|Republic of Ceresnia
Ludovładza Čereska (Ceresnian)
and largest city
|Recognised national languages||Satarian, Sloviac, Razarian|
|Ethnic groups (2013)|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Miłorad Odzdžovič|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Duchy of Ceresnia||1178|
|-||Tsardom of Ceresnia||1268|
|-||Kingdom of Ceresnia||1342|
|-||Union with Sataria||1 March 1413|
|-||Grand Duchy of Ceresnia||3 August 1684|
|-||Kingdom of Ceresnia||9 March 1782|
|-||Ceresnian Commonwealth||23 May 1924|
|-||Communist Ceresnia||1 August 1947|
|-||Republic of Ceresnia||2 July 1989|
|-||Joined the Esquarian Community||1 January 2000|
327,610 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|Gini (2011)|| 34.8
|HDI (2015)|| 0.791
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CE|
|a.||The .ec domain is also used, as in other Esquarian Community member states.|
Ceresnia (Ceresnian: Čeresko [ʈ͡ʂɛrɛskɔ] ( )), officially the Republic of Ceresnia (Ceresnian: Ludovładza Čereska), is a sovereign state in Western Borea. Ceresnia is a unitary state divided into 12 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 848,506 square kilometres with a largely hyperboreal climate. Ceresnia has a population of over 35.7 million people. Ceresnia's capital and largest city is Trafov. The country's other major cities are Gralov, Rogovsk, Targopol, Biełgorod, Niemskov, Levopol, Kopanovo, Ždanov, Ciažov, Černiki, and Švitna.
The presence of Ceresans, a Slavic ethnic group who originated in northwestern Borea, in the area of present-day Ceresnia can be traced back to the early 8th century AD. They organised the state into duchies. The duchies were united as one state of which Česlav became the first king by 975, elevating Ceresnia to the status of a kingdom by forming a kingdom now known as the Ceres Kingdom, and converting to Christianity. It retained its sovereignty for over three centuries, before being organised into a Duchy in 1178 and a Tsardom in 1268 after Orthodox Christianity arrived in Ceresnia. The Tsardom was disestablished following the 1342 catholicisation of Ceresnia by the Sarozny dynasty who subsequently ruled Ceresnia for some three centuries, engaging in a personal union with Sataria which eventually evolved into a union of the two kingdoms governed by one monarch who was elected by popular vote, making it one of the first democracies in Borea.
In 1684, the two entities forming the union engaged in a war sparked by the abdication of King Vjačeslav III, which Ceresnia won after the Battle of Mirogoj. The Sarozny dynasty were overthrown and Sataria was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Ceresnia, which granted Ceresnia the largest territorial claim in its history for some 100 years until Sataria seceded in 1782 and a series of Satarian uprisings sparked a second war which ended in a ceasefire granting Sataria independence and reforming Ceresnia as a Kingdom. Ceresnia established itself as a provisional state in 1924 following the abdication of the King, followed by a military dictatorship. In 1947, the Silent Revolution saw a communist state established in Ceresnia and Eduard Kazukov installed as head of state. The Gozar War saw an attempted Razarian invasion of Ceresnia and ended in a treaty which redrew Ceresnia's borders in 1960. In the aftermath of Kazukov dying in a plane crash in 1977, political tensions rose, with opposition parties like the Civic Movement emerging, and in 1989 Ceresnia established itself as a parliamentary republic, however the 1993 constitution re-established it as a semi-presidential republic.
Ceresnia remained a largely agrarian country until the disestablishment of communism in the late 1980s, undergoing increasingly rampant industrialisation along with the self-described "shock therapy" reforms carried out by Pavel Perak in the mid-1990s. Ceresnian GDP growth has been substantial since its establishment, with one of the highest per capita incomes in Borea. The country provides state-funded welfare, free education, and a universal health care system for citizens. With an expanding history, Ceresnia has developed a rich cultural heritage, including many historical monuments and protected areas. Today, Ceresnia is a developed country, maintaining high standards of living, quality of life, safety and economic freedom. Ceresnia is also a member state of numerous supranational organisations including the International League, the Esquarian Community, Cenba, and the Slavonic Council.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
The source of the name Ceresnia and the ethnonyms includes endonyms (the way Ceresnian people refer to themselves and Ceresnia) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Ceresnians and Ceresnia).
