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|Federal Republic of Carloso
República Federal de Cárloso
|Motto: "Nation, sovereignty, unity"
"Nación, soberanía, unidad" (Spanish)
|Anthem: "The Vencedor's Song"
"La Canción del Vencedor" (Spanish)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Spanish|
|Ethnic groups (2015)||99.7% White
|Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|-||Deputy President||George Spalding|
|-||Writ of Union||1 February 1581|
|-||Dissolution of the Carlosian Empire||29 May 1932|
|-||Federalisation||20 June 1956|
1,150,223 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2016 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2016 estimate|
|Gini (2015)|| 28.7
|HDI (2016)|| 0.917
|Currency||Carlosian dero (D£) (DER)|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC±0)|
|-||Summer (DST)||CST (UTC+1)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (AD)|
|Drives on the||left|
Carloso (//; Spanish: Cárloso), officially the Federal Republic of Carloso (Spanish: República Federal de Cárloso), is a transcontinental sovereign, federal parliamentary constitutional republic composed of twenty-four provinces located in Western Musgorocia, each exercising a limited degree of autonomy from the central government based in the nation's capital; Madrigal. The South Liskeard Islands, located in the Novarian Ocean, on the continent of Novaria, are governed as an unincorporated territory directly administered by the Carlosian government. The mainland portion of the country is bordered by Agostinia to the south, Ortecuria and Sarabagia to the east, Acrary, West Laurentia and Taliaferro to the north and the Musgorocian Ocean to the west. With an area of 2,979,063 square kilometres (1,150,223 sq mi) and a population of 359,726,397 according to the most recent census, Carloso is the third largest country in Musgorocia, after Bourgougia and Barssois, and the most populous. Much of the nation's population is centred around extensive metropolitan areas such as Madrigal, Ebon, Secano, Toro, Lagosa, Preston, Valdehuesa and Castillo de Zamora, though there remains a sizeable rural population. Carloso is a largely bicultural country, with both very large Hispanic and British communities that have generally intermixed, though English remains the dominant language. The country's climate is mostly temperate, while both its geography and wildlife are diverse.
The first humans migrated to modern-day Carloso around 41,000 BC, most likely from across the Musgorocian Ocean by dugout canoe. After Musgorocia was discovered by European explorers, large-scale colonisation was spearheaded by Castile, with the Spanish colonial territory becoming Nueva Murcia. In the War of the Carlosian Secession against the Iberian Union, the colonists emerged victorious in 1581, forcing the kingdoms to formally recognise the new country in the Treaty of Madrigal. An interim government passed the Writ of Union to reform the disparate Seven Colonies into a single political entity; the First Carlosian Republic. The revolution sparked off a wave of similar wars of independence across the entire continent, meaning that, by 1625, European powers had little presence in Musgorocia. From its independence, the country expanded rapidly, constantly fighting native kingdoms. In 1629, the First Republic was ended in a violent coup d'état lead by General Miguel Astacio de Abaroa, which itself was overthrown five years later in a large popular revolution lead by Eberado Lardizábal de Encarnacion, who founded the Carlosian Empire and ruled it as Emperor Charles I. For the next two hundred years, the Empire existed and expanded in relative peace and stability, while immigration from Europe steadily increased, particularly English speaking migrants from Great Britain and Ireland, with English becoming the majority language of the Empire by the end of the nineteenth century. The advent of the Industrial Revolution saw the economy grow exponentially in strength.
