Arstvin

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The Republic of Arstvin
Republyk Arstvin (Low Almannic))(Arstvinian Spelling)
Flag
Motto: Ex Navicula Navis
Anthem: O Heilig land der vâd'ren (O holy land of the fathers)
CapitalAltenburg
Largest city Altenbrug
Official languages Low Almannic
Recognised national languages nKifuni, gBarpulo
Ethnic groups 46% nKifuni
42% gBarpulo
10% Ovambo
2% Other (Rohstian Minority)
Demonym Arstvinian
Government Semi Presidential Republic under one party rule
 -  President of Arstvin Jan Anders de Wit
 -  Prime Minister Jakob Leeuwman
Legislature Senaat
Establishment
 -  Independence from Rohst 3 June 1958 
 -  Military coup d'etat 5 May 1989 
Area
 -  236,745 km2
91,408 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 2.5
Population
 -  2017 estimate 3,155,000
 -  2010 census 2,632,581
GDP (PPP) estimate
 -  Total $2.36 Billion
 -  Per capita $749
GDP (nominal) estimate
 -  Total $1.11 Billion
 -  Per capita $352
Gini (2015)50.2
high
HDI (2016)0.324
low
Currency Arstvinian Gulden (ARG)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code +242

Arstvin, or the Republic of Arstvin (Arstvinian Spelling of Low Almannic: Republyk Arstvin) is a country in northern Majula in Aeia. Arstvin is comprised of 20 communes, which serve as the first-level administrative division of the country. Arstvin borders Mehrsia to the east and Kagon to the south and the Atlantic Channel to the northwest. Arstvin is geographically divided into three regions, the hot Nêgen Desert in the east, the tropical savannas of the south and southeast and the wet plains of the west, where Altenburg, the capital, is located. Most citizens live by the coast, where the ease of fishing and farming play a part in the modern Arstvinian economy.

Proto-Bantus migrated into the area around 8,000 years ago and settled by the banks of the Efrât river. The hunter-gatherer communities would develop into farming communities by the late Neolithic era, which brought early trade to the region. These communities branched off off each other and formed descendant groups of the original Proto-Bantus which now populate modern-day Arstvin. The Kifuni and Barpulo formed intricate social and security systems in their lands, subsequently becoming Arstvin's first kingdoms. Rohstian colonization of Arstvin in the late 19th and early 20th century brought massive turmoil and unrest in the local population. The ratification of constitution and the declaration of independence cemented an Arstvinian national identity on the 3rd of July, 1958 as the nation moves towards independence.

Still recovering from the great sea war which devastated the national economy and population, Arstvin is classified as a low income nation. Subsistence farming and fishing is still widely practiced throughout the nation, where agriculture employs over 78% of the total population. Manufacturing recently started growing at a rapid phase in Altenburg and Kleuwer, signalling a shift from Agriculture. Arstvin's vast natural resources have yet to be utilized to its maximum, with most mines and wells being ill-equipped with suitable technology. Arstvin has also been a major exporter of uncut diamonds, where it employs around 10% of the population.

Currently, Arstvin battles illiteracy and disease, especially in rural areas. Less than 15% of the population can read and write, and even less have completed high school. Arstvinian law resembles Rohstian law very closely as a former colony. Thus, LGBT rights are not recognized within the nation, however, there are calls to legalize such rights. Atheism, abortion and blasphemy is illegal, but enforcement is seldom.

Etymology

The name "Arstvin" is believed to have originated from the Kifuni word Ars, which means cow or cattle in Kifuni. Most linguistic experts agree that the old Kifuni suffix -atvin, or land, place or earth, is attached to the word ars, forming the word arsatvin, or land of the cattle. The earliest mention of the word Arsatvin comes from the early 16th century in a book titled The tale of the three kings. It is believed Arsatvin was the name of an old pre-colonization kingdom which held vast amounts of natural riches.

Upon Rohstian arrival, the name Arstvin was chosen to solidify Rohstian rule over the area, then resulting in the colony and independent nation to be named such.

