Anikatia

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Republic of Anikatia
안니카탸공화국
Annikatya Gonghwagug
Flag Emblem
Motto: 
  • 화합, 평화와 자유
  • Hwahab, Pyeonghwawa Jayu
  • Unity, Peace and Freedom
Anthem: 
  • 불패의 강국이여 앞으로
Bulpaeui Ganggugiyeo Apeuro
  • Forward, Invincible Powerful Nation!
Map of the Republic of Anikatia
Area controlled by Anikatia shown in green
CapitalAntiytia
Largest city Antiytia[1]
Official languages
Official scripts Anikatian Script
Religion Yeosindo.png Yeosindo
Ethnic groups
Demonym Anikatian
Government Federal semi-presidential parliamentary republic
 -  President Sui Anyi
 -  Prime Minister Do Eun-sook
Legislature
 -  Upper house Legislative Council
 -  Lower house House of Assembly
Formation
 -  First Dynasty of Anikatia established during pre-imperial time 2800 BCE 
 -  First Unification of imperial Anikatia under the Yohek state 221 BC 
 -  Republic established 8 June 1913 
 -  Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia proclaimed 1 May 1951 
 -  Current constitution 3 October 2006 
Area
 -  Total 4,517,900 km2
2,807,292 sq mi
Population
 -  2015 estimate 212,973,762[2]
 -  2010 census 206,041,364[3]
 -  Density 47.13/km2
75.85/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $5.732 trillion[4]
 -  Per capita $26,914.11[5]
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 -  Total $5.711 trillion[6]
 -  Per capita $26,816.85[7]
Gini (2011)29.86[8]
low
HDI (2011)Increase 0.827[9]
very high
Currency Anikuro (AKO) ()
Time zone UTC+8
Date format
  • yyyy년 mm월 dd일
  • yyyy/mm/dd (CE)
Drives on the left
Calling code +38
ISO 3166 code ANK
Internet TLD .ank

Anikatia (Anikatian: 안니카탸; Annikatya), officially the Republic of Anikatia (Anikatian: 안니카탸공화국; Annikatya Gonghwagug), is a country comprising the mainland of the Azumakya continent, the islands of Anjutya, Seulbyeni, along with numerous smaller islands within the Western Kasaishima region of Pardes. Neighbouring countries include the territories of Belhavia to the south-east, Kolenomai to far the east, Sieuxerr, Temuair to the west, Westonaria and Goredemabwa to the north, Ulthrannic Empire, to the north-west and Tuzbekistan to the far south-east. It has a population of over 170 million inhabitants and its capital and most populous city is Antiytia. Anikatia is considered a cradle of civilisation, with its known history beginning with some of the world's earliest ancient civilisations. For millennia, Anikatia's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, known as dynasties, beginning with the semi-mythological Zi'yohek dynasty (c. 2800 BCE).[10] Since 221 BCE, when the Kyoi-Hu state first conquered several smaller states to form an Anikatian empire, the country has which it has seen cycles of expansion, prosperity along with periods of decline and fracture. The First Republic of Anikatia a constitutional monarchy was defeated in a brutal civil war following the end of the Great Eastern War in which the Socialist rebels overthrew the last dynasty and established the Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia in Antiytia on 1 May 1951.[11] Anikatia was then ruled by a series of governments that implemented socialist and protectionist policies. This development was truncated by periods of economic instability, in which the country fell into harsh recessions.[12] The Socialist Republic was dissolved in 2001 and the Republic of Anikatia was reestablished as a democratic and economically free state.[13]

Today Anikatia is a stable and prosperous nation, With its high human development, and economic freedom.[14] [15] It also ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, and democratic development.[16] Anikatia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as health, education, and economic freedom.[17] Anikatia is a member of the World Council, Global Monetary Fund, International Trade Assembly, Southern Pardesian Commerce Initiative, United Development Bank and the EG4. As well as being a major regional power within Far East and founding member of the Association for Regional Cooperation and Security. Geographically, its large size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with subtropical rainforests in the north-east, large mountain ranges spanning the island from north to south, and dry desert in the southeastern side of the mainland. Although most of Anikatia is consists of temperate climate, it includes a diverse range of habitats from dry deserts to tropical rainforests and is recognised as a megadiverse country.

Etymology

The name Anikatia is said to derive from the name Akk'ich'a. The name Akk'ich'a itself was first used by the ancient Akk'ich'a Dynasty in the 1st century as a shortened form of its name. Which was pronounced by visiting merchants as "Anikatia". The modern spelling of "Anikatia" is first attested in an Arthuristan 1555 translation of the 1516 publication of the Ulthrannic journal. By the late 17th-century travel writings of the Ulthrannic traders and conquistadors often used is terminology. [18] The traditional theory, proposed in the 17th century and supported by many later scholars, is that the word "Anikatia" and its earlier related forms are ultimately derived from the state of Akk'ich'a the westernmost of the Anikatian states during the Akk'ich'a dynasty which unified Anikatia.[19] There are, however, other suggestions for the derivation of "Anikatia". In 1913, the Akk'ich'a dynasty changed the official name of the country from Akk'ich'a to Annikatya Gonghwagug. [20] The official name of the modern state is the "Republic of Anikatia" ((Anikatian: 안니카탸공화국; Annikatya Gonghwagug). The shorter form is "Anikatia" Anikatian: 안니카탸; Annikatya).

History

Beginnings

Human habitation of the Anikatia is estimated to have begun between 125,000-80,000 BCE, possibly with the migration of people by short sea-crossings from neighbouring continent.[21] These first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Jiyeongeul, who are also found on the neighbouring continent. From period a diverse number of ethnic groups emerged either from the migration of adaption to the landscape and climate. Around 20,000-6,000BCE Early neolithic communities develop and begin practising early subsistence agriculture and animal husbandry. Leading to the cultivation of barley and rice. Communities successfully domesticate pigs, dogs, cows, and chickens. They begin creating pottery and other artefacts such as simple stone tools for hunting and farming. [22] [23] These numerous Neolithic communities develop and thrive leading to further domestication of oxen, water buffalo and sheep. Early evidence of worship of spirits and belief in an afterlife evidenced by burial practices. Agriculture was intensified, leading to the first use of the plough along with the creation of silk and development of advanced pottery in the late period. Decorated clay vessels from this period are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world. [24] Bronze age urban societies developed with palaces, smelting workshops large villages. The beginnings of the dynastic period can be seen with the rise of the first semi-mythological tribal kingdoms, the historical accuracy of the sage-like demi-god figures from this period cannot be supported evidence. They are credited with the invention of numerous innovations developed in the previous era. These native civilisations emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the main islands. Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite attempts at colonisation and domination by imperial powers. Prior to the rise of the three main kingdoms, semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture, who include ancestors of both the contemporary Jiyeongeul people and Kypsyak people, characterised by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture. some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages.

Dynastic Anikatia

A Hei'kyoi tomb mural.