Endonyms and most exonyms for Ceresnians and Ceresnia derive from the Proto-Slavic root *čersъ, meaning 'through', most likely referencing the fact that Ceresnia lies between the major Gozar and Redar mountain ranges, leading it to be called the way through the mountains or the land in between the mountains.
Before this name was used, the lands encompassing the area covered by present day Ceresnia were known as 'Transcozaria', also referencing it as the land on the farther side of the Gozar mountains. Similarly, neighbouring Razaria was known as 'Ciscozaria'.
In Antiquity, numerous nomadic cultures resided in the areas comprising modern Ceresnia, known in historic context as Transcozaria, but none did so permanently, as the area was still hyperboreal after the Ice Ages until the arrival of Slavic tribes.
The earliest known Neolithic cultures to rise in the area did so in the 6th millennium BCE, with cultures including the Ryčańova culture, the Pradzova culture and the Buvarska culture. There have also been archaeological finds in these areas such as pottery and jewellery, and it is thought that these cultures were Banderkeramik and Baltic peoples.
In the northernmost areas of modern Ceresnia, several Yupik and various other Eskimo peoples resided in small settlements known as "qaas" and which historians speculate relied on ubiquitous ice architecture such as igloos, despite no archaeological finds to confirm this.
Genetic studies have shown centuries-old Slavic presence in the lands lying between the Gozar and Redar mountains, and the oldest haplogroup derived from the area, the R1a1a-M198 Y-DNA mutation, is estimated to be over 10,000 years old. These peoples originated in the areas nearby the Gulf of Gelyevich and arrived in modern-day Ceresnia after nearby native Monic peoples co-ordinated an expulsion of Slavs into the west.
Ceresnian peoples, known historically as Ceresans, established multiple duchies in the between the Gozar and Redar mountain ranges, including the Mudz duchy, the Niedzviedz duchy, the Ticha duchy, various duchies in the Jurivy mountains, and the Čraj duchy which was the major duchy of Transcozaria.
The Ceresan peoples worshipped Slavic pagan gods such as Svarog, Perun and Sviętovit and built sacrificial idols to these gods, with most being located in the Jurivy mountains which were considered sacred by the Slavic pagan religions. These pagan religions served as a basis to Tastanism, which 11.2% of Ceresnians still adhere to today, however forms of "native" paganism based on early Ceresan faith also exist.
Altogether, the Ceresan peoples built over 15,000 fortified settlements made of wood known as gorods, with most being located on the Krabna and Voper rivers, and with some, however, lying in the Jurivy mountains. The gorods were treated like nation states rather than cities, with each having its own standing army.
Duchy of Ceresnia
Tsardom of Ceresnia
Union with Sataria
Grand Duchy of Ceresnia
Kingdom of Ceresnia
After the death of King Andrej VI on 1 January 1924, no direct heir claimed the throne, so the monarchy was subsequently disestablished and the cabinet formed a state council and provisional new state, a directorial parliamentary republic known as the Ceresnian Commonwealth or Ceresnian Republic, also referred to by historians as the Rogovsk Republic because the state council was initially seated in the city of Rogovsk.
Mikolaj Charačuk, a claimant to the throne who seeked to overthrow the directorial state council, unsuccessfully sparked the Bloody Uprising on 14 February 1924, with the help of Slovunian armies. On 15 February, with the assistance of the Slovunian government, he declared himself the Regent of Ceresnia and installed a globalist and left-wing ideology known coloquially as Charačukism, however internationally, except for Slovunia, the sole legitimate body of the Ceresnian nation was already recognised as the directorial republic. The uprising failed as the newly mobilised Ceresnian army had thousands of new conscripts, and the much smaller Slovunian and pro-Charačuk forces had less men were poorly equipped. Within hours the battle was a decisive victory for the government forces.
