Namorese Central Council
|Namorese Central Council |
|19th Central Council|
Txo Hengzang, L
Since NMR 2378
Ke Tzanjin, L
Since NMR 2378
Yao Shenkang, DS
Since NMR 2373
Vang Bomen, S
Since NMR 2378
Mixed-member proportional representation|
First past the post
|Central Council Hall, Namo, Capital District|
The Namorese Central Council (Намора Джунггангзехои tr. Namora Junggangzehoi), commonly known by its syllabic abbreviation CenCo (Гангзехои tr. Gangzehoi) is the unicameral national legislature of the People's Republic of Namor. With 2,549 members, known as deputies, the Central Council is the largest legislature among representative democracies in Esquarium.
The Central Council was founded in NMR 2290 along with the People's Republic. It is derived from the Liberationist concept of "people's assemblies" overseeing day-to-day governance in a state. Because of the Liberationist one-party state, the Central Council was dominated by the Liberationist Party and considered a rubber stamp legislature. Starting the NMR 2320s, the Central Council gradually developed into a genuine forum for policymaking, and non-Liberationist parties gained more seats. Presently, no political party controls a majority of the Central Council and coalition-building has become more common.
Besides giving the CenCo the power to pass laws, the Constitution of Namor grants the CenCo a broad range of powers, including the power to determine the national budget, declare war or a state of emergency, appoint the Procurator-General and members of the Supreme People's Court, confirm the appointment of State Council and other officials appointed by the President-General, and impeach all executive officials including the President-General. The President-General cannot veto laws, making the Presidency-General beholden to the CenCo. However, the CenCo abides by a procedure which makes it more difficult to pass laws, ensuring that it does not entirely override the rest of the government.
Elections for Central Council are held every five years under most circumstances. According to the Constitution, elections for Central Council must be held concurrently with presidential elections. Most deputies of the Central Council are directly elected with the exception of the 46 Vaihoimeng deputies who are elected by Overseas Namorese organizations.
- 1 History
- 2 Election and membership
- 3 Proceedings
- 4 President of the CenCo
- 5 Commissioner of the CenCo
- 6 List of leaders of the Central Council
- 7 Legislative Cadre
- 8 State of Emergency
Single party state years
The 1st Central Council convened in April 1, NMR 2290, days after the People's Republic was established. As the ruling party, the Liberationists occupied a supermajority of seats. The remaining seats were allocated to smaller parties that belonged to the March 28 Front, a coalition of parties that accepted the Liberationists as the "vanguard force" of the Namorese Revolution. In theory, the Liberationists shared power with the smaller parties, but in reality the Liberationists had total control such that Namor was a single-party state.
The Central Council was structured differently than it is in the present under the NMR 2290 Constitution. The Council was technically a greater body comprised of five "class councils." Each represented one of the five classes recognized in Liberationism (workers, peasantry, military, intelligentsia and bourgeoisie). The Central Council had a total of 1,250 deputies with 250 deputies in each class council. Deputies of the Central Council were indirectly elected by members of their respective local-level class councils.
During the first three decades of the People's Republic, the Central Council's role in Namorese politics was minimal and ceremonial at best; important decisions were made by the Liberationist Party leadership, whereas the Central Council usually convened to rubberstamp the government's policies.
NMR 2315 political crisis
The Central Council began to play a more independent role from the government starting the NMR 2315 Namorese political crisis. The Central Council under the leadership of President Gelai Antelope clashed with forces loyal to President-General Kiang Ssxu. Eventually, the Central Council forces prevailed and a new government was established with Antelope as its leader.
The introduction of the NMR 2320 Constitution saw sweeping reforms to the structure of the Central Council. The class councils were abolished due to their role in "deepening inter-class divides." Council membership was increased from 1,250 to 2,549 people, with deputies not representing one of the five classes, but a specific region of the country.
In NMR 2325, the first genuinely multiparty elections for Central Council were held. Parties that weren't aligned with the Liberationists were allowed to participate.
Demands for direct legislative elections resulted in the Plum Blossom Revolution, after which the government agreed to hold the first direct elections for President-General and Central Council in NMR 2335.
The Liberationists lost control of the Central Council for the first time in the NMR 2348 legislative election.
Election and membership
The CenCo consists of 2,549 members called deputies (даибо). Deputies are elected in multiple ways depending on who they are elected to represent.
Legislative district deputies
1,500 seats are reserved for deputies of legislative districts (also known as constituencies). There are 50 groups of 30 legislative district deputies, since there are 50 legislative districts and each legislative district elects 30 deputies.
Legislative district deputies are elected by closed-list proportional representation. There is an electoral threshold of 10% - a party must receive a sufficient number of votes within that district so that it may be awarded at least three seats. Any remaining seats are given to the party with the most number of seats.
980 seats are reserved for deputies of first-level administrative divisions (Districts and Autonomous republics). There are 14 groups of 70 first-level deputies.
First-level deputies are elected by first past the post - the party with the highest percentage of votes in a first-level district wins all seats for that district.
In some ways, first-level deputies serve as the upper house of the CenCo. They ratify amendments to the constitution and confirm the appointment of executive and judicial officers (e.g. Members of the State Council and Supreme People's Court). In addition, first-level deputies can impeach executive officials.