The early rise of these new civilisations spread themselves over what is now Anikatia beginning in around 2200 BCE, and flourished there but it was not until around 780 BCE that marked the emergence of a strong Anikatian state, centred on an imperial court in Hangakk'i (modern Hanjuk). This period marked by the appearance of complex written literature as well as the development of impressive art and architecture. [25] [26] The first Anikatian dynasty that left historical records, the loosely feudal Yohek, settled along the Bajin river in eastern Anikatia. The records of Yohek Dynasty represents the oldest form of Anikatian writing yet found, and is a direct ancestor of modern Jiyeongeul and Kypsyak written languages. The Yohek state which ruled, until its centralised authority was slowly eroded by warlords. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Yohek state, each had their own king, ministry and army. These powerful sovereign states continually waged war with each other until 289 CE. [27] The ancient records of Yohek Dynasty our a direct ancestor of modern Jiyeongeul and Kypsyak written languages. .[28] [29] By this time there were seven powerful sovereign states in what is now Anikatia, each with its own king, ministry and army. Very little is known about 3rd-century Anikatia. All attempts at reunifying the lands failed in the aftermath of the collapse of the Yohek state. The period was definitely marked by volatile inter-state warfare, complex alliances, submissions and betrayals. All of the records of the era either did not survive or are contentious. The oldest surviving Yesindo shrines in Anikatia were founded by legendary Empress Haneul-ui Seongmo in this period. [30] [31]

Kingdoms and Empires

Yeosindo Temple built during the Akk'ich'a Dynasty and a Heritage Site

The first durable state emerges with the Akk'ich'a Dynasty governing the vast bulk of the Anikatian mainland, ushering in the first Anikatian cultural zenith, growth in the economy, and the promotion of Yeosindo as the state religion. It consisted mainly of the descendants of the modern Riyanu and Kypsyak ethnic groups.[32] It was not a unified forced but rather an amalgamation of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. The Akk'ich'a Dynasty last from the 100 BCE until 550 CE when it began to fragment. The slow collapse of Akk'ich'a state results in a division between competing dynasties. The Jegyo and Kyŏnyuk dynasties expand further out towards the northern eastern islands. The Sŏgau dynasty, Jegyo dynasty, Myonae dynasty along with fragments of the Akk'ich'a Dynasty remain on the mainland.[33] The Myonae Dynasty briefly reunited Anikatia in 859 CE bringing a short period of stability until 890 CE when it was collapsed from internal issues. By this period the Anji Dynasty began to unite Anikatia gaining its legitimacy from the claims of bloodlines of the mythical Empress Haneul-ui Seongmo. Under the Anji Dynasty Anikatia enjoy what is seen as the second high point of Anikatian civilisation after the Akk'ich'a period; Anji rule marks a high point in classical culture, with numerous literature, scientific innovation and adoption of Yeosindo as the official state religion but influence from across the globe helped create a vibrant culture of innovation and mixed faiths. The dynasty was able to maintain large armies with revolutionary gunpowder technology and expand its naval influence into the lucrative trade routes along the monsoon marketplace. Various far eastern and middle eastern kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Anji court, while the Anji also conquered or subdued several regions which it indirectly controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Anji also exerted a powerful cultural influence over neighbouring states such as those in Prestonia, Kolenomai, and present day New Shelvoy. The legacy of this era is represented by countless historical sites throughout Anikatia. [34] By the 1400s the Anji Dynasty had taken control most of the mainland Anikatia leaving few smaller kingdoms and states the strongest was the Mijwa Dynasty which started to challenge the Anji Dynasty as it began to struggle with its rapid expansion. The Mijwa Dynasty topple the Anji Dynasty as its military resources buckled under the weight of its own vast state. The over-stretching of military forces could not protect the weakened central state and Mijwa Dynasty managed to take control of the seat of power dethroning the long-lived Anji Dynasty. The Mijwa state took control of vast assets of its predecessor and establishes a sophisticated agricultural economy and brought back a strong centralised bureaucracy and military with a more inward-looking culture focusing on consolidating the gains of the Anji Dynasty. However, as the increasingly isolationist policies took hold it started to undermine the stability of the government which the country eventually effectively closed itself from the rest of the world. While maintaining limited trade with close regional vassals such as Kolenomai. However, the inward-looking policies weaken the state blocked the country to technological advances allowing it to fall behind advancing colonial powers which only fuelled internal strife and power struggles leading to the rapid decline overthrow of the Mijwa dynasty in 1600s.

Akk'ich'an Empire

Painting in tribute to Maria Lucila Castaño.

The Akk'ich'an Restoration of 1658 CE sought to restore the glory of the Akk'ich'a Dynasty and restore Anikatia back to the international stage by establishing the Akk'ich'an Empire so named after the Akichan people, the largest ethnic group in Anikatia. [35] Powerful factions within the country had grown tired of the inept leadership of the late Mijwa state and worked together to overthrow the Mijwa government and restore order by making an obscure royal descended from the Akk'ich'a Dynasty to the place of Emperor with Akk'ich'an Restoration. These factions were hoping to bring about a renewed age of glory and innovation and expansion. Instead, the Akk'ich'an Empire saw a decline in prosperity and imperial control, along with attempted and partial realised modernisation of the military, economy, land system, education system, and various industries.[36] However, it faced the growing issues of corruption, rebellions, fiscal crisis and foreign influence. Colonial powers imposed unequal treaties, free trade, extraterritoriality and treaty ports under foreign control. The Akk'ich'an Empire lost influence over Kolenomai, New Shelvoy along foreign control over Seulbyeni Islands, Territory of Kwontyani, Jinju Jedo, Anjutya and Kyongueok. [37] The external trade did not much interest the empire which was busy trying to manage its large and diverse populations while fighting corruption and fiscal issues. In these early years smallpox, introduced from imperial powers swept through the country causing the death of many leading figures in the state further undermining the government. Quickly following the Sieuxerr into Anikatia was the Grand Ulthrannic Empire, whose explorer Pedro de Borica set off with two vessels on the privately funded expedition discovered the island of Anjutya on the western coast of Anikatia. It was a tiny outpost of the small Ky'iushqīn tribe, the Ulthrannic explorer quickly set up trading routes with the local tribal groups. New infectious diseases, endemic to Sieuxerrian, Ulthrannic and later Belfrasians people, continued to cause high fatalities among the more isolated native island populations. Successive Ulthrannic efforts saw the complete control of the Anjutya island as a trading post of the Ulthrannic Empire, leading to the collapse of the fragile Ky'iushqīn dynasty. Ulthrannic colonisation brought new groups of people to the country. Many settled in Anikatia, particularly among the fully Ulthrannic controlled Anjutya and smaller island groups along the north coast of the Anikatian mainland. Some of those settlers intermarried with the indigenous population, although intermarriage was slight. This gave rise to the Ak'ulyti or individuals of mixed Akichan and Ulthrannic descent.[38] Later efforts of the Ulthrannic Empire saw privateering parties of conquistadoras such as Maria Lucila Castaño who later became known as the The Iron Duchess of Anikatia.[39] [40] Who were instrumental in reforming and shaping the Ky'ishqīn tribe. The effects of these reforms which led to many changes within the local Akichan, and wider Anikatian communities, as a result, the legacy of her role in shaping the local culture can still be felt today. As such she remains a highly controversial figure in Anikatian history. The Ulthrannic Empire set up slave trading on some islands outposts primarily taking nomadic Jiyeongeul inner desert tribes as its main economic activity along with Jiyeongeul and Kypsyak peoples used a forced labour as its primary workforce for mining of precious minerals. This was achieved with the so-called 'unequal treaties' with the Akk'ich'an Empire. [41]

Decline of dynastic rule

A Belfrasian ships entering Port in Daesuyojin on 5 June 1836 by R. Lee Myron.

It was by the late 1600s, the Kingdom of Belfras and People’s Commonwealth of Arthurista would discover Akk'ich'an Empire. [42] The Belfrasian vessels were soon able to create their own 'unequal treaties' with the declining Akk'ich'an Empire allowing them access to certain ports and coastal cities. The Belfrasian quickly set up a trading outpost they called Delnaytn (now Buchyeon), the establishing local trade and commerce; and the exploration and settlement of other regions. In 1688 Thomas Norton a privateer and adventurer of the People’s Commonwealth of Arthurista took a group of mercenaries while exploring discovered the Seulbyeni Islands.[43] Norton had discovered the last surviving sections of the Ak'ijianun tribe, he offered the Ak'ijianun tribal king who ruled the islands the choice of selling them for a vastly undervalued price for his use as a ‘trading post’, or further territorial loss imposed by force. The former option was chosen, and thus began the period of Arthuristan rule in the islands of Seulbyeni comprising the remaining elements of the Ak'ijianun tribe. [44] [45] Throughout the colonial era, many foreigners arrived as sailors, mercentaries, civil servants, construction workers and traders. This caused further unrest and instability for the declining empire. [46] As a vibrant outpost, Anikatia began to attract foreign investors.[47] Among the Belfrasian firms that dominated the colony in the late 19th century was the Timayev Basket Weave and Produce Company, which eventually acquired third of all the privately held land in the colony. Timayev Basket-weave and Produce Company's influence accounts in part for the colony's reliance on the basket weaving trade throughout the rest of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Anikatian resentment was strong and was vented in violent riots that paralysed the capital on occasions all the way until the 1910s. Some of the discontents were caused by a disrespect for Anikatian culture and traditions such as the unequal treatment of local population by foreigners and refusal to remove shoes when they entered homes, or temples. Yeosindo monks became the vanguards of the independence movement.