Beginning with the War of the Sovereigns in 1847, imperial power began to decline considerably and a series of political and civil conflicts occurred, culminating in the 1919 coup d'état attempt by Estefania Luciano, 5th Marchioness of Toro and the Carlosian Civil War of 1932, which ultimately ended in the dissolution of the Empire and the foundation of the Second Republic of Carloso. At the same time, almost all of the country's foreign possessions were ceded to other countries. The devastating Emergency War of 1946–1951 in Musgorocia saw the re-emergence of the nation as a regional superpower, the first country in Musgorocia to develop nuclear weapons and, so far, the only one to use them against another country. The nation soon became the dominant economic and military powerhouse on the continent. In 1953, a process of devolution of power to the provinces began, finishing in 1956 with the adoption of a new constitution and the foundation of the Federal Republic. The next few decades brought relative peace and stability to the nation, ending with the Acrary Civil War of 1985–1992, the unexpected Bourgougian invasion of Victory in 1987, and the resulting Bourgougian Blitz, the Carmine War of 1991–1994 and the subsequent dissolution of the State Union, as well as the Lavikonan invasion of the Leclerc Islands in 1996. Going into the twenty-first century, the country experienced a period of rapid economic growth, solidifying its position as the dominant regional power. The new century also saw Musgorocia enter a period of geopolitical calm and the normalisation of relations with Barssois, allowing Carlosian governments to develop the nation's interests on the international stage.
Carloso is considered a very highly developed country, ranking well in gross domestic profit (GDP) per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI). Carloso has the largest national economy in Musgorocia, and is characterised by a mixed market, a significant degree of reindustrialisation and very large secondary and tertiary sectors. The country has a noticeably protectionist international trade policy, is a net exporter and ranks highly in self-sufficiency indexes. The nation's currency, the Carlosian dero (£D), is widely circulated around the world and is the most traded currency regionally. Carloso's military expenditure overwhelmingly surpasses that of all other countries in Musgorocia, with an unmatched ability to project power and a large stockpile of modern nuclear weapons. Globally, the country is a major cultural, economic and political force. The country is a former member of the World Assembly (WA), withdrawing in 2011 after a national plebiscite voted in favour of leaving. It was also a very prominent member of the International Freedom Coalition (IFC), but withdrew unilaterally in early 2016. In March 2017, it became a signatory to the COSTAL Accords, redefining its maritime boundaries. In May of the same year, Carloso became a member of the Santiago Anti-Communist Treaty Organisation (SACTO), signifying the complete reorientation of the nation's geopolitical alignment. Bar these exceptions, nation has historically shied away from joining any international organisations and, much like its trade policy, has preferred bilateral diplomacy with other countries.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Dependencies
- 5 Politics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Culture
During the last glacial period, most of modern-day Carloso was covered in a thick layer of ice. The more southerly parts of the country experienced a humid continental climate, with vast boreal woodlands. The lowered sea levels allowed a wide landbridge; Sentarsica Minora, to exist, linking Musgorocia to the now submerged continent of Sentarsica. Rising sea levels cut the two landmasses off around 9,000 BC. The landbridge made it possible for humans to colonise Musgorocia in a series of migratory waves. The earliest evidence of the human settlement of modern-day Carloso has been found in Fornaris Caves, Madrigal, where two skeletons and cave paintings were discovered in 1987 during an expedition into a previously unexplored cavern. The two individuals; a young male and female, were dated to have lived around 41,000 BC. The retreating glaciers allowed humans to travel further north and colonise the newly habitable land so that, by 13,000 BC, humans had spread to most of the continent, including all of modern-day Carloso.
Up until the arrival of European settlers, Musgorocia remained very sparsely populated, with a population believed not to exceed 2 million at any one time. Most of these settled on the coast, including that of contemporary Carloso, where it is believed between 150,000 and 300,000 lived. While it is known that the indigenous people of Carloso developed their own languages, because they lacked any form of writing system, almost nothing is known about them besides some poorly transcribed examples recorded by European explorers. Like all Musgorocian natives, they are almost certainly related to the Yupik or Inuit people.
Soon after the arrival of Admiral Juan de Beldad's fleet in Musgorocia on 1 January 1500, the Crown of Castile constructed a series of military fortifications along the Musgorocian coast. Following these, smaller colonies were established, but most failed. The most northerly settlement at Castillo Llanuras, in present-day Malaledo, Secano, was founded in 1508 as Castille's northernmost settlement on the continent. Its strategic position and cooperation with the natives transformed the distant outpost to a thriving settlement and trading post, attracting hundreds of immigrants from the Iberian peninsula. Shortly afterwards, dozens of smaller settlements were founded, spanning most of the modern day Carlosian coastline, including Arrolobos, Batalla, Toro and Zamora. After the union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon under the Habsburgs, the population began to grow rapidly. King Charles I authorised the creation of the Viceroyalty of Nueva Murcia, with Pedro de Obregón serving as its first viceroy.