History

Early History

A menhir in Achtvârt

Approximately 8,000 years ago, unpredictable weather patterns and a scarcity of food drove proto-Bantu hunter-gatherers into the wet plains of Arstvin, forming early farming communities along the Efrât river as part of the neolithic revolution. The cultivation of white yam and the domestication of cattle caused an initial population boom, which led the proto-Bantu to settle in different parts of the region. Combined with the use of boats for fishing and transporting goods are the first examples of the region's cultural identity.

Numerous megalithic sites could be found throughout the coast of Arstvin, indicating advanced societies as early as 3000 BC, dating to the late neolithic era. Ironworking was brought in from Kifuni and Barpulo cultures, descendants of the proto-Bantu society.

During the inland expansion of the Kifuni and Barpulo around 500 BC to 500 AD, the Kai speaking Ovambo tribe arrived from what is present-day Mehrsia. Intermarriage and trade could be found between the groups, occasionally settling down and building towns along the Hefnan river. Upon first contact with Rohstians in the late 1800s, the Kai still used ancient tools that their ancestors have used since the initial Arstvinian habitation.

Rice arrived in the region and added an important source of carbohydrate to the diet. Production of iron, copper and gold were common during the era. The gold and copper mined would be used as an early form of currency in the region, simplifying trade between kingdoms and traders.

Middle Ages

The great palace of Timbunan

Numerous Kifuni and Barpulo kingdoms flooded the region, which has expanded onto the hot Nêgen desert. The Arsatvin kingdom grew to become the biggest kingdom in the region after defeating rivals in wars or in diplomacy. King Ramagamba II, who led the Arsatvin kingdom from 1721 until his death in 1757, was acclaimed by managing to defend against Kaluni and Tarsowaga invaders from the east and solidifying his kingdom's presence as a regional power in northern Majula.

Rohstian colonial period

Governor-General Mark Tovars in Altenburg, c. 1925

Rohstian scramble for territory in the early 19th century brought explorers and soldiers into the shores of the Arsatvin kingdom. Initially, the explorers disguised as traders were welcomed into the kingdom as foreign dignitaries. Rohst set up the colony of Arstvin in 1816. In 1856, parts of the Butienzorg and Vlâms residency was ceded to Midrasia, which would become modern day Kagon. The immense cost of the great war brought colonial companies which forced natives to plant and harvest coffee, tea, rubber and pepper to fulfill Rohstian demand of the commodity. As a result, more than a hundred thousand natives died as the result of forced labor. Between the arrival of the Rohstians to 1900, the population declined by almost half due to diseases brought by the Rohstians and forced labour.

To ease the transport of commodities across the colony, a network of roads and railways were built. The roads built would serve as the basis of the modern Arstvinian road network. New forms of forced labor were in place, which sent the natives on working the trans-Arstvinian rail and road network. Through the period of construction, the rail and road network paid a heavy toll in human lives, with around 10,000 to 13,000 dead due to the harsh terrain of the project.

In 1953, Rohst delegated powers to the Ovambo, which they see as fit for running the colony. Massive amounts of Kifuni and Barpulo were enraged by the act, and demonstrations were held in major cities. The act was quickly suppressed by the police and army.

Since independence (1958-present)

In the final years of the Arstvinian colony, masses of subjects blockaded vital institutions of the colony, shutting down government services and hindering control of the colony as a whole. Governor-general Wilhelm Henrikus was interested in the idea of an Arstvinian nation, but had to stay neutral due to his post in office. In June of 1957, the Arstvinian colony ceased to exist, being replaced with the Democratic Republic of Arstvin. He became the first president of Arstvin after gaining the full recognition of Rohst. The Arstvin First Party won a majority of seats in the first parliamentary elections, and held power until their dissolve in 1989 by Michael Kakolu.

Arstvin under Wilhelm Henrikus

On 3 June 1958, the national council of the Arstvinian colony, on behalf of the Arstvinian people, declared the colony's independence from Rohst, who overthrew the colonial government in favor of a national and independent government not tied to any foreign power. However, the national council retained Wilhelm as head of government and state and set his tenure to five years in office, with the firs elections taking place in 1963. This move was approved by the newly formed Senaat, and the body granted executive powers.