First Republic of Anikatia (1913-1951)

Demonstrations in the Protectorate of Kwontyani for greater freedoms and full independence from Belfras.

Following the long decline of the Akk'ich'an Empire numerous protests and attempts at reform finally led to the creation of the Republic of Anikatia in 1913, while nominally maintaining the Emperor as a figurehead effectively making it a crown republic. The new Imperial Republic struggles to consolidate control amid the chaos of the previous state and rampant corruption and negative effects of colonial exploitation. The freedom of the republic allows the popular rise of new ideas like the popular Socialist and Communist left wing movements along with other nationalist and right wing movements. The government attempted a new round of modernization and reform achieving successful industrialisation and substantial but not total modernisation of army, economy, and the educations system. [48] The effects were widespread unemployment which was worsened by a devastating flood that struck the colony's industries in 1934. Perceptions of the government's relief effort as inadequate were aggravated by its refusal to legalise labour unions or introduce a minimum wage. Prestonia fuelled by radical militarist and pan-oriental nationalist culture took advantage of Anikatia's weakness by initiating a surprise attack on the Belfrasian fleet in the Protectorate of Kwontyani starting the Great Eastern War. Anikatia suffers a brutal occupation on the northeastern territories and total war against Prestonia. Fights with allies and rebel movements including communist forces. Economic conditions improved during the 1940s when country focused its efforts towards military industries.[49] This considerably benefited the armed forces, which were generally ill-equipped and poorly organised. However the government continued to suffer as a result of poor management by officials, this poor administration and lack of regard for local populations ultimately culminated in the growth of the Communist People's Party which fought with the people against the Prestonia occupation. [50]

Civil War (1948-1951)

Following the end of the Great Eastern War, the Republic of Anikatia emerged victoriously but was war-ravaged and financially drained. Distrust had grown between the government and the Communists rebels who contributed greatly to the war effort but felt the government should not have to accept the unequal treaties and colonial holdings that it's wartime allies continued to impose on it. Despite the key efforts of the Communist forces in liberating many of these colonial outposts and Anikatian forces suffering the heaviest cost in terms of human life. In 1948, a contingent of Belfrasian and Anikatian Government forces attempted to reestablish control over the Protectorate of Kwontyani, but because of the ongoing unrest and tensions with Communist forces, fighting soon broke out amongst rebels and government forces and Belfrasian troops sparking the Anikatian Civil War. [51] Allies of the government launched an unsuccessful military intervention against the Communist forces. In the meantime, both the Communist and government forces carried out campaigns of desperation and executions against each other. Major combat in the Anikatian Civil War ended in 1951 with the Communist People's Party in control of most of the mainland Anikatia along with the Protectorate of Kwontyani, while the remaining government forces retreated offshore to allies in Belfras, Emmeria Belhavia and Arthurista where they established a government-in-exile. On 1 May 1951, the Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia was proclaimed and officially established. Some outlining such as the Seulbyeni Islands remained under colonial control as the Dominion of Seulbyeni. By the end of the civil war, Anikatia's economy and infrastructure had suffered extensive damage primarily in the already ravaged north-eastern regions.

Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia (1951-2001)

Propaganda poster from the DSRA era.

Following the end of the Great Eastern War the nation fragmented by invasion combined with colonial governments of Belfras, Ulthrannic Empire and others of the old order attempted to re-established control of their colonial outposts in the nation came into conflict with the strong resistance forces that had been created during the Great Eastern War. The elite ruling class which had been weakened by the conflict was unable to resist the socialist rebels. This allowed the nation to fall into civil war and ultimately the socialist forces were able to unite the lands together and by 1951 established the Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia. [52] On 1 May 1951, Almost all aspects of society including business, media, production were nationalised or brought under government control under the Anikatian Way to Socialism, which combined nationalisation and central planning. A new constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia was adopted in 1953. Until 2001, the country was ruled as a one-party system, ruling through the Communist People's Party (CPP). During this period, Anikatia became a leader in the Socialist bloc. The government supports global anti-colonial and capitalist efforts like the Myrdesia War, and subsequent South Ashizwe Border War. Military development is given priority and build up continues Anikatia becomes a key supplier to OttPac nations. The economy continues to grow into the 1980s but hits a peak and begins slowing causing talks of reforms begin and limited opening of trade by the end of the 1980s. The economy still stagnates despite internal efforts to reform the system from within. A New hard-line leader takes power in the 1990s as OttPac struggles to deal with issues in Estovnia and economic issues of members. Estovnia coup in 1990 marks major crisis leading to the events of the Seulbyeni Islands Crisis. The DSRA facing growing issues within OttPac and internally from economic issue decides on the initiative of the new hard-line leader invades the Dominion of Seulbyeni. Arthurista government responds by sending a naval task force to retake the territory and after a series of costly air-sea engagements a beachhead was successfully established by the Arthuristan expedition, though a final assault on Seulbyeni City was vetoed by the cabinet when advised that it could not succeed without destroying the metropolitan area entirely. Global pressure mounts against the very real threat of all-out nuclear conflict between OttPac and Free Pardes. A bloodless coup removes the hardliners within the government allowing a moderate reformers to take the leadership and negotiate and a treaty on the basis that the Islands would remain a self-governing entity and retain its democratic and capitalistic systems of government and economy, as a Special Administrative Region within the DSRA under a one nation, two systems policy. All outstanding disputes related to the Seulbyeni region were settled in full following the fall of the DSRA in 2001. There were sporadic protests against socialist military rule however these were almost always violently suppressed. Reformer Choi Kyu-sik faced with a major political win by reclaiming Seulbyeni Islands but faced with an immense war debt and stagnate economy institutes widespread economic liberalisations of the economy. He opens the country to greater investment and trade with the creation of special economic zones, the creation of stock markets, banks and private saving based on the model of the Seulbyeni market while maintaining a strict control over the media and free speech. Advisers from Estovnia and Rodarion help in establishing what would later become known as 'Alternative Development'. As a result, of his efforts, the economy flourishes with record growth allowing it to become one of the leading exporter economies of the Far East. OttPac faces further tensions as the speed and rate of reforms lead to challenges within member state as high profile members withdraw such as Hornatyia in 1997, these issues put further pressure on the DSRA and its political leadership as they struggle to keep up with the pace of economic reforms and shifting geopolitical landscape. Leadership attempts to maintain the high levels of growth with greater and greater levels of foreign investment. However, the 2000 Far Eastern financial crisis is brewing. In the booming economy reform the Anikatian currency, the Anikuro (AKO) is made fully convertible something inconceivable during the era of the of the command economy. However, business and political leaders don't realise how fragile and young the new mainland Anikatian financial system was and it would not be able to handle the potential rapid cross-border movements of hot money. As a result, the Anikuro was hit by a massive speculative attack in 1999. The DSRA government contended that they would not devalue the Anikuro. Instead relied on its foreign reserves but as they began to run out the government is forced to devalue the currency. The Anikuro devalued swiftly and lost more than half of its value. As the crisis intensified in the following months when the effects of the devaluation showed up on corporate balance sheets. Companies that had borrowed in foreign currency had to face the higher costs imposed upon them by the Anikuro's decline, and many reacted by buying foreign currency through selling Anikuros, undermining the value of the latter further. The leader of the DSRA sacked the Governor of the Central Bank of Anikatia, but this proved insufficient. The DSRA's booming economy comes to a halt. The banking sector was burdened with non-performing loans as its large public corporations had been funding aggressive expansions. During that time, there was a desire to build great conglomerates to compete on the world stage. Many businesses ultimately failed to ensure returns and profitability. The government simply absorbed more and more capital investment and continued to support these firms, while inflation and welfare costs grew considerably. Eventually, excess debt led to major failures and takeovers and the government was forced to take emergency international loans from the GMF. By 2001 the leader of the DSRA himself was forced to resign under huge public pressure violence and rioting in the streets signalling the end of the DSRA.