23 deputies are elected by residents of Capital District (Namo) through first past the post.
Vaihoimeng (Overseas Namorese)
46 seats are reserved for the Federation of Overseas Namorese Associations (syllabic abbreviation Vaihoimeng), an organization that represents the interests of overseas-based Namorese general associations, hometown societies and student organizations. The Vaihoimeng convenes every once in a while to decide who represents it in the CenCo, supposedly considering the opinions of various overseas associations. Consequently, Vaihoimeng members in the CenCo are the only deputies who are unelected.
The Central Council is required to convene for at least one week per month, except the month of the Namorese New Year (January or February), when the CenCo is exempt from this rule and may take a month-long recess. But even if Namorese New Year falls on January, the CenCo may not be in recess on January 1 - the day of the President-General's State of the People's Republic address.
Deputies of the Central Council do not have to be present to vote. Most monthly sessions are not attended by all members of the CenCo due to the legislature's size. Nearly all deputies show up during the State of the People's Republic. All deputies are required to be present when a CenCo convenes for the first time so that they may be sworn into office.
A proposal is introduced to the Central Council through one of its 14 legislative cadres. After the cadre discusses the proposal, it is put to a vote. If the proposal is passed by the cadre, it becomes a bill and is turned to the whole Central Council to be discussed and voted on.
In order for the bill to pass the CenCo, it needs the approval of at least half of all members in attendance of the vote. Once it is passed, it is sent to the President of the CenCo, who may deliver the bill to the President-General or veto the bill (called the "first veto"). In the event of a "first veto," the CenCo may override the veto by a two-thirds vote among all deputies present, thereby sending the bill directly to the President-General.
If the President-General vetoes the bill (called the "second veto"), the bill returns to the CenCo, this time to the Commissioner of the CenCo, who may accept the President-General's veto or call a vote to overturn the veto. If the latter occurs, the CenCo may overturn the second veto by a three-fourths vote among all deputies of the Central Council (equivalent to 1,911 deputies), forcing the bill to become law.
President of the CenCo
The President of the Central Council comes from the party with the most number of seats in the Central Council. After an election, the party with most number of seats holds a meeting to vote on the President.
The President presides over the CenCo alongside the Commissioner. He may veto legislation passed by the CenCo in an effort to prevent said legislation from reaching the President-General. This is commonly referred to as the "first veto" before a possible "second veto" by the President-General.
The President of the CenCo is third in the line of succession. If both the President-General and Vice President are unable to exercise their duties, then the President of the CenCo becomes Acting President-General, followed by the Commissioner of the CenCo who becomes Vice President.
Commissioner of the CenCo
The Commissioner of the Central Council is considered the deputy leader of the Central Council.
Unlike the President who comes from the party with the most number of seats, the Commissioner is chosen by all members of the CenCo, including those who belong to the opposition. In situations where the governing coalition has the highest number of seats but is outnumbered by the opposition, the President and Commissioner usually come from opposing camps. A party is considered to be in total control of the CenCo if both the President and Commissioner come from the same party.
The Commissioner's role consists primarily of deciding whether legislation vetoed by the President of the CenCo should be returned to the CenCo so that it may override the President's veto. The Commissioner can also present legislation that had already been vetoed by the President-General so that the CenCo may override the President-General's veto. However, a higher percentage of deputies must approve of the bill so that it may circumvent the President-General as opposed to the President of the CenCo.
List of leaders of the Central Council
Txo Antelope is by far the longest-serving President of the Central Council, having served as President for 18 years and presided over four Central Councils. Kiang Ssxu is the second longest-serving President, having served for 15 years and presided over three Central Councils.
- Socialist Reconstruction
- Democratic Socialists
- New Democrats
A Legislative Cadre (Лифаhои Канпу) is a sub-organization in the Central Council to which a handful of deputies belong. Each cadre handles a specific duty, such as the budget, health, foreign affairs and the military. Members of a cadre are informed on a subject concerning that cadre and report to the CenCo. A proposal must first enter the appropriate cadre, where it is debated and approved on before being submitted to the whole CenCo as a bill.
Initially, the cadres were known as "committees," but during the Green Fever Yunglang Antelope personally ordered that they be renamed to Cadres to reflect "revolutionary work spirit." The name change was among the few that took place during the Fever and was never undone after it ended.
At present, there are 14 total legislative cadres in the Central Council.
|Science and Technology (Кезеканпу)|
|Legislative Ethics (Лифадодеканпу)|
|Foreign Affairs (Ваиджоканпу)|
|Domestic Security (Неипингканпу)|
|Societal Well-Being (Сохоифуджиканпу)|
|Nantai Reunification (Нантаи Тонгуниканпу)|
State of Emergency
Article 38 of the Namorese Constitution limits the Central Council's powers during a state of emergency.
At least three-fourths of one half of all members of the Central Council must approve of a state of emergency in order for it to come into effect. Once the state of emergency comes into effect, the Central Council is "handicapped" for a period of 30 days in which it may continue passing legislation but it may not override legislation vetoed by the President-General. 30 days later, the state of emergency expires and the Central Council may vote to extend the state of emergency for another 30 days upon the request of the President-General.