Beginning in 1959, massive infrastructure projects began under his order. The projects plummeted the nation into debt, which was criticized by some of his rivals. By 1960, a lavish road network in Arstvin was already laid down, connecting Altenburg and Vlaams with paved roads for the first time. His lax economic policy help grew the Arstvinian economy massively, leaping out of Aeia's Least Developed Country list by 1965. Economic prosperity continued and made Arstvin one of the richest nations in the region, with income levels sometimes being compared with those of Asuran nations.

Colonel Kakolu

Wilhelm played an important war in the Panhandle war between Arstvin and Kagon, securing Arstvinian interests in the area and expanding the country's total land area. He managed to fight off the Kagonian troops and maintained sovereignty over the area.

Wilhelm's stay in office is widely regarded as the 'Arstvinian golden age' by most citizens.

Arstvin under Michael Kakolu

On 5 May 1989, Colonel Michael Kakolu overthrew President Johann Campbell in a bloody coup d'état. The colonel suspended the constitution and declared himself the leader for life of Arstvin the next day. President Campbell was killed along with his family and several government officials. A year later, he renamed the Democratic Republic of Arstvin into the Great People's Majulan Republic of Arstvin. Many international governments refuse to acknowledge the name change, and still refer to the nation as DR Arstvin.

In 1992, Michael Kakolu insulted Alexandrian officials and government, provoking a five year long conflict between the two nations. Michael Kakolu was finally captured in 1995 by Alexandrian forces and sent to exile in an undisclosed location. It is unknown whether Kakolu was executed or really sent to exile. The new Alexandrian-backed government, led by de Wit, took control of Arstvin and declared the Republic of Arstvin with a new constitution.

Geography

Savanna in Buitenzorg
Climate map of Arstvin

The republic of Arstvin is a central Majulan country bordered by Mehrsia to the east and Kagon to the south. The country lies a few degrees west of the prime meridian and uses UTC time. The country also shares maritime borders with Alexandria, Sabanin, and Kavo.

The country could be split into three main geographic regions: the southern savannas, the western plains and the eastern deserts. The Klijmenberg mountain range in the extreme south of the country sets the borders of it and Kagon, with minor ranges crossing the country vertically. The western plains enable agriculture to grow rapidly, hence why the western plains are vital to the country's stability as a whole.

The extreme south-east of the country is mountainous, with a Cwb climate in some regions. It occasionally snows in the highest peaks of the region, enabling Arstvin's only ski resort to open back in 1976. The Antwerp river defines the south-east border with Mehrsia and continues up to the north until it drains into the bay of Henrikus. The tallest peak in Arstvin is Mount Rainavâna in Karteva. Mount Rainavâna is part of the Klijmenberg mountain range. The River Antwerp is the longest river in Arstvin, stretching more than 600 km within the country.

At more than 250,000 square kilometers, the country is the nth largest country in Aeia, slightly bigger than Glanodel.

Approximately 50 endemic species are threatened due to poaching and loss of habitat. The majority of the threatened species are within the grounds of the great Buitenzorg national animal park, where conservation efforts are primarily located.

Climate

Being only a few degrees above the equator, Arstvin has a mostly Tropical climate, with all months having an average temperature of above 18°C. Coastal cities such as Altenburg and Klewuer are subject to more oceanic climates, hence why the cities are cooler in general than most inland parts of the country which are not mountainous. Cooler maritime winds enable the great Arstvinian plains to grow foodstuffs such as grain, rice, and barley. Warmer beaches in the northeastern part of the country are home to several species of tropical fish. Cooler streams generally do not reach this part of the coast.