In need of an administrative capital, a new settlement called Nuevo Tierracarlos, later renamed Madrigal, was founded on the Santángel Peninsula, now the Madrigal Peninsula. Nuevo Tierracarlos quickly grew into an important centre of trade, with a population of 80,000 by the year 1534. de Obregón mandated a policy of exploration and expansion inland, founding the outpost of Valdehuesa in 1537. The native inhabitants were forced to retreat northwards as outbreaks of European diseases killed much of their coastal population. Mixed units of local mercenaries and veteran soldiers called Vencedores acted as the de facto security forces for Nueva Murcia, combating natives, expanding territories and acting as an irregular police force. The discovery of silver and iron deposits attracted more settlers, and the prosperity of the colonies increased considerably, with territories stretching from Secano in the south-east to Zamora in the north-west to Madrigal at the foot of the Andalucian Mountains.
After its independence, Carloso expanded its territory rapidly.
On 4 January 1987, Carlosian President James Moran was killed during a visit to Brixten, Ebon when a series of explosions destroyed the bridge his convoy was crossing. The perpetrators were quickly caught, soon revealed to be agents of the Bourgougian foreign intelligence service. The new President of Carloso, TBA, demanded that the Bourgougians explain themselves and ordered for a massive military build-up along the Agostinia– Bourgougia border. On 10 February 1987, the Bourgougians invaded the Carlosian exclave of Victory, overrunning its small garrison. A day later, the Parliament of Carloso approved a formal declaration of war against Bourgougia, beginning the almost six-month-long Bourgougian Blitz. Fighting between Agostinia, Carloso and Bourgougian forces broke out all across the border, culminating in a combined invasion of eastern Bourgougia. While initially making huge gains, the advance of Carlosian and Agostinian forces was halted by reinforcements on Bourgougia's side from Barssois and the communist government of Acrary. Intense fighting throughout the summer resulted in casualties mounting on both sides, with the sinking of several Carlosian warships. In July, the Carlosian Armed Forces hatched a daring amphibious assault on the city of Victory, liberating it and beginning a new offensive into southern Bourgougia. Within a month, the Bourgougian government had surrendered and soon descended into civil war after the socialist government was deposed in a coup.
In 1991, the civil war raging in the neighbouring country of Acrary spilt into Carloso when a unit of the Acrary People's Army attacked and occupied the town of Stretton. Fearing an attempt to seize Ebon, President Gallagher and the Carlosian Parliament declared a state of war with Acrary within hours of the attack and began a massive strategic bombing campaign against Acrary, commencing Carloso's intervention in the Acrary Civil War and the downfall of the communist regime a year later when Carlosian and rebel Acrary forces entered Barton, the country's capital. Though it didn't get directly involved in the Carmine War within the State Union, Carloso started openly training and arming the various separatist factions in 1992 in retaliation for the military aid given by the State Union to Bourgougia and Acrary, ending with the dissolution of the State Union in 1994.
Early twenty-first century (2000–present)
After the chaos of the late twentieth century, Carloso's victory in the Bourgougian Blitz and Acrary effectively secured its position as the dominant regional power. The Democratic Party under Michael Gallagher came to power in 2001 for the first time in over forty years, leading a 'rainbow coalition' that included Socialist Republicans, Progressives, Liberal Conservatives and Independents. President Gallagher's term in office was marked by explosive economic growth in the first few years of the new millennium and diplomatic relations were restored with Barssois in 2002, effectively ending the three-way balance of power held in Musgorocia between Carloso, Bourgougia and Barssois since the 1800s. However, a series of corruption scandals led to the near-collapse of the government before the 2005 election, resulting in heavy losses for the Democratic party. The Conservatives under Montero Irizar returned to power, entering into a coalition with the Democrats. By 2006, economic growth had stagnated and there were concerns that the country could soon enter recession.
