|The Right Honourable|
|Press conference, 1989|
|Prime Minister of Katranjiev|
April 27, 1983 – April 1, 1995
|Preceded by||Blazhe Hristov|
|Succeeded by||Iliev Popov|
|Deputy Prime Minister of the People's Republic of Katranjiev|
July 7, 1974 – May 11, 1976
|Preceded by||Yunhe Shen|
|Succeeded by||Himself as Deputy Prime Minister|
|Deputy Prime Minister of Katranjiev|
May 11, 1976 – April 27, 1983
|Prime Minister||Blazhe Hristov|
|Preceded by||Himself as Deputy Prime Minister|
|Succeeded by||Iliev Popov|
|Born|| Andrei Karavelov|
May 21, 1921
Lizhou, Iztokov, Katranjiev (present-day Riro, Namor)
|Died|| April 1, 1995 (age 73)|
Krasimir, Krasimir, Katranjiev
|Political party||Conservative Party of Katranjiev (1974-)|
| Other political
|Liberationist Party of Katranjiev (1942-1974)|
|Spouse(s)||Konstantina Karavelov (b. 1920, m. 1940-1995, d. 2008)|
|Children|| Leya Karavelova (b. 1942, d. 1969)|
Reichul Tanev (b. 1944)
|Alma mater||People's University of Baicheng|
Andrei Karavelov was the sixteenth Prime Minister of Katranjiev, serving from 1983 until his death from cardiac arrest in 1995, making him the fourth Prime Minister to have died in office. He was the only person to have served as both the Deputy Premier of the People's Republic of Katranjiev and the Deputy Prime Minister of Katranjiev.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early political career
- 3 Deputy Prime Minister
- 4 Prime Minister
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Death
- 7 Legacy
Andrei Karavelov was born on the twenty-first of May, 1921, in Lizhou, Planinhkora, as the youngest of four children, and the only son. His mother was an ethnic Argilian, while his father was a Katranjian newsagent.
While the Karavelov's were fairly well off, Andrei Karavelov was a "sickly little boy," as he had an irregular heartbeat, as well as had severe asthma, which was likened to "being smothered to death." Despite his physical health problems, Karavelov was "imaginative and energetic," and had a great fondness of reading and listening to political discussions on the radio.
Due to his health condition, he was unable to attend school: instead, he was homeschooled, and was taught by his father.
In his teenage years, Karavelov began to embrace a strenuous lifestyle after hiking through the Karpati Mountains, and began to learn Kaonese boxing to strengthen his body. By the time he was fifteen, his asthma attacks had decreased to such a point that he was enrolled in a high school.
At high school, he was described as "being frail, but determined to overcome his weaknesses," while being "so knowledgeable of our political traditions that even teachers would go to him to learn politics."
However, in 1938, he graduated, and enrolled in the People's University of Baicheng. He sought to become a political scientist with the intention of entering the newly-established Liberationist regime which had recently taken power in Katranjiev.
The following year, he met 19-year old Konstantina Karahalios during a lecture. Despite her religion, he and Konstantina bonded, especially over their heritage, and desire to enter politics. Thus, in 1940, they got married.
Early political career
Chairman of the Commune of Nevestino
After graduating from the People's University of Baicheng in 1942, he joined the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev, primarily so he would be able to participate in the institutions of the People's Republic of Katranjiev. He was appointed the Chairman of the commune of Nevestino that year.
As Chairman of the commune, he served as a conduit for policies dictated from Krasimir, and had very little independent authority to improve Nevestino for the better. Despite this, he did his best to improve the conditions of people in Nevestino while attempting to implement directives that were issued by Krasimir. At the same time, he made himself a "more approachable leader," and often explained the directives issued by Krasimir to the residents in a manner that would avoid angering the regime but at the same time inform the residents.
By 1947, he had the opportunity to meet Huankun Chen, who lauded Karavelov for his administration style making Nevestino a "Liberationist city." However, he was passed over for the Shuvet i Khorata, and continued to serve as the Chairman of Nevestino.