Republic of Anikatia (2001-Present)

The new flag of the Republic of Anikatia flying

The Anikatian Republic re-established with free and open elections held under World Council watch. Kyon Chi-won the first post-DSRA President works under a transitional government implementing harsh GMF reforms and liberalisation. Normalisation of relations with most nations and cutbacks to welfare and reduction in military size and spending. After the Initial wave of popularity for the democratic system is overwhelmed by despair and economic hardship as millions lose savings and support from the state welfare system. Most nationalised businesses are privatised, taken over or shut down leading to the creation of major conglomerates called 'chaebols' in Anikatian. Despite the best efforts of reform under the GMF corruption remains rampant within both all sphere of society. During and after the disintegration of the DSRA, wide-ranging reforms including privatisation and market and trade liberalisation were undertaken, including many substantial changes as recommended by the United Republic and the Pardesi Monetary Fund. All this resulted adversely the economy as it shifted from DSRA. However, the country recovered and by 2009, the economy was out of economic recession has continued its economic growth. Despite an initial sharp economic slowdown and numerous corporate bankruptcies, Anikatia manages to triple its per capita GDP in dollar terms since 2000. The Economy recovery began and all loans from GMF were repaid in full earlier than expected, driving economic growth. Anikatia was able to retake its role as the leading exporter and key power within in the Far East. It even resumed its role as one of the world's fastest-growing economy.

Government and politics

Anikatia is a republic under a mixed semi-parliamentary semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The President is elected by popular vote and is the formal head of state. [53] Anikatia's legislative organ is the Parliament, a bicameral parliament. Which consists of a House of Assembly with 440 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and a Legislative Council of 240 seats, whose popularly elected members to serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elected offices. The parliament is primarily responsible for the formation of the executive branch, the Cabinet of Ministers, which is headed by the Prime Minister. Laws, acts of the parliament and the cabinet, presidential decrees, may be abrogated by the Constitutional Court of Anikatia, should they be found to violate the Constitution of Anikatia. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court of Anikatia is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.[54]

Anikatia has a large number of political parties. Leading political parties include Anikatia United (AUP), the Liberal Party of Anikatia (LPA), the Party of Socialist Unity (PSU) and the United New Democratic Party (UNDP). However despite the failure and collapse of the single party ruled Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia in the year 2001, its successor the Party of Socialist Unity has recovered to become one of the most popular parties.[55] Since the collapse of the communist government, parties have found it difficult to gain a pure majority and most of the time the government is run by a small fragile coalition. [56] [57]

The President

The President, head of state, is elected by popular vote for a four-year term and is the formal head of state, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The president appoints the prime minister and all the members of the government, with parliamentary approval. In the most recent election, incumbent Baek Myung-hee of the Anikatia United who was running for a second successive and, under the terms of the constitution, final term in the election was narrowly defeated by newcomer Sui Anyi. The first round ended with the selection of Sui Anyi and Baek Myung-hee as second round participants, as neither of them received a majority of votes cast in the first round. Sui won the runoff with 49.7% of the vote to Baek 49.6%. In the elections of the lower house, no party managed to reach a clear majority in the House of Assembly leading to a hung parliament. Though Anikatia United still held the largest number of seats it was unable to negotiation a large enough coalition to form a government. Even though the previous alliance with the Anikatian New Alliance held and they gained seats it was not enough, as even with the support of the Liberal Party of Anikatia the conservatives parties could not get enough seats to form a majority government. None of the other mostly left-wing parties would agree to the terms stipulated by the Anikatian New Alliance. So for the first time since the fall of the DSRA that the Party of Socialist Unity has come to power and won control of the lower house through an alliance of smaller parties. By careful negotiation they were able to form a coalition government by creating an unlikely coalition between the Liberal Party of Anikatia, and United New Democratic Party. Sui Anyi is taking over from the former President Baek Myung-hee of the Anikatia United.[58]

The Prime Minister

The Prime Minister of the Republic of Anikatia is appointed by the President with the parliament's approval. The Prime Minister of Anikatia is not required to be a member of the House of Assembly. The Prime Minister assists the President by supervising ministries and make recommendations for ministers. The Prime Minister is the first in the order of succession to discharge the duties of the office of the President as the acting president should the president be unable to discharge his office. The position was created on 17 October 2001, roughly two weeks before the new government of Anikatia was officially founded, and was held by Su Nam-ki until 2002.[59][60] The Prime Minister becomes acting president if the president dies, resigns or is impeached. The incumbent Prime Minister is Do Eun-sook who is taking over from the former Prime Minister Cheon Hwa-yeon. Prime Minister Cheon was chosen as the Party of Socialist Unity along with the United New Democratic Party held the majority of seats in the upper house refused to approve any appointments by the government. A breakthrough was reached in private negotiations in which the PSU agreed to support the government on a number of key legislation in exchange for the appointment of the Prime Minister. As part of the coalition deal Do Eun-sook of the United New Democratic Party was appointed the Prime Minister while .[61]

Foreign relations and military

A Modern Anikatian Ay-05K-UB of Naval Air Arm.

Anikatia's armed forces - the Anikatian National Defence Forces (ANDF), consists of the Anikatian Ground Force (AGF), Anikatian Air Force (AAF), Anikatian Navy Force (ANF), Anikatian Airborne Troops (AAT), Anikatian Strategic Missile Force (ASMF) and have the stated responsibility for the preservation of the integrity and national sovereignty of the national territory. The Anikatian Navy Forces includes the Anikatian Naval Aviation and Anikatian Marines. The Anikatian National Defence Forces have taken part in joint international and regional military exercises. [62] The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment with only a few types of weapons imported. Anikatia is a prominent and leading supplier of arms globally, accounting for a sizable proportion of worldwide weapons sales with export to a wide variety of countries.

Anikatia is an active member of the Organization for Pardesi Affairs, and the Association for Regional Cooperation and Security. Anikatia maintains cordial diplomatic relations with most nations within the region. Despite colonial tension diplomatic ties have been normalised and remain active with Sieuxerr, Ulthrannic Empire, Belfras, Arthurista, and Prestonia. Since the fall of communism and end of the Cold War there has been a normalisation of relations with many former rivals and has now developed a friendlier relationship with United Republic of Emmeria, Belhavia, Rodarion, Temuair, Eagleland, and Tippercommon, along with more distant but cordial relations with Westonaria. However ties remain strong with former Otterup Pact members, particularly Estovnia, Saarland, Kolenomai, Hornatyia while cordial but more distant ties have prevailed with Ankar. Ties with Bariya former ally have greatly deteriorated since the end of the Cold War. Within Ashizwe, Goredemabwa maintains very close ties, along with more distant but cordial relations with Dacia and Santa Miguel. Relations with Nazali remain limited and strained ever since the Nazali War. [63] [64]