Having an Am and an Aw climate, Arstvinian summers are long and hot, reaching to an average of 30°C in certain parts of Arstvin such as Altenburg, to hotter averages as high as 38°C in inland savannas. Arstvin does not see rainfall until the months of October or November, affected by the monsoonal rain cycle.The eastern deserts see little to no rainfall every year, and are mostly devoid of any human habitation whatsoever. However, the coastal cities of Eckleburg and Vlaams, located in the eastern deserts, are generally cooler with maritime winds blowing into the ports, making human habitation more possible.

The southern mountains have a much colder climate, with Windhoek having an average temperature of only 13°C during the rainy months ans 24°C during summer months. Karteva sees an even lower average temperature, with an average temperature of 9°C during the rainy months and 18°C during summer months. It is not uncommon for some parts of Karteva and Windhoek to dip below freezing, especially during rainy months, which creates the natural phenomena of freezing rain. Snow generally does not fall in these regions, however, on top of mountain peaks, snow has been reported to fall.

Biodiversity

With rolling savannas and plains, Arstvin is a hotbed for animal biodiversity. Multiple species of deer, sheep, cows and chickens have brought tremendous supply of food for predators. The Lowland Arstvinian lion, the Arstvinian lion and the Buitenzorg tiger are all endemic species to the region. However, this biodiversity is threatened with more human presence in the area, which causes the loss of habitat and food for the predators. The numbers of all three species are on the decline, and international animal conservation organizations have voiced concerns over the issue.

Most plants in Arstvin are similar to that of neighbors Mehrsia and Kagon and Majula in general.

Politics and Government

Parliament building in Altenburg.

The Republic of Arstvin is a semi-presidential system under a one party rule. As a unitary state, power is centralized in Altenburg with decentralization policies implemented. After the fall of Kakolu in 1995, major reforms to the constitutions have taken place, with five major constitutional amendments taking place between 1995 and 1999, revamping the executive branch, judicative branch, and legislative branches. Under the new constitution, the president of Arstvin is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Arstvinian Armed Forces (AAF). The prime minister of Arstvin is the head of government and appoints ministers and advisers to their cabinet, which are not members of the AAF nor the legislature. Both the president and prime minister may only serve two terms.

The unicameral legislative body in Arstvin is the Senate. Its main purposes are to create, oversee and to amend new rules, amend the constitution, inaugurate the president and prime minister and to impeach the president or the prime minister. It also formalizes and maintains national rules to help stabilize the nation. The Senate is has 150 seats, which are elected using single non-transferable vote. Each commune is able to send anywhere between 7 to 10 people to the Senate.

Administrative Divisions

Main Article: Communes of Arstvin

Arstvin is divided into 18 communes. Each commune is led by a regent, and is elected once every five years. The communes are subdivided into municipalities, led by mayors. Each commune has its own local government area, which takes over matters such as healthcare, police, education and environmental improvement. The number of communes has greatly differed in history and has changed forms numerous times. In 1965, Arstvin gained three new communes with the annexation of the regions populated by the Barpulo. In 1977, the communes were dissolved and municipalities became the first level administrative divisions, which numbered 174 municipalities by 1980. In 1995, the original 18 communes were put back into practice.

Communes play an important part in delivering social and political needs to its citizens since decentralization efforts made in the early 2000s.

Arstvindiv.png

Foreign Relations

Since independence, Arstvin has underwent massive shifts in its foreign policies. The first few years after independence favored Asuran and Rennekan powers. After the fall of the Democratic Republic of Arstvin in 1989, Michael Kakolu broke ties to all foreign powers in favor of a self-sustainable community in Arstvin.

Military

The Arstvinian Armed Forces or the Arstvinische Krijgsmacht in Almannic, is the legal and national armed forces of Arstvin. The AAF is divided into four major units: land forces, air forces, naval forces and national police. The AAF is headquartered in Altenburg since formation in 1958. The AAF has engaged in several major conflicts throughout its history, with the most notable one being the great sea war in the early 1990s. Currently, the Arstvinian Armed Forces is headed by Gen. Howard Baartjes, a general in the Arstvinian air unit. Currently, the AAF faces many challenges, including a lack of funds and outdated equipment.