Politician in the Shuvet i Khorata
In 1952, the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev assigned Martin Avramov to serve as the new Chairman of Nevestino, while "assigning" him a seat to the Shuvet i Khorata. Thus, "virtually overnight," he and his family moved from Nevestino to Krasimir.
While he officially represented his hometown of Lizhou in the Shuvet i Khorata, in practice, they were subject to heavy restrictions on their freedom of movement outside of Krasimir, and had little contact with his constituents in Lizhou as because of his wife and his mother's background, he was seen as a potential security risk.
While still outwardly a Liberationist, around that time, he began to "question his personal ideology," especially as he witnessed the ineffectiveness of the Liberationist ideology in Katranjiev, combined with the frequent questioning by both the 26th of July Movement and the State Security Service, primarily over his heritage and his wife's religion and her activities in circulating samizdat.
By the 1960s, Karavelov started to privately embrace moderate conservatism, but knowing that he could get into trouble with the authorities, he still remained a card-carrying member of the Liberationist Party, and continued to outwardly support Huankun Chen and his policies. However, in 1964, his wife, Konstantina Karavelov was imprisoned for her political activities in support of the Kaodi people.
While he was hurt by her arrest, he knew that if he tried to advocate for her release, he would likely suffer the same fate as his wife, if not worse. Thus, he ceased reading samizdat and until her release "led a Liberationist lifestyle" that would be unlikely to arouse the suspicions of the authorities.
In 1967, the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev decided to kick Karavelov "up the stairs," in order to prevent him from doing anything that may damage the reputation of the Liberationist Party. Thus, he was appointed as Minister of Tourism, as due to the tensions with Kong Jo's administration (especially in opposition to the Plum Blossom Revolution, combined with the poor reputation of the People's Republic of Katranjiev on the world stage, few tourists were willing to visit Katranjiev.
However, because he was a cabinet minister, Andrei Karavelov was able to participate in the cabinet of the People's Republic and attend cabinet meetings. Whenever tourism was mentioned, Karavelov suggested to "ease the restrictions on where tourists can go," and make it easier for "tourists to visit Katranjiev." At the same time, he attempted to create campaigns to entice foreigners to visit Katranjiev.
However, in 1969, when his wife, Konstantina Karavelov was released from prison after serving a five-year sentence, she continued her dissident activities, and thus enabled Andrei Karavelov to read more samizdat. At the same time, relations with the Premier, Nuoju Zeng began to sour, but because of his close ties with President Baikun Qing, he remained in power.
Role in the power struggle
Consequently, in the March of 1971, he was sacked from his position as Minister of Tourism. From that point on, Karavelov sided with Qing, declaring him "the only person capable of maintaining Katranjian unity," and accusing Zeng of "being a Kiangist leader who is only holding the country back."
However, as the power struggle affected the ability of the government of the People's Republic of Katranjiev to function, he started to become less and less supportive of the People's Republic, declaring in his journal that "Huankun Chen was the only one who can hold such an illegitimate government together."
When the budget crisis forced "emergency triage" in the September of 1971, Karavelov felt that "this was the coup de grâce of the People's Republic: no matter who wins this childish game, they will have to come to terms with the fact that they have killed the People's Republic."
Even after Kong Jo forced both sides to institute a budget following a surprise visit, Karavelov felt doubtful that "the regime will remain in ten years' time. The vicious internal politics have caused many a man, like myself, to turn their backs on Krasimir."
Thus, during the 1972 elections, with Baikun Qing nominating Blazhe Hristov, a close friend of his, and Nuoju Zeng nominating Yunhe Shen to be their Premiers, Karavelov was forced to face his old arch-nemesis: Martin Avramov, who was appointed Chairman of Nevestino in 1952. Thus, he made his first extensive visit to his hometown in twenty years, where he campaigned in favor of Qing and Hristov. He noted "substantial efforts by the 26th of July Movement to intimidate voters into voting for Avramov."
On December 11th, 1972, he defeated Martin Avramov for his seat, 85% to 15%.
Deputy Prime Minister
As Deputy Premier
On July 7, 1974, Baikun Qing lifted the ban on other political parties, and permitted Blazhe Hristov to appoint Karavelov as Deputy Premier of Katranjiev. Later that day, he and Hristov formally re-established the Conservative Party of Katranjiev.