Administrative divisions

Map Name Anikatian Capital Population1
Provinces (Do)
Akyannya 앟캰야 Byeuksun 18,683,982
Daekueongtye 댘웡톄 Daesuyojin 8,137,771
Gwokue 궠우에 Ulmicheon 7,197,431
Gyeolgung 젛앩웈 Buchyeon 8,620,336
Gyeongkeul 경클 Angchoen 4,229,571
Jaekwonju 재퀀주 Chongnam 3,728,524
North Kwontyani 남쪽 퀀탼이 Aekyongju 9,332,615
South Kwontyani 퀀탼이남도 Namju 12,590,918
Kyoi 쿄이 Ulryak 6,417,145
Pyongtya 푱탸 Antiytia 25,135,872
Ulsanghae 욼앙해 Eunchuol 10,473,086
Autonomous regions (Jachigu)
Anjutya 앉웉야 Kopolcha 1,592,093
Jinju Jedo 진주 제도 Kasutano 2,680,273
Kyongueok 쿈구엌 Sangbyeol 6,342,380
Special administrative regions (Teugbyeolhaengjeong-gu)
Seulbyeni 슬볘니 Seulbyeni City 5,939,602
Yuntai 윤타이 Taesun 1,872,163

1 2015 estimate.[65]

Anikatia has eleven provinces — Akyannya, Daekueongtye, Gwokue, Gyeolgung, Gyeongkeul, Jaekwonju, North Kwontyani, South Kwontyani, Kyoi, Pyongtya, and Ulsanghae. Along with the provinces are three autonomous regions, Kyongueok (Nouvelle-Sieuxerr), Jinju Jedo (Islas de Perla), Anjutya and two special administrative regions, the Seulbyeni Islands and the Yuntai Islands. Each province has its own bicameral parliament. The provinces are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Federal government as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the House of Assembly; the upper houses are known as the Legislative Assembly. The head of the government in each province is the Premier. The autonomous administrative territories have their own local government and more legislative rights.

While the special administrative territory of Seulbyeni has a high degree of autonomy as a special administrative region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs owing to its long history as a colony of the Arthurista.[66] Despite the loss of its Dominion status from Arthurista to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Anikatia during the Seulbyeni Islands Crisis it has largely continued to enjoy it's economic and political freedoms comparative to the rest of Anikatia during socialist rule. Following the collapse of the communist government, it has served as a model for the new economic systems of Anikatia.[67] [68] [69]

Geography

Anikatia as seen from an ASTRO satellite

Anikatia's landmass of 4,517,900 square kilometres (2,807,292 sq mi) surrounded by the Central ocean, with the North East Sea lying off the Eastern coast of Anikatia, and the South A'Kytian Sea lying between Anikatian and the surrounding southern continents. [70] Azumakya is one of the region's smallest continents and among the larger countries by total area. Anikatia's mainland encompasses a remarkable variety of landscapes, The northern eastern Utae (웉애) Desert contains great mineral wealth. The western side of island across the Yekkwae (옠왜) mountain range which runs the length of the island, which includes Antiytia, dominates the country in terms of population with large agricultural resources, the two smaller northern islands while less developed are rich in tropical forests, most of the smaller islands to the east have been designated national parks and contain untouched tropical rain forests. This area also is the historical centre from which the Aekkychan Empire ruled, many ruins can still be found throughout. [71] Western Anikatia hold the bulk of the nations agricultural resources and many freshwater lakes. Anikatia's highest mountain is Albyekreu (앏옠르), which lies in the Yekkwae (옠왜) mountain range, and rises to 3,387 metres above sea level. The population in Anikatia is mainly concentrated on the western side of the island along the coast, with smaller settlements on the eastern coast.

Climate

Antiytia
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
22
 
2
−6
 
 
24
 
4
−4
 
 
46
 
10
1
 
 
77
 
18
7
 
 
102
 
23
13
 
 
133
 
27
18
 
 
328
 
29
22
 
 
348
 
30
22
 
 
138
 
26
17
 
 
49
 
20
10
 
 
53
 
12
3
 
 
25
 
4
−3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [72]

Anikatia is so large that its climate varies widely, however much of of the country tends to have a humid continental climate and a humid subtropical climate, and is affected by the regional monsoons, with precipitation heavier in summer during a short rainy season called jangma (장마), which begins end of June through the end of July. The western coast and south-west corners have a temperate climate and fertile soil. The northern regions have a sub-tropical to tropical climate, varied between mountainous lush tropical rainforests, and grasslands. However large areas of south-east are desert or semi-arid regions. Anikatia has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring usually lasts from late-March to early- May, summer from mid-May to early-September, autumn from mid-September to early-November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March.

A tropical rainforest in Akyannya.

Anikatia's climate is governed by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high-pressure belt. This moves north and south with the seasons so that the rainfall pattern over Anikatia is highly seasonal. Rainfall is concentrated in the summer months of June through September. The northeastern coast is subject to late summer typhoons that bring strong winds and heavy rains. The average annual precipitation varies from 1,370 millimetres (54 in) in Antiytia to 1,470 millimetres (58 in) in Namju. There are occasional typhoons that bring high winds and floods. The climate of Anikatia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low-pressure system that produces cyclones in the south-east. These factors cause rainfall to vary markedly from year to year.


Because Anikatia is on the smallish Azumakya sub-continent separated from polar regions by the South A'Kytian Sea, it is not subject to the movements of frigid polar air that sweep over the other main continents during winter. Consequently, its winter is relatively mild, so that there isn't the great contrast between summer and winter temperatures there is in the northern continents. Yet in many parts of the country, seasonal highs and lows can be considerable: temperatures have ranged from above 50 °C (122 °F) to well below zero. Winters can be extremely cold with the minimum temperature dropping below −20 °C (−4 °F) in the southern region of the country: in Antiytia, the average January temperature range is −7 to 1 °C (19 to 34 °F), and the average August temperature range is 22 to 30 °C (72 to 86 °F). Winter temperatures are higher along the northern coast and considerably lower in the mountainous interior. Summers can be uncomfortably hot and humid, with temperatures exceeding 30 °C (86 °F) in most parts of the country.

Climate data for Anikatia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 50.7
(123.3)
50.5
(122.9)
47.8
(118)
45.0
(113)
40.6
(105.1)
37.8
(100)
37.6
(99.7)
40.0
(104)
43.1
(109.6)
46.9
(116.4)
48.7
(119.7)
49.5
(121.1)
50.7
(123.3)
Record low °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−7.0
(19.4)
−7.2
(19)
−13.0
(8.6)
−13.4
(7.9)
−23.0
(−9.4)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−16.7
(1.9)
−12.0
(10.4)
−9.4
(15.1)
−9.0
(15.8)
−23.0
(−9.4)
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [73]

Environment

The Wallabia is one of the iconic Anikatian marsupials.

Although much of central eastern Anikatia is semi-arid or desert climate, the country includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests and is recognised as a megadiverse country. Because of the continent's variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, Anikatia has developed a unique and diverse biota. About 75% of flowering plants, 74% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 79% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.

The majority Anikatian forests outside the tropics are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions, wattles replace them in drier regions and deserts as the most dominant species. Among well-known Anikatian animals are the monotremes (the platypus and echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, wallabia, koala, and wombat, and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. Anikatia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world. Many animal and plant species became extinct soon after first human settlement, including the megafauna; others have disappeared since later colonial settlement, among them the thylacine.

Many of Anikatia's ecoregions and the species within those regions are threatened by human activities and introduced animal, chromista, fungal and plant species. All these factors have led to Anikatia having the highest mammal extinction rate of any country in the world.The government has tried desperately to protect the environment and the threatened species, as a result, there are numerous protected areas have been created under a national conservation program to protect and preserve the unique native ecosystems.

Economy

Automotive manufacturing plays a key part in the Anikatian economy.