In August 1924, a Salvationist military coup overthrew the provisional government with an ultimate aim to ensure that Charačuk did not rise to power, and a military junta was established. The following month, General Anatol Antonov was installed as the Chief of state of the Ceresnian Commonwealth (Ceresnian: Vodzač Čereskjego Sadružectva). In 1925, a new constitution was written granting Antonov the title of eternal chief of state, granting him a term lasting until death.
The ideology of this state was Salvationism or National Salvationism, which relies on totalitarian and often authoritarian power, however it does not have a specifically defined position on the left–right political spectrum. In a Salvationist state, power is held solely by the military, with forcible suppression of any opposition. Antonov's rule was aimed to be transition period after the monarchy, the establishments of which were later neglected by the communist government causing long-term economic stagnation.
After the Salvationist forces assumed power in Ceresnia, Charačuk fled to seek refuge in Slovunia, which had previously unsuccessfully helped him in the Bloody Uprising, however in 1925 a similar Salvationist regime seized power through a coup in Slovunia, which recognised the new Ceresnian state and in January 1926 Charačuk was executed by the command of the new leader of Slovunia, Andriej-Pavel Lossov, whose rule was marked by numerous human rights violations. Charačuk was popularised and promoted in the later Communist Ceresnia as a national hero and martyr, and had a posthumous cult of personality; for example, the city of Rogovsk which was the second largest city of Ceresnia at the time was renamed Charačukov from 1955 to 1989.
- Gorvenovič takes over
- Slovunians genocide Ceresnian enclave villages
- Ceresnians invade
- Slovunia becomes a Ceresnian puppet
- Democratic revolution in Slovunia
- Communist revolution in Ceresnia
- Gorvenovič captured and killed
On 8 May 1947, Silent Revolution (…) which left Ceresnia unofficially divided into a northern state known as the Ceresnian Free State, administered by a democratic government, and an autonomous southern state known as the Ceresnian People's Autonomous Republic, administered by a communist government. In 1947, South Ceresnia would invade North Ceresnia and declare a fully independent Ceresnian People's Republic. The operation, carried out by the United Ceresnian People's Party's demand, was led by Eduard Kazukov, who was the self-declared General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party. Kazukov would then proceed to lead the country for 32 years – the longest a Ceresnian head of state ever ruled – until dying in a governmental plane crash on 9 June 1977 in which 8 other Ceresnian officials also died.
After Kazukov's unexpected death, the stability of the political situation in the country began to plummet. Zigfrid Urban temporarily served as Acting General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party from June to August 1977. In August, Robert Gnapov was chosen to become the next General Secretary. After Gnapov's abdication in February 1980, Tomaš Pisk took over his duties. Pisk was generally regarded as a controversial figure due to his gross human rights violations and the reintroduction of the death penalty during his tenure as General Secretary. In November 1980, a mere eight months after inauguration, Pisk was shot in the left underarm in an assassination attempt, the perpetrator of which remains unknown. Pisk was put on medical leave, with duties transferred to Zigfrid Urban. In late December, Pisk's condition worsened, forcing him to completely give up his office to Urban. At first, however, Urban did not accept this order, with some documents specifying the position as vacant from 16 to 21 December.
On 18 December, major riots occurred all over Ceresnia, with key governmental buildings bombed, and guerillas attempting to assassinate officials. Ceresnia was in anarchy for three full days. With Urban forced to assume office and take action, the government soon declared him as the General Secretary to avoid a coup d'état. On 23 December, Urban declared martial law, which was in action for two whole months, until 23 February 1981, when the situation was determined to be completely stabilised. However, some witnesses suggested that thousands of people were killed during martial law, by Urban's command.