Although his position was not as powerful as his previous position as Minister of Minority Affairs, he became a major figure within the Katranjian government, especially as Baikun Qing sought to implement policies similar to Minjuha in neighboring Namor.
During 1975, Karavelov started making regular visits to Lizhou, where he would take the time to listen to the concerns of those living within his constituency. He was also particularly fond of "attempting to solve the racial divide that permeated my hometown" between the Katranjians and the Namorese.
By 1976, with the start of protests against the People's Republic of Katranjiev in March, Karavelov was, like Blazhe Hristov sympathetic with the protesters but were concerned about their future role in the Katranjian government. However, as Baikun Qing was forced to make more and more concessions, Karavelov felt certain that "the collapse of the People's Republic will happen soon."
After the referendum was announced on whether to restore the Katranjian monarchy, maintain the People's Republic, or establish a new republic, Karavelov was silent, but he privately supported establishing a new Republic, stating that the monarchy would not represent "the interests of the Katranjians," and neither would the status quo.
As Deputy Prime Minister
After the referendum resulted in the monarchy being restored, Baikun Qing resigned, and a caretaker government was established with Blazhe Hristov and Andrei Karavelov being the interim Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister respectively until August, when elections would be held.
Following the victory of the Conservative Party of Katranjiev in the 1976 elections, he was officially appointed as Deputy Prime Minister by Blazhe Hristov. During his first term as the deputy Prime Minister, from 1976 to 1981, he often stepped in as acting Prime Minister when Hristov traveled abroad.
At the same time, Karavelov began exercising a greater role in government than he had under the People's Republic of Katranjiev, and by 1978, he had become "heavily influential within his own party." From 1979 onwards, he began to mentor Iliev Popov, and played a role in making Hristov name him the Minister of Sports and Tourism the following year.
In the 1981 general elections, Karavelov narrowly beat Dritë candidate Jaşıya Todorov, and was thus able to remain the Deputy Prime Minister. However, within two years, Blazhe Hristov was forced to call an early election following his diagnosis of lung cancer. Hristov resigned from his position as leader of the Conservative Party: thus, Karavelov was named acting leader of the Conservative Party.
On April 26, 1983, Andrei Karavelov won the 1983 general elections, and led the Conservative Party to victory, taking 83 seats in the National Assembly, thus making him the Prime Minister. Thus, he took office the following day, and moved into the Uglov dom in Krasimir.
As his predecessor had did much of the work on deliberationization within Katranjiev, mainly rehabilitating non-redundant churches and restoring public religious life, and encouraging municipalities to undergo deliberationization, he did relatively little. Despite this, he helped contribute to the Royal Commission.
By 1984, testing of the new system began in Nedelcho. Over the following year, it proved to be successful, and was introduced nationwide on April 23, 1985. The following year, the old system was discontinued, permanently switching over to the new system.
By 1987, Karavelov noted that the "national standards of living had, in the past ten years, surpassed the standards of living that we had endured from the 1930s onwards."
Thus, by the start of 1988, he began preparing for his campaign for a second term as Prime Minister, and faced stiff competition from Liberal challenger Kiril Ventsislav. While Andrei Karavelov campaigned on his experience and on continuing economic growth, Ventsislav campaigned on his outsider status and his plans to "introduce social democracy into Katranjiev," which was twisted as Ventsislav was accused of supporting Liberationism and the the former governing party of the People's Republic.
On April 27, 1988, Karavelov saw his party take 79 seats in the National Assembly following the 1988 general election, which was a loss of four seats. However, he was able to remain the Prime Minister of Katranjiev as the Conservatives maintained control of the National Assembly.
Thus, his cabinet was sworn in on May 2nd of that year, which was virtually identical to the preceding cabinet.
In his second term, deliberationization started to slow down, especially as most municipalities outside of eastern Katranjiev (present-day Riro, eastern Talnakh, and Trifonov) had been largely deliberationized.
