда, Kolada||Origins can be traced to a pagan festival of the same name marking the winter solstice.|