Anikatia's high-income mixed market economy is considered to be one of the most successful to transitions from a socialist centrally planned economy to free-market capitalism. [74] Since economic liberalisation began in 2001, Anikatia has become among the world's fastest-growing economies with GDP growth rates showing strong and consistent annual average of 8.90% since 2009.[75] [76] [77] The economy has traditionally been fueled by exporting commodities rather than manufacturing which dates back to the colonial exports of the natural resources.[78] Since the early settlement, the growth of Anikatia's manufacturing, mining, and service sector has transformed the nations from a largely rural economy to an urbanised industrial one.[79] [80] Today the major industrial sectors are the automobiles, ships, military equipment, and steel manufacturing, followed by nuclear energy power, although uranium mining and agricultural products all remain important industries.[81] The public sector still makes up the bulk of the market despite economic liberalisation policies.[82] Due to Cold War tension which led to Communist Revolution creating the DSRA in 1951 which led to a drastic reforming of the economy. The changes saw the implementation of a rapid industrialisation on a massive scale and the creation of a more centrally planned economy which had decidedly mixed economic results. The attempted isolation policies by 'Free Pardes' along with desire for further development of nuclear weapons led to great shift towards nuclear power.[83] By the 1990s the centrally planned economy began to breakdown.[84]

In 1993 in an effort to fix the stagnant economy the DSRA introduced socialist market economic reforms as part of the National reform program. These reforms sought to move the economy and towards a more market-oriented mixed economy while still under one-party rule. Private ownership was encouraged in industries, commerce and agriculture. Thanks largely to these reforms, the DSRA achieved around high annual GDP growth between 1993 to 2000, however, this did not stop the breakup of the centrally planned economy, as a change in policies by the new government did no use force after the 2001 student-led popular protest demonstrations which ultimately led to the reforms causing the end of the DSRA.

During this tumultuous time, the economy entered a decline with a new provisional coalitions government having to accept a massive GMF loans and introduced sweeping and profound political and economic reforms. There were some signs of economic resurgence during this period, as international assistance along with consistent liberalisation and astute economic management has led to the removal of 87% of all price controls, a stable exchange rate, privatization of many state-owned companies and liberal laws on establishing new firms have encouraged the development of the private business sector,[85] along with a shift of exports as countries have begun to removed restrictions placed on the previous communist economy allowing an opening up of international trade including Central Defence Initiative (CDI) members.[86]

Kunyu Road, a major shopping street in Aekyongju.

The Anikatian economy managed a rapid recovery and subsequently tripled its GDP. Following the normalisation of relations between the United Republic and Anikatia in 2001, this paved the way for a landmark Anikatia–United Republic Free Trade Agreement which was signed in 2006. Aided by newfound foreign investment the economy started to recover at a faster rate and this helped pull the nation from its long-standing recession, seeing its first positive growth in 2009. By 2010, with economy in boom the new conservative government Anikatia joined the Southern Pardesian Commerce Initiative (SOPCOMM), a free trade agreement that has opened the nation's economy to aligning closer with SOPCOMM members and is seen by some as a move away from the more independent and self-sufficient socialist past towards a more open economic ties.

The major businesses in are DN Group, Kyoungcho Group, Wallis-Thornton Ltd, Bulgakko Heavy Industries, Aymovski Aircraft Corporations, Applied Kinetics Industries, Namkuhng Aircraft Limited, Kyoungcho Group Changgok Design Bureau, The Nykov Company, Myeong and Lyang Design Bureau, Guyanseug Technologies, S.G. Entertainment, Oukoungshi Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Suhmun Company, Kysunah Aerospace, Gangjun Weapon Systems, Yukimoh Design Bureau, and Brault & Telford Co. The major automotive businesses and general manufacturing industries include Huadai Motor Co. Ltd, Anikatian Auto Union (AAU), Anikatian Auto Union Commercial (AAUC), Kwonhu Limited, Goungsung Engineering Works, Oung Auto Parts, Taolei Motor Corporation, Leicha Automobiles Ltd, Chegui Motor Division, Sangki Automotive Division, Dokko, Hyoun, Bahk Corporation (DHB), Daisuma Motor Co. Ltd, Maesima Motors Manufacturing Holdings Ltd, and Pyoung Engineering Ltd[87] [88]

Energy

Anikatia derives 79.6% of its electricity from nuclear power, one of the highest percentages in the world.[89]

Anikatia is rich in energy resources. The establishment of a mining industry continued the high level of economic growth in the post-colonial period. The opportunities for large profits in land and mining attracted considerable amounts of Belfrasian capital, while expansion generally was supported by enormous government outlays for transport, communication and urban infrastructures, which also depended heavily on Belfrasian finance. As the economy expanded, large-scale immigration became necessary to satisfy the growing demand for workers. Anikatia's mining operations secured continued economic growth and Jaekwonju itself has benefited strongly from mining iron ore, gold and later uranium.[90] [91] [92] Anikatia contains some of the region's largest proven uranium reserves, this greatly aided the development of Nuclear power in the country which now derives 79.6% of its electricity from nuclear power, one of the highest percentage in the region.[93]

Science and technology

Anikatia places great emphasis on science and technology within its economy and it is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology, and machinery. However, the period of the centrally planned economy led to Anikatia lagging behind the West in a number of technologies, mostly those related to energy conservation and consumer goods production. The crisis of the 2000s led to the drastic reforms. [94] By 2010, on the wave of a new economic boom, the situation in the Anikatia science and technology has greatly improved, and the government launched a campaign aimed at modernisation and innovation.[95] The Anikatian Space and Technologies Research Organization (ASTRO) is Anikatia's space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads the development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the Freedom Star VII Space Station. Anikatia's future plans in space exploration include: launching space probes; developing a new spacecraft; and building a lunar base by 2030. Currently, Anikatia has completed several advanced satellites. The country is developing it a number of domestic fifth-generation jet fighters and constructing the highly advanced new nuclear plant systems. [96]

Transport

Ujeong Expressway in Anikatia.

Transport is a key component of the nation's economy. The economic centralization of the late 1960s and 1970s accelerated the development of infrastructure on a massive scale, most notably the establishment of Anikatian Airlines (AAL). The country has a wide variety of modes of transport by land, water and air. Anikatia's road spending has been extensive. Its 1.1 million kilometres of paved road are the main means of transportation. Since 2001, the road systems have undergone numerous changes adopting western systems resulting in a single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and is operated by toll-collecting enterprises. [97] New and used cars are inexpensive; car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy efficiency. Anikatia has one of the highest levels of car ownership in the region.

Railway transport in Anikatia is mostly under the control of the state-run Anikatian Railways (ANIR). Passenger trains were the dominant mode of transportation until the mid-twentieth century. Anikatia now has one of the world's most developed transportation networks. Mass transportation is well developed in the major cities but is undeveloped in rural areas. Anikatia has advanced air transportation infrastructure which utilises approximately 7,000 paved runways. Antiytia International Airport, located in the vicinity of Antiytia, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting Antiytia with virtually all major cities across the region. Anikatian Airlines (AAL) is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.

Water transport is largely used for freight. There are over 21 major ports in Anikatia, many of these ports are served by cruise ships. Automobile ferries operate in many locations where bridges are impractical and in congested metropolitan areas, Ferries also connect Anjutya Islands to the mainland and Seulbyeni Islands to the Kwontyani Islands and the mainland. They also connect other smaller islands and the main islands.

