|Republic of Ceresnia
Republika Čereska (Ceresnian)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Czech, Razarian|
|Ethnic groups (2013)|
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Mikolai Vujcic|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Duchy of Cera||1178|
|-||Tsardom of Ceresnia||1268|
|-||Grand Duchy of Ceresnia||3 August 1684|
|-||Kingdom of Ceresnia||9 February 1782|
|-||Ceresnian Commonwealth||23 September 1924|
|-||Communist Ceresnia||6 October 1947|
|-||Republic of Ceresnia||14 March 1989|
|-||Joined the Esquarian Community||1 January 2000|
327,610 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2017 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2017 estimate|
|Gini (2011)|| 34.8
|HDI (2015)|| 0.791
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CE|
|a.||The .ec domain is also used, as in other Esquarian Community member states.|
Ceresnia (Ceresnian: Čeresko [tʂɛrɛskɔ] ( )), officially the Republic of Ceresnia (Ceresnian: Republika Čereska), is a presidential republic in Northern Borea. Ceresnia is a unitary state divided into 12 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 848,506 square kilometres with a largely boreal climate. With a population of over 35.7 million people, Ceresnia is the thirteenth most populous member state of the Esquarian Community. Ceresnia's capital and largest city is Trafov. The country's other major cities are Gralov, Rogovsk, Targopol, Belogrod, Nemskov, Levopol, Kopanovo, Ždanov, Čjažov, Černiki, and Švitna.
The presence of Cerites, an ethnic group regarded as Slavic pilgrims who originated in northwest Borea, in the area of present-day Ceresnia can be traced back to the early 8th century AD. They organised the state into duchies. The duchies were united as one state of which Ceslaus became the first king by 975, elevating Ceresnia to the status of a kingdom by forming Cera, the first Ceresnian kingdom, and converting to Christianity. It retained its sovereignty for over three centuries, before being organised into a Duchy in 1178 and a Tsardom in 1268 after Orthodox Christianity arrived in Ceresnia from Velkia. The Tsardom was disestablished following the 1342 catholicisation of Ceresnia by the Sarozny dynasty who subsequently ruled Ceresnia for some three centuries until Ceresnia was reformed as a Grand Duchy and the Sarozny dynasty were overthrown.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
The source of the name Ceresnia and the ethnonyms includes endonyms (the way Ceresnian people refer to themselves and Ceresnia) and exonyms (the way other peoples refer to the Ceresnians and Ceresnia).
Endonyms and most exonyms for Ceresnians and Ceresnia derive from the name of the tribe of the Cerite tribes, which were the first Slavic tribes to inhabit Ceresnia. The tribes' name itself most likely evolved from the word "cera", which means tree bark in Ceresnian. This probably originated from the wooden huts that the Cerite tribes were renowned for building.
Prehistory and protohistory
Tsardom of Ceresnia
Kingdom of Ceresnia
On 8 May 1947, Silent Revolution, which left Ceresnia unofficially divided into a northern state known as the Ceresnian Free State, administered by a democratic government, and an autonomous southern state known as the Ceresnian People's Autonomous Republic, administered by a communist government. In 1947, South Ceresnia would invade North Ceresnia and declare a fully independent Ceresnian People's Republic. The operation, carried out by the United Ceresnian People's Party's demand, was led by Eduard Kazukov, who was the self-declared General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party. Kazukov would then proceed to lead the country for 32 years – the longest a Ceresnian head of state ever ruled – until dying in a governmental plane crash on 9 June 1977 in which 8 other Ceresnian officials also died.
After Kazukov's unexpected death, the stability of the political situation in the country began to plummet. Zigfrid Urban temporarily served as Acting General Secretary of the Central Committee of the party from June to August 1977. In August, Robert Gnapov was chosen to become the next General Secretary. After Gnapov's abdication in February 1980, Tomaš Pisk took over his duties. Pisk was generally regarded as a controversial figure due to his gross human rights violations and the reintroduction of the death penalty during his tenure as General Secretary. In November 1980, a mere eight months after inauguration, Pisk was shot in the left underarm in an assassination attempt, the perpetrator of which remains unknown. Pisk was put on medical leave, with duties transferred to Zigfrid Urban. In late December, Pisk's condition worsened, forcing him to completely give up his office to Urban. At first, however, Urban did not accept this order, with some documents specifying the position as vacant from 16 to 21 December. On 18 December, major riots occurred all over Ceresnia, with key governmental buildings bombed, and guerillas attempting to assassinate officials. Ceresnia was in anarchy for three full days. With Urban forced to assume office and take action, the government soon declared him as the General Secretary to avoid a coup d'état. On 23 December, Urban declared martial law, which was in action for two whole months, until 23 February 1981, when the situation was determined to be completely stabilized. However, some witnesses suggested that thousands of people were killed during martial law, by Urban's command.
In 1982, an opposition party for the United Ceresnian People's Party was formed – the Civic Movement. Members of the Civic Movement, which was a right-wing party, demanded for Urban to be put to trial for war crimes. In 1984, the founder and chairman of the Civic Movement, Pavel Perak, brought Urban's case into court. The case was however put on hiatus until November 1988, when the court found Zigfrid Urban guilty of war crimes, however he was not ousted due to this being planned for the coming year. On 1 January 1989, Urban's body was found in his residence at 12 Ulica Hmenna. He committed suicide by disinfectant ingestion. Albert Popkov was designated as his acting successor.
With Albert Popkov serving as Acting General Secretary until 16 March 1989 came talks with the Civic Movement and the following first and only democratic election in the history of the Ceresnian People's Republic. The only candidates were Popkov himself and Oleg Meda. Meda won by a landslide, gaining 87,4% of popular vote, and declared that his office would be renamed from "General Secretary of the Central Committee of the United Ceresnian People's Party" to "President of the Ceresnian People's Republic". On the day of his inauguration on 2 July 1989 Meda announced, in order: the disestablishment of the Ceresnian People's Republic; the establishment of the Republic of Ceresnia; the demolition of 12 Ulica Hmenna; the disestablishment of the United Ceresnian People's Party. On 2 July 1993, after serving half of his first term, Meda gave up his duties to Pavel Perak, Chairman of the Civic Movement.
After the introduction of democratic elections and a presidential republic, Ceresnia experienced an increase in human rights, political freedoms, internet freedoms and economic standards. Ceresnians voted to join the Esquarian Community in 1999. Ceresnia became a full member on 1 January 2000, subsequently entering the Greenwich Area in 2002, as a result of which, there is a freedom of movement to and from other Esquarian Community member states.