In 1982, an opposition party for the United Ceresnian People's Party was formed – the Civic Movement. Members of the Civic Movement, which was a right-wing party, demanded for Urban to be put to trial for war crimes. In 1984, the founder and chairman of the Civic Movement, Pavel Perak, brought Urban's case into court. The case was however put on hiatus until November 1988, when the court found Zigfrid Urban guilty of war crimes, however he was not ousted due to this being planned for the coming year. On 1 January 1989, Urban's body was found in his residence at 12 Ulica Hmenna. He committed suicide by disinfectant ingestion. Albert Popkov was designated as his acting successor.
With Albert Popkov serving as Acting General Secretary until 16 March 1989 came talks with the Civic Movement and the following first and only democratic election in the history of the Ceresnian People's Republic. The only candidates were Popkov himself and Oleg Meda. Meda won by a landslide, gaining 87,4% of popular vote, and declared that his office would be renamed from "General Secretary of the Central Committee of the United Ceresnian People's Party" to "President of the Ceresnian People's Republic".
On the day of his inauguration on 2 July 1989 Meda announced, in order: the disestablishment of the Ceresnian People's Republic; the establishment of the Republic of Ceresnia; the demolition of 12 Ulica Hmenna; the disestablishment of the United Ceresnian People's Party. On 2 July 1992, after serving three years of his first term, Meda gave up his duties to Pavel Perak, Chairman of the Civic Movement.
In 1994, the August uprising resulted in ethnically Ceresnian lands in Sataria being reclaimed by a former Ceresnian military leader, Pavel Novak, and declared as a de jure independent state, the Ceresnian Borderland Republic, with unilateral support from Ceresnia, which resulted in the Second Ceresnian-Satarian War. After Novak was assassinated in 1999, the Treaty of Mirogoj ended the war and seeked to establish a political and cultural union between Sataria and Ceresnia. In 2000, the Slavonic Council was established to serve this purpose.
After the definite introduction of democratic elections and a presidential republic, Ceresnia experienced an increase in human rights, political freedoms, internet freedoms and economic standards. Ceresnians voted to join the Esquarian Community in 2009. Ceresnia became a full member on 1 January 2010.
In 2016, long-time former president Pavel Perak once again won the presidency, however it was discovered by opposition press that Perak had manipulated the election results in his own favour, triggering a political crisis that would last for months until finally resulting in Perak being impeached and removed from office. After Perak's impeachment, opposition leader Jozef Golovič was elected president in a snap election.
One of the northernmost countries of Esquarium, Ceresnia is located in West Borea, and shares a 347 kilometre (216 mi) border with Sataria to the west, a 401 kilometre border (249 mi) with Razaria and 552 kilometres (343 mi) with Slovunia to the south. In the north is the Hyperborean Ocean coast, which stretches from the Bay of Charatna across the Gulf of Močar to the Voper Lagoon. The coast is characterised by numerous coastal lakes (former bays cut off from the ocean), the largest being Lake Močar.
The northern regions of Ceresnia, known as the Nižiny (lowlands) are characterised by a lower altitude, taiga and tundra biome and harsh winters, with average temperatures of −25 °C (−13 °F). The south west and south east regions of Ceresnia are hilly, with the Gozar Mountains in the west and the Redar Mountains in the east, including the Jurivy Mountains in the extreme south east corner of Ceresnia.
Ceresnia lies between latitudes X and X, and longitudes X and X. Ceresnia generally has a hyperboreal climate, and a polar climate in the northernmost regions. The land is mostly made of hard granite and other igneous rock, but clay and sedimentary rocks are also widespread throughout Ceresnia, particularly throughout the lowlands.