Carloso is often affected by tropical storms that form in the Musgorocian Ocean and has suffered several destructive hurricanes in the past. By far the worst was Hurricane Augustín in 2007, which killed over 1,000 people and caused more than D£8 billion in damage.
Under the 1956 Constitution, Carloso is a federal, parliamentary, constitutional republic divided into twenty-four distinct and separate administrative provinces. The Constitution distinguishes between metropolitan and non-metropolitan provinces, though there is no difference in the level of autonomy granted to either. Though it is officially described as a federal state, in reality Carloso's political system is can be regarded as 'quasi-federal' or a 'unitary state with a federal spirit', with only a limited degree of self-governance delegated to the provinces and supremacy of the central administration in almost all matters. While provincial governments have a significant amount of control over own health services, civil defence, law enforcement and housing, all decision making and policy can ultimately be dictated by the central government. Madrigal Metropolitan is the most populous of the provinces, encompassing just under 10% of the country's population, The provinces of Carloso are;
|Castillo de Zamora||TBA||TBA||TBA||TBA||TBA|
|Rank||Country||Exports||Imports||Total Trade||Trade Balance||Rank||Country||Exports||Imports||Total Trade||Trade Balance|
|TBA||State Federation||TBA||TBA||TBA||TBA||TBA||Côte d'Emeraudes||TBA||TBA||TBA||TBA|
A national census is conducted in Carloso every five years and is the responsibility of the National Census Authority (NCA) and its provincial branches. The NCA is an executive agency within the Department of Justice.
English is the first, national language of Carloso. Spanish is also spoken, mainly in the north-west around Zamora Province, and the vast majority of citizens are bilingual. All road signs are translated into both English and Spanish. The dialect of English spoken in Carloso; called Carlosian English, has spelling and pronunciation standards that align with British English, and has been noted as phonologically conservative, retaining several words and spelling that have fallen out of use in other varieties of English (e.g spelling of 'serjeant' rather than 'sergeant', use of the word 'ye' as a pluralistic form of 'you', as seen in Hiberno-English). The dialect of Spanish spoken in Carloso is predominantly influenced by Andalusian Spanish. The residents in the northern parts of Toro Province are known for code-switching between Spanish and English, producing a variant of Spanglish.
The Constitution of Carloso provides for the freedom of religion, however, it acknowledges the special position of Christianity as the nation's predominant religion. According to the 2017 census, Roman Catholicism is by far the largest denomination of Christianity in the country, with 285,227,063 (79.29%) regarding themselves as Catholic. The Primate of Carloso is Ezequiel Semprún, who is also Archbishop of Madrigal. The largest church in the country is the Cathedral of Our Lady of Victory.
Anglicanism is the next largest denomination, making up 11.73% of the population. Most of these are members of the Church of Carloso. Presbyterians make up 4.58% of the population.
While weekly attendance of Mass has dropped since 2000, it has not been to the extent seen in other developed countries and has since stabilised. In 2017 week Mass attendance stood at 71%, down from 89% in 1997.
Healthcare in Carloso is largely organised along provincial lines, the publicly-funded system being managed by the national National Health Board (NHB), which is directly subservient to the Department of Health, while the Minister for Health is responsible for health policy and regulation. Each administrative province has its own, largely independent, branch of the NHB. Only Carlosian citizens and expats are allowed access to the public health system.
The average life expectancy at birth in Carloso is 83.4 years; 84.3 years for women and 82.4 years for men respectively. Obesity in Carloso has had a varied history, reaching a high of 21.4% of the adult population in 2009 but reducing since, thanks primarily to a government-lead programme that has imposed harsh sanctions on companies that refuse to reduce the fat and calorie content of their products. According to the most recent data that has been published, the most common cause of death in the country is coronary artery disease, followed by heart attack, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and stroke. The average infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births is 3.72. The Maternity Act 2005 allows for 26 paid weeks of maternity leave for women, in addition to another 16 unpaid weeks afterwards, while the father is entitled to 2 paid weeks of paternity leave only.
Abortion is illegal in Carloso, with a mandatory life sentence for anyone who performs one.