Demographics

For almost two centuries the majority of settlers, and later immigrants, came from Belfrasian territory. Although the effects of Ulthrannic, Sieuxerr and Arthuristan powers during colonization was significant. As a result there are large groups of people of Belfrasian and Ulthrannic ethnic origin. The 2010 Census asked respondents to provide a maximum of two ancestries with which they most closely identify. The most commonly nominated ancestry was Akichan (82.26%), followed by Kyjianu (4.38%), Riyanu (3.65%), Chijich'en (2.28%), Kypsyak (1.34%), Anglo-Anikatian (1.32%), Belfrasian (1.15%), Ulthrannic (1.12%), Jiyeongeul (0.45%), Sutahito (0.31%), Anglo-Arthuristan (0.20%), Kolenomese (0.06%), Emmerian (0.04%), Belhavian (0.04%), Sieuxerrian (0.02%), Rodarian (0.02%) and other (1.65%). Although because of the great difficulty cataloging the many different smaller groups of mixed ethinic ancestry as a result of successive colonization efforts. As such many fall under larger more broad groups such as the Anglo-Anikatian term which can include both people of Ulthrannic and Belfrasian background. The 2010 Census did not provide an option for Ak'ulyti those individuals of mixed Akichan and Ulthrannic descent.[98]

Anikatia officially recognizes 7 distinct native ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Akicha, who constitute about 82.26% of the total population. The Akicha ethnic group outnumber other ethnic groups in every province and territory division except the Seulbyeni Islands and Jinju Jedo (Islas de Perla). The Akicha population is concentrated mainly in the north and northwestern coastal plains and islands of the country. A largely homogeneous social and ethnic group, the Akicha possess significant political and economic influence over the country. Although, Anikatia is also home to 6 other native ethnic minority groups which account for about 12.41% of the population of Anikatia, according to the 2010 census. Anikatia's population has quadrupled since the end of colonization. [100] Nevertheless, its population density, of 12.22 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the region. Much of the population increase came from immigration. Anikatia remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about 500,000 legal immigrants annually. Most immigrants are skilled, but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees.

Riyanu, an ethnic minority people from Anikatia.
Composition of Anikatia by nationality
Akicha
  
82.26%
Kyjianu
  
4.38%
Riyanu
  
3.65%
Chijich'en
  
2.28%
Kypsyak
  
1.34%
Anglo-Anikatian
  
1.32%
Belfrasians
  
1.15%
Ulthrannic
  
1.12%
Jiyeongeul
  
0.45%
Sutahito
  
0.31%
Anglo-Arthuristan
  
0.20%
Kolenomese
  
0.06%
Emmerian
  
0.04%
Belhavian
  
0.04%
Sieuxerrian
  
0.02%
Rodarian
  
0.02%
Other
  
1.65%
Source: [101]

Language

Anikatian and English are the official languages. Both Anikatian and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business. The constitution allows for Asturish and Kyjianu, to be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis as secondary languages in regional areas. English is used extensively in business and administration and it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education along with the international trade. According to the 2010 census, Anikatian is the main language spoken in the home for close to 54.23% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are English (18.29%), Asturish (1.3%), and other native languages (0.9%), a considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. All native languages were suppressed by successive waves of colonisation, which has dramatically reduced their spread and adoption in favour of English for formal use by the state. It is thought that up to 22 Indigenous languages existed at the time of the first contact, of which only select few have survived among the six major ethnic groups. [102] [103] These are the Akicha, Kyjianu, Chijich'en, Kypsyak Riyanu languages, Sutahito and the remaining Jiyeongeul languages. The Jiyeongeul nomadic desert tribes are thought to have been most heavily affected by this loss of culture as they were thought to account for up to 16 distinct language groups. Most of the surviving Jiyeongeul languages are exclusively spoken by older people; only a single Jiyeongeulan language is still spoken by all age groups. At the time of the 2010 census, 390,548 Indigenous Jiyeongeulans, reported that they spoke a Jiyeongeulan language at home. [104]

Religion



Circle frame.svg

Religion in Anikatia (2010)[105]

  Folk Yeosindo, or "not-religious" (50.35%)
  Yeosindo (24.53%)
  Christianity (21.43%)
  Islam (5.15%)
  Judaism (0.54%)
  Undeclared (1.00%)

The Anikatian constitution guarantees freedom of religion, while providing special recognition to "protect and foster" Yeosindo.[106] During pre-colonial times, Yeosindoism and forms of animism were widely practiced in Anikatia. Today, Yeosindoism remains the most popular religion however only a handful of other indigenous religions and they are only practiced by small ethnic groups with the majority of these have often been syncretised with folk-Yeosindo or Christianity. Instead and Christianity and to a lesser extent Islam have been superimposed on ancient traditions and acculturated. During the periods of state Communism led to a sharp rise in secularism and widespread suppression of religions. Total the state's official position on religion is that all citizens are free to their belief, and that all religions are equal before the law. Upper estimates suggest that up to 95 percent of the Anikatian population subscribe to Yeosindo. However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temples and shrines, rather than the number of true believers. In the 2010 census, 50.35% declared as following Folk Yeosindo or were regarded as "not-religious", while only 24.53% of Anikatians were counted as following Yeosindo, 21.43% as Christian, including 18.32% as Romulăn Catholic, 1.85% as Protestant and 1.26% as Orthodox; 5.15% with Islam, including 2.54% Qur'anist Muslim, 1.57% Sunni Islam and 1.04% Other Islam, 0.54% Judaism. The remaining 1.00% of the population did not provide an adequate answer.[107]

Health

The Anikatian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens. As of 2010, the average life expectancy in Anikatia was one of the highest in the region with an average 80 years, 77 years for males and 83 years for females.[108] The Anikatian healthcare system is one of the best-performing systems in the region in terms of availability and organisation of health care providers. It is a universal health care system. It features a mix of public and private services, relatively low expenditure, high patient success rates and low mortality rates, and high consumer satisfaction.

Education

Anikatia has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the Constitution,[109] however, entry to subsidised higher education is highly competitive. As a result of great emphasis on science and technology in education, Anikatian medical, mathematical, scientific, and aerospace research is generally of a high order. Since 2001, the 11-year school education has been introduced. Education in state-owned secondary schools is free. University level education is free, with exceptions. A substantial share of students is enrolled for full pay (many state institutions started to open commercial positions in the last years). The top-ranking universities in Anikatia are the University of Antiytia and Seulbyeni University, Sangbyeol and Saint-Yves University.

Culture

Anikatians dancers perform a traditional Geommu sword dance.

Anikatian culture has evolved greatly from its origins. Contemporary culture combines influences from its own traditional cultures, Sieuxerr, Ulthrannic Empire and Belfrasian Western culture. Anikatian music, along with arts, painting and sculpture have been practised since prehistoric times. Although Anikatian culture has long emphasised a sense of deep history and has had a somewhat inward-looking national perspective. Many important aspects of traditional Anikatian morals and culture, such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of folk music, dance, and performing arts; and other practices, the tea ceremony, fighting, calligraphy, papercraft, and games. While the successive colonisation of Anikatia had transformative effects these traditional cultural aspects were preserved. While the DSRA influenced by the revolutionary modernist ideals led to a cultural shift, the new socialist leaders sought to change some traditional aspects of the many native Anikatian ethnic groups and their cultures, such as rural land tenure, and the traditional systems of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and culture of obedience to the state. During this period many cultural traditions were suppressed as the new socialist government sought to achieve the goals of modernism, however quickly the state quickly gave up on these ideas and as a result, a great deal of these local and traditional aspects survived. Today, the Anikatian government has fully accepted numerous elements of traditional Anikatian culture as being integral to Anikatian society. Such as Yeosindo religion, while various other forms of traditional Anikatian art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, and folk and variety art, in particular, have sparked interest nationally and even worldwide. Since 2001, Emmerian popular culture along with other Free Pardes cultures have had a strongly influence in Anikatia, particularly through television and cinema. Other cultural influences come from neighbouring countries, such as Prestonia and through immigration from non-English-speaking nations. A great deal of important and historic shrines, temples and castles can be located throughout the nation. Along with a number of historic archaeological ruins, gold and silver ornaments, stone monuments, ceramics, and weavings remain from several important ancient pre-Belfrasian cultures. Major ruins throughout the western areas of the nation. The country abounds in other sites that are difficult to reach and have seen little archaeological exploration.

Music

The music of Anikatia dates back to the dawn of Anikatian civilisations with documents and artefacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zi'yohek Dynasty. The earliest music of the Zi'yohek Dynasty recorded in ancient Anikatian texts includes ritual music and dance developed in worship rites and rituals related to Yeosindo practices. Traditional Anikatian music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles that reflect the diverse ethnic makeup of the Anikatian people. Traditional Anikatian music can be roughly divided into at least four types: courtly, aristocratic, folk and religious. There are also many unique musical instruments that are integral to Anikatian culture and music, such as the Hun (Ocarina-type instrument), Kayagum (zither with movable bridges), Komungo (bridgeless zither), Lusyeng and Tanso (vertical flute), the Haegeum (alto fiddle or bowed lute), Bipa (pear-shaped plucked lute), and many others. Two distinct musical cultures exist in Anikatia today: traditional music (Gugak) and Western music (yangak).