Ceresnia also contains numerous lakes, particularly in its lowland regions; the largest lake in Borea, Lake Lotvan, is located in Ceresnia, and the second largest lake in Borea, Lake Bratvan, marks the country's border for 65 kilometres. There are also several thousand islets in Ceresnia, however only two islands, Myslite, located in the Hyperborean Ocean near the Voper Lagoon, and Rozumna, located further out in the ocean.
The west and extreme south east regions of Ceresnia are predominantly agricultural, the north being particularly more forested. 59% of Ceresnia's total land area is covered by forests. The highest population density in Ceresnia is in the Trafov Banate, as well as the Gralov Banate and the Pagodian metropolitan areas.
Ceresnia's general geological structure has been shaped by glaciation, which also shaped major West Borean mountain ranges such as the Gozars and the Redars. The melting of glaciers also created numerous lakes scattered among the northern Ceresnian lowlands.
A large part of the Ceresnian landscape contains soils made up mostly of sand or loam, but some upland areas consist of loess or older rocks such as limestone, like the Jurivy, and others contain granite or basalt, mostly in the Gozar mountains, such as the Charatačany and Chruščany, Pridziurovie mountains, Sestry and Machuty mountain ranges and uplands.
There are 90 mountains over 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) above sea level in elevation located in Ceresnia, one of the most numerous counts of mountains of this height in Borea, as Ceresnia houses parts of two major mountain ranges.
The highest point of Ceresnia, Stara Baba, lies in the Chruščany mountains in the Gozar mountain range, at 2,689 metres (8,822 ft) above sea level in elevation. The lowest point in Ceresnia, at 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) below sea level, Črny Dol, is located in the mouth of the river Voper, and is also the coldest place in mainland Ceresnia on average excluding the islands of Rozumna and Myslite.
The highest mountain range in Ceresnia overall is the Chruščany, the second highest being the Sestry, with the highest peak being Ščatovatnica at 2,490 metres (8,169 ft) above sea level in elevation. The third highest mountain range is the Miroviany, with the highest peak being Bavicka Gora at 2,011 metres (6,598 ft) above sea level in elevation. Other notable uplands include the Vołosate hills, the Pridziurovie mountains, the Pogory, the Miłosive mountains, and the Charatačany.
In terms of phytogeography, Ceresnia lies in the polar, hyperboreal, and boreal regions. The territory of Ceresnia also belongs to many distinct ecoregions, including the taiga and the tundra in the north, West Borean mixed forests and continental forests, and an area of conifer forest spanning the Jurivy Mountains in the south east.
Many animals in Ceresnia are species unique to the region, such as wisent, which can be found almost exclusively in the woodlands of western Ceresnia, and the Borean lynx, which can be found in various forests across Ceresnia and is the only wild cat native to West Borea.
Ceresnian forest species also include, most notably, the brown bear, Ceresnia's national animal, but also the grey wolf, the moose, and game animals such as roe deer and red deer, pheasant, and wild boar.
In the northernmost regions of the Ceresnian lowlands, there are populations of the polar bear, mostly in nature reserves, national parks or other protected areas, and the animal has been listed as protected. Over time, the polar bear has also become an ubiquitous subject in national folklore, similarly to the national animal, the brown bear.
Overall, there are 102 mammal species and 352 bird species in Ceresnia. As of 1999, there are 232 species that are now protected. Ceresnia houses 8 Esquarian Heritage Sites, 12 national parks and 29 nature reserves.
About 3000 species of fungi have also been recorded in Ceresnia, of which 30% are lichen-forming species. 4% of these fungi are extinct, 6% are endangered, 15% are vulnerable to endangerment, and 8% are rare species. A red list has also been established for these fungi.
Most of Ceresnia has a hyperboreal climate, with some southern regions having a temperate climate and some northernmost areas in the Northern Lowlands having a polar climate. Summers are relatively warm, with average temperatures ranging from 12 to 20 °C depending on the region. Winters are harsh and cold, with average temperatures of around −10 °C in the south and up to −25 °C in the north. Precipitation falls throughout the year, predominantly as snow in the winter.