Economy

Arstvin has a mixed economy, in which the government and private sector play an important part in maintaining the national economy. Arstvin has one of the smallest GDP per capita, both nominal and PPP, due to its low population and widespread poverty. The nation's economy is still recovering from the great sea war with Alexandria that left the national economy shattered. As of 2017, the national nominal GDP stood at $1.11 billion while its GDP (PPP) stood at $2.36 billion. The nominal GDP per capita was $352 and its GDP (PPP) per capita was $749 as of 2017. Arstvin has one of the lowest GDP per capita in Aeia

Arstvin's economy is highly agricultural, employing more than four fifths of the population. The small but growing manufacturing sector employs around 14% of the population, while the rest work for the service industry.

Overview

The economic structure of Arstvin has dramatically shifted since independence. In the early years of the republic, farmers moved to more urban areas where they would normally find work as factory laborers or staff. Agricultural developments in the early 1960s and 1970s allowed more people to leave the agricultural sector for manufacturing and service jobs. A gradual process of urbanization and strong government incentives allowed the GDP to rise at an incredibly high rate of 12.2% per year. Around the same time, mining operations had just opened in Arstvin after the discovery of several diamond, bauxite, copper and lead in the Klijmenberg mountain range. By 1980, the nominal GDP per capita had reached an astounding $7,583. This figure is almost 25 times greater than that of today.

Michael Kakolu's violent uprising and the great sea war between Arstvin and Alexandria brought a massive blow to the national economy. All able bodied men were required to fight. The war claimed the lives of more than one hundred thousand Arstvinian men, which caused the national economy to have a shortage of workers. Many factories closed and foreign businesses closed their branches in Arstvin in favor of other Majulan nations. By 2002, the nominal GDP had fallen to an all time low of $78. Many citizens returned to their villages and began work as farmers and herders once more. Economic reforms have helped Arstvin bridge the crisis, and Arstvin is slowly recovering.


Arstvin is a major producer of diamonds, contributing 20% to the country's exports. Arstvinian diamond is sought after in international markets due to its rarity and beauty. As of 2016, Arstvin profits around $300 million to the national economy. Subsistence farming is rampant throughout the country, where more than 80% of the population in the agricultural sector. Commercial farming is becoming more widespread in the great plains region where massive tracts of arable land are still left untouched. Arstvinians mostly grow yam, potatoes, rice and a variety of vegetables to fulfill their diet.

Arstvin's major trading partners are with Kagon, where most Arstvinian imports and exports come from or to there. Midrasia, Rohst and Aquidneck have recently began conducting trade with the nation, establishing small factories in the capital to localize production.

Transport

As of 2016, there were 9,508 km of roads, both paved and unpaved, in Arstvin. Only 615 km of roads are paved, with the rest being either made out of sand, mud or earth. Most of the roads are left to decay, especially in the rural countryside with minimal lighting and signage. Roads in urban centers are generally paved and better-lit than their rural counterparts due to the heavier traffic and total road users. A majority of Arstvinians walk to their destinations, with the second most common transport method being the public bus, carrying more than 50,000 people daily in Altenburg alone. The government seeks to modernize these buses in the coming years, but has not found public support for the new buses.

In early 2018, Arstvin recorded 130,000 road vehicles, which included buses, lorries and pick up trucks, however, not motorcycles.

Rail transport has been around since the colonization period of Arstvin. There is at least 1,700 km of rail, mostly used to transport livestock and mining goods. Passenger service has recently started to take off again, with the first rail passenger service between Altenburg and Kleuwer reopening in 2008 after it shut down in 1991. In addition to the transport of goods within the nation, the rail system is also used by trains wishing to cross from Mehrsia to Kagon or vice versa, as there are no rails between the border of Kagon and Mehrsia.

Maritime transport in Arstvin is centered in the port of Altenburg, where most ships coming from outside the nation dock. Less bigger ships may instead wish to dock in Kleuwer due to the calmer setting of the sea. The port of Altenburg hosts ferries that go to Alexandria and Sabanin regulary, occasionally exporting goods to the said nations too. Imports mostly enter the country through this port too. In 2017, Arstvin had 18 ports, 2 of which were used to harbor foreign ships. Many of these ports serve as a collection center for fishermen.