Soljang-goo dance is performed while carrying the janggu, a traditional Anikatian instrument.

Western classical music, introduced in the 18th century, led to the development of traditional style Western bands and orchestras although they still maintained a uniquely distinctive Anikatian sound. This fusion of Western and Eastern music led to the development of minyo music which has its origins in the period of Belfrasian colonial rule. Although during the Great Eastern War significant contributions were made by Prestonia during its brief colonial rule over parts of Anikatia from 1940 to 1944. The initial form of minyo music were translations of Western or Prestonian popular songs, called daejung gayo (대중가요; "popular music"). After the end of the Great Eastern War and Prestonia’s colonial rule over parts of Anikatia, minyo music began again to become more Westernised with influences from Belfras returning.


However after the Anikatian Civil War and the establishment of the DSRA, revolutionary songwriting traditions were channelled into support for the state, eventually becoming a style of a patriotic song called taejung kayo (탲웅 카요) in the 1980s combining classical Western symphonic music and Anikatian traditional musical forms. The songs were generally sung by female performers along with bands or choirs accompanied by a large orchestra or concert band. The characteristic march like, upbeat music of the DSRA was carefully composed, rarely individually performed, and its lyrics and imagery had a clear optimistic, socialist content.

The socialist government emphasised optimistic folk-based tunes and revolutionary music throughout most of the DSRA. Ideological messages are conveyed through massive orchestral pieces like revolutionary operas based on traditional Anikatian opera. While Pop music began to appear in the 1980s with state supported the Pyohol Electronic Ensemble (표홀 전자 앙상블; 'Pyohol Jeonja Angsangbeul') and Kuyon Light Music Band (쿠욘 가벼운 음악 밴드; 'Kuon Gabyeoun Eum-ag Baendeu'). Usually, the DSRA pop songs were performed by a young female singer with an electric ensemble, percussionist, and accompanying singers and dancers. The all-girl Makoseuh Band (맠옷읗 밴드; 'Makoseuh Baendeu') was one of the most popular groups in the country. Some of these DSRA pop songs and groups enjoyed some limited popularity in outside of the DSRA. During this period the DSRA was also exposed to popular music from Prestonia, Temuair and other which was spread illegally through black markets. However, until the 1990s, minyo and ballads still dominated the Anikatian popular music scene.

A-pop girls groups Vanila Top.

The emergence of the rap group KULO (쿠로) in 2002 marked a turning point for Anikatian popular music, also known as A-pop, as the group successful experimentation with different music styles incorporating elements of Emmerian rap, Skanderan rock, and techno into its music. Hip hop, dance and ballad oriented acts have become dominant in the Anikatia popular music scene, though minyo is still popular especially among older Anikatians. As Anikatian pop culture is becoming an increasingly globalised phenomenon and globally popular in many parts of the world allows Anikatia to utilise its pop cultural sector to access, tap and break into foreign entertainment markets. Since the mid-2000s, the A-pop music market has experienced double-digit growth rates.

Despite heavy government controls, illegally music downloads remain a problem with a large percentage of the population used to this method due to the legacy of the DSRA's restrictive policies against foreign music. As a result, Anikatia is one of the largest markets for illegal music downloads in the world, estimated to be the third-largest after Rodarion, and Belhavia a position it's held since 2011.

Notable Anikatian musicians and groups with global reach include the A-pop group Girls' Galaxy, solo artist Tayneul.

Media

After decades of state control and heavy censorship, under the DSRA the press (in print, on television, and online) is experiencing a period of relative freedom. As the repressive press laws were repealed in 2001, and since the early 2000s the television market has expanded significantly. In 2002, satellite broadcasting brought multi-channel commercial television to homes across Anikatia. According to most outside observers since the fall of the DSRA, political discourse has been unrestricted in Anikatia; however, there are persistent concerns that remain. The national security laws that allow the government to limit the expression of ideas deemed damaging to the security of the nation; the nature of this statute leave it open to wide interpretations which could be used to prevent peaceful protests or dissents. In addition, the government has brought a libel suit against many of the major national newspapers, and the government has stated that editorials are subject to legal action if they are found to contain falsehoods. Outside observers have criticised these pressure tactics which are used by both the Anikatian government and the business community to influence reporting as harsh and reminiscent of the DSRA-era tactics to control the media.

Recent years by its widely available multi-language press and media. But the major newspapers include The Antiytia Times, Anikatia Daily News, and DongYang Ilbo. There are some Kyjianu and Asturish along with numerous Anikatian and English newspapers in circulation. Most Anikatian popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamour factor. Many large businesses in the capital operate in English as well as other languages. The five nationwide television networks are ANBS-1 and ANBS-2 (public broadcast), ACTV (run as a public organization), RTA (state-funded), and SBC (a commercial broadcaster). With roughly 70 percent of Anikatian households having access to broadband Internet access and the online media, the marketplace is growing rapidly. Today, much of the news in Anikatia is delivered through electronic means and the country is at the leading edge of the digital revolution and a trailblazer for high-speed and wireless internet services.

Cuisine

Anikatian cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on several millennia of culinary history. The dynastic emperors of ancient Anikatian were known to have many dining chambers in their palaces, with each chamber divided into several departments, each responsible for a specific type of dish. Anikatia's staple foods are Anikatian rice or noodles. In the early modern era ingredients such as red meats, breads, and crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet that had previously not been widely used in Anikatia were introduced. Spices are central to Anikatian cuisine. Numerous foreign offshoots of Anikatian food, such as Seulbyeni cuisine and Belfrasian Anikatian food, have emerged in the various nations that play host to the Anikatian diaspora.[110]

Sport

A Daisuma Forctis on a rally stage in 1993.

Sport in Anikatia has ancient roots, and even now, both traditional and modern sports are still practiced. The following sports are popular in Anikatia has developed itself as a formidable sports-force on the world arena in the following fields: chess, kickboxing, skiing, gymnastics, archery, cycling, martial arts, horse-riding, volleyball, and forms of auto racing at the Rally, GT and Formula levels are popular. The martial art taekwondo originated in Anikatia. Other Anikatian martial arts include taekkyeon, hapkido, Tang Soo Do, Kuk Sool Won, kumdo and subak.

Football has traditionally been regarded as one of the more popular sports in Anikatia, with prominent teams such as Namju Huadai F.C. better known as the Jets. Physical fitness is widely emphasised in Anikatia culture, with morning exercises such as which widely practised, and since the liberalisation of the economy from 2001, commercial gyms and fitness clubs have started gaining popularity in the country. Baseball was first introduced to Anikatia in 1905 and has since become increasingly popular along with basketball, which has become more popular especially in urban centres with limited space and grass areas.

Currency

Currently circulating banknotes of the Anikatian Anikuro.

The currency of Anikatia is the Anikuro (AKO, symbol: ), which is subdivided into 100 Aeyuk. Coins in circulation are ₳10, ₳50, ₳100, ₳500 aeyuk. The aeyuk is no longer used for everyday transactions and appears only in foreign exchange rates. Banknotes in circulation are ₳1000, ₳5000, ₳10,000, ₳50,000 anikuro. These were among the first polymer banknotes introduced in the world. The anikuro is issued by the Central Bank of Anikatia, based in the capital city, Antiytia. Formerly, the anikuro was also the currency of the DSRA before its dissolution. The Central Bank of Anikatia is the only institution in Anikatia that has the right to print banknotes and mint coins. The banknotes and coins are printed at a government-owned corporation, under the guidance of the Central Bank of Anikatia.

See also

References

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External links

Government
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General information
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