Mainland Ceresnia is located below the Hyperborean Circle, however the island of Rozumna in the Hyperborean Ocean lies within it and the midnight sun can be observed there. The average annual precipitation is 800 mm (31.5 in) on the coastline, 900 mm (35.4 in) in the highlands and 600 mm (23.6 in) in the east. Snow falls each year, and it can snow from September to May. Sleet can also fall in June or August.
|Record high °C (°F)|| 11.5
|Average high °C (°F)|| −4.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)|| −3.9
|Average low °C (°F)|| −6.5
|Record low °C (°F)|| −48.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)|| 35.0
|Source: Ceresnian Department of Meteorology|
Government and politics
Ceresnia is a unitary semi-presidential republic as was established by the 1993 Constitution, and was previously a parliamentary republic from 1989 to 1993 as defined by the Small Constitution of 1989. The President is head of state and the Chairman of the Council of the State (Prime Minister) is the head of government.
The executive branch consists of the president, a vice president, the prime minister, and the Council of the State (cabinet). The government of Ceresnia is based on the separation of powers amongst the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The legislative power is held by the bicameral National Assembly of Ceresnia. Parliamentary elections are held every five years.
Ceresnia's economy receives a fair income from tourism. After joining the Esquarian Community in 2010, the number of tourists in Ceresnia almost doubled.
Some of Ceresnia's most visited landmarks include x
Energy in Ceresnia is dominated by nuclear power, comprising about 50 percent of the country's total power needs. In 2015, 51.1 percent of electricity was produced by nuclear power; 40 percent by combustion and steam coal power plants; and 8.9 percent from renewable sources such as hydropower. The largest power resource in Ceresnia is Hrobylska Nuclear Power Plant, which is also one of the largest plants of Esquarium, located by the lake Bratvan.
Ceresnia is planning on gradually reducing its dependence on the highly polluting brown coal as an energy source and focusing on the more popular and growing market for nuclear energy.
Natural gas is procured from Luziycan companies, mainly Luznafta, extracted from rifts in Luziyca imported by a major pipeline. Gas consumption, approximately 90 TWh between 2010 and 2012, is almost triple electricity consumption.
Western Ceresnia has some gas and oil deposits, the products of which are transported to neighbouring Sataria via a minor pipeline. However, no other countries rely on Ceresnia as a source of gas and oil.
Transport in Ceresnia is provided by means of road, marine, rail and air travel. Ceresnia's road network is among the densest in West Borea, however less dense in its northernmost areas. The highway network is among the largest in Borea, notable for one of the first ring roads, the A10 which encompasses Trafov, built in 1965.
The largest Ceresnian airports are Trafov–Zametno Airport and Gralov Anatol Antonov Airport, both hubs of Ceresnian Airlines, Ceresnia's flag carrier. Other major airports include Rogovsk, Ždanov and Čjažov.
The port of Groznica is one of the largest container ports in Borea and the northernmost, and is also notable for being the location of an Aininian naval base intended for special use in the Hyperborean region. However, transport is crippled during winter as the port freezes over.
Ceresnia also houses a large part of the Transborean Railway network. Railway transport accounts for a fair portion of Ceresnia's freight transport, alongside marine transport.
Much of Ceresnia's cities have developed urban transport systems such as buses, trolleybuses, trams, and metro systems. There are two metro systems in Ceresnia, the Trafov Metro and the Gralov Metro, respectively. The former is one of the most developed systems in West Borea, opened in 1987, while the latter opened in 1999.
Ceresnia has a well developed communication infrastructure. The country has 35.7 and 34 million SIM cards. The largest mobile network, Delta, covers approximately 90% of the country's territory. Ceresnia's fixed phone network is currently being modernised, despite a rapid decrease in its usage since the early 2000s.