Wilhelm Henrikus International Airport in the outskirts of Altenburg serves as the main airport of Arstvin. Being the only international airport in Arstvin, WHIA serves flights to other Majulan countries, Asuran Countries and Arabekhi countries. Most foreigners who come into Arstvin either as a tourist or a temporary worker come through WHIA. In 2016, WHIA recorded one million passengers, although a majority of them were only transiting between airports. There were 9 airports in Arstvin as of 2015, with other domestic ones being Kleuwer Airport, Hubertus Airport and Antwerp airport. They serve domestic flights between them and Altenburg.

Energy

A majority of Arstvin's electricity comes from coal. It is estimated that there is at least 45 Mt of coal within the nation's borders. Arstvin produces enough coal each year to fulfill the needs of the Nieuwkerk Power Facility. Only 17% of Arstvinians enjoy electricity, after most of the infrastructure was destroyed in the great sea war. The overall economic standing for the national electricity company reported a small margin of profit in 2017 after the rate of electrification increased significantly over the past years. Power lines were finally being laid down after years of delay. In the 1970s and 1980s, over 90% of Arstvinians enjoyed electricity with the Nieuwkerk power facility operating three sub branches. All three sub branches were closed in 1996. A majority of rural Arstvinians who do not have electricity rely on firewood for cooking and lighting, which contributes to local pollution in the area. Many have started to reuse gas lamps to curb the use of firewood.

A small oil field could be found in the southern Nêgen Desert, where the state-owned Arstvinian Petroleum operates. Its byproducts are then distributed throughout the nation in bulk amounts. The quality of the roads hinder the fast distribution of oil and its byproducts, sometimes delaying it by whole weeks. An estimated 50 million barrels of oil sit in the Nêgen desert, enough to fulfill Arstvin's oil needs for at least the next 15 to 20 years. Minor dams in the great plains area also serve as minor electrical-producing plants. The government discourages the use of such facilities, as they are not government owned nor funded, creating more accident-prone areas.

Tourism

Arstvin recorded 184,000 visitors in 2017, with most of them coming from Kagon or Mehrsia. International tourists usually stay in Altenburg or Kleuwer, and stay an average of 8.9 days. Many tourists visit the Buitenzorg Municipality, as it is known for its endemic and exotic wildlife, where many conservationists and conservationist organizations have set up their base of operations in Buitenzorg. The natural beauty of Arstvin has attracted many tourists in the past, especially during the 1980s, where in 1985, Arstvin recorded 3.8 million visitors. Since May of 2013, Arstvin has used the slogan Come and Believe it for Yourself for its tourism and marketing campaign.

With a low population density and a high amount of untouched wilderness, Arstvin's natural beauty has been ranked one of the best by international magazines.

Demographics

Historical population of Arstvin
YearPop.±% p.a.
1960 1,864,604—    
1970 2,605,815+3.40%
1980 3,305,869+2.41%
1990 3,869,401+1.59%
2000 2,261,895−5.23%
2010 2,639,175+1.55%
2015 2,958,995+2.31%
2017 3,100,258+2.36%

According to the national institute of statistics, Arstvin had a population of 3.1 million in 2017, with a population growth of 2.67%. A majority of the population (65%) live in rural areas. The population density is one of the lowest in Majula, at only 13 people per square kilometer. While Altenburg, Kleuwer and Eckleburg are highly populated, the majority of the Nêgen desert is devoid of human habitation. A majority of the population is also below the age of 15. The dependency ratio in Arstvin is significantly higher than the world average. The life expectancy in Arstvin is only 56 years for males and 62 years for women. This number used to be even lower during the early 2000s crisis. The fertility rate of Arstvin is 4.2 children per woman, a very high rate of birth.

Ethnicity and Language

A majority of Arstvinians belong to three major groups, the Kifuni, Barpulo and the Kai.