The Ceresnian postal service is operated by the state-owned public company Čereska Počta (Ceresnian Post), and was first launched in 1647 to establish new postal routes from Ceresnia to Razaria and other neighbouring countries, including Lecia and Luziyca; this makes it one of the oldest postal systems in Borea.
After the abolition of monarchy and establishment of a new Ceresnian state in 1924, the postal service saw a fledgling new development as package deliveries and various other services were first introduced.
Science and technology
Historically, Ceresnia has had prominent achievements in the fields of science and technology. The Kholodov Prize has been awarded to 19 Ceresnian laureates, including Jan Kocki, who developed the modern periodic table of the elements in 1940.
Another notable Ceresnian working in the field of research and development was Gertruda Malinova, an outstanding mathematician who went on to form the Rogovsk School of Mathematics along with other leading Ceresnian and Satarian mathematicians such as Alina Krasnjeva, Tomaš Chruščevski and Dragan Nikolović, which granted Ceresnia a fledgling new movement emerging in mathematical progress.
Despite Ceresnia having a developed education system, many scientists studied and worked abroad until the fall of communism in 1989.
Ceresnia spends a fairly large amount of its direct budget on research and development, about $20.9 billion in 2014, which accounts for 4.9% of its gross domestic product. It has remained an integral part of the Ceresnian economy.
Transnational corporations are attracted to Ceresnia as a possible investment because of its easy availability of a highly qualified labour force, large number of universities, and vast and free market. Nearly 30 research and development centres and 3000 researchers have made Ceresnia one of the largest research and development hubs in Borea alongside global leaders such as Luziyca and Namor.
Largest cities in Ceresnia
Statistical offices in Ceresnia (2013)
Healthcare in Ceresnia is similar in quality to other developed countries; Ceresnia has a free universal health care system for all citizens, however citizens are still required to buy health insurance privately from insurance companies. In 2014, life expectancy at birth was 77.8 years for men and 78.1 years for women – higher than the overall Esquarian average.
The main cause of death in 2011 was heart disease, at 39%, followed by cancers, at 31%; in 2005 about 58,000 Ceresnians had been infected with viral immunodeficiency syndrome and 19,000 had died from the disease. According to a 2010 survey, 43% of Ceresnian adults are smokers – smoking has been cited as a major health issue and the government has taken measures against it by launching several campaigns against smoking.
In 2015, the Ceresnian government spent 12.3% of its gross domestic product on healthcare.
Ceresnia has one of the largest percentages of graduates in Esquarium, at about 39.3% of the population. Education in Ceresnia is regulated by the Ministry of National Education. Compulsory education starts in elementary schools, however children can optionally enrol into preschools beforehand.
Children enrol in elementary schools at the age of six. Compulsory education consists of seven grades of elementary school which have been enforced since 1989. Later, students attend either gymnasiums or vocational schools for another five years, which end with a matura (maturity examination), and can be followed by higher education, leading to inžinjerat (first cycle qualification; engineer), majsterat (second cycle qualification; master) and eventually doktorat (third cycle qualification; doctor).
There are 20 universities in Ceresnia – 17 public universities and 3 private universities. According to a 2012 census, 914,207 students attended university during the school year. Notable universities in Ceresnia include the University of Rogovsk, the oldest university in Ceresnia, founded in 1480; the Sarozny University in Trafov, the largest in Ceresnia; the Anatol Antonov University in Gralov, the second-largest; and the University of Biełgorod.
|University of Rogovsk||Trafov Sarozny University||Gralov Antonov University||University of Biełgorod|
|January 1||New Year’s Day||Novy god||Marks the first day of the Gregorian calendar year.|
|June 21||Sobotki||Sobotki||Marks the summer solstice, derived from a pagan festival.|
|September 21||Kołovoz||Kołovoz||Marks the fall equinox.|
|December 21||Kolęda||Kolęda||Celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ, origins can however be traced to a pagan festival of the same name marking the winter solstice.|