As such, he paid little attention to deliberationization, and instead turned his matters towards the booming economy and increased standards of living. He announced tax reductions to both individuals and corporations in the June of 1988, and declared in September that "Katranjiev will no longer be subject to a cycle of boom and bust."
In March of 1989, the royal commission convened by his predecessor, Blazhe Hristov, concerning the abuses committed by the Liberationist regime presented its findings to the national assembly. Thus, on March 15th, 1989, on the thirteenth anniversary of the massacre at the Kralski Fora in Krasimir where 63 people died, Karavelov gave an apology on national television.
"Today marks the day that the friends, family, and victims of the Liberationist regime finally receive closure as the truth has been revealed. From 1937 to 1976, the People's Republic engaged in severe human rights violations in the name of promoting Liberationism, harming not only thousands of people across the country, but also our place on the world stage. We had the power to stop it, but failed to stop it until it was too late. For this, we, the Government of Katranjiev, would like to apologize to every Katranjian who had to endure a totalitarian regime, for those who have died as a result of our inaction in 1937, and as a result of the policies set out by Huankun Chen."
Karavelov vowed to "provide just compensation for all those victimized by the regime" and promised that he would never again let another totalitarian regime rise in Katranjiev.
However, the following year, Andrei Karavelov saw his greatest test as KTV's three channels (at the time), KTV1, KTV2, and KTV3 were experiencing heavy tensions, especially with the Namorese language KTV2 threatening to go on strike out of fear that it may be used as a mouthpiece by Karavelov's government, while the other two channels threatened to go on strike at the same time to force KTV2 to go back on the air. Thus, in the August of 1990, days before the strike was to start on September 1st, the National Assembly passed a law declaring KTV an "essential service" and forbade their staff from going on strike, but also suggested negotiations.
Thus, in 1991, negotiations began between the staff of the three channels and were overseen by Crown Prince Krasimirov, which ultimately resulted in the split of KTV into KTV, PBC, and Sevchik from January 1, 1992 onward. The radio services, operated by Katranjian National Radio were not split among linguistic lines, as they were not subject to similar tensions.
These successful negotiations helped boost the approval rating of Karavelov's government, which in conjunction with the continued economic growth ensured confidence in the people's perception of the Conservative Party.
By 1993, Karavelov started to debate whether he should let Iliev Popov to run for office and retire, or to run for a third term. After being persuaded by his wife and by Popov himself, he declared his candidacy in the January of 1993. When the writ was dropped on March 17th, he started to campaign against Daniel Radkov, the new leader of the Liberal Party of Katranjiev, campaigning on his ten years of experience as the Katranjian Prime Minister, and his successes in politics.
On April 26th, 1993, the results for the 1993 general elections came in. The Conservatives won 77 seats, as opposed to the Liberal's 51 seats, Liberationist's 22, enabling Karavelov to remain Prime Minister. However, while most of the cabinet from the first two terms was kept, he replaced the Minister of Minority Affairs, Shinyi Zeng with Argilian Papandrou Christodoulos. His new cabinet was revealed on May 28th, 1993.
In the June of 1993, he hosted a summit in his hometown of Lizhou with Luziycan President Alexio Stavropoulos, Namorese President-General Lan Xuân Hường, and Transborean Chancellor Chigu Od Sargei to establish the Gelyevich Gulf Commission, which began operations in September of 1993.
As well, during his third term in office, Karavelov became noted for his commitment to his job, with an official remarking that "Karavelov had become more involved in his third term than any of his preceding terms [as Prime Minister]." At the same time, the advent of the internet resulted in the Katranjian government establishing a presence on the world wide web by the August of 1993.
However, his health took a turn for the worse when Karavelov had a heart attack in March of 1994: while it was treated successfully and he was released from hospital by May, Karavelov was forced to delegate many of his powers to the other members of his cabinet, such as Deputy Prime Minister Iliev Popov. However, by September, Karavelov once again played an increasing role in government, although not to the same extent that he had in 1993.
In March of 1995, Karavelov tabled measures to reduce welfare services in an effort to reduce the government debt. However, his untimely demise and the subsequent general election called by his successor stalled the plan when Popov was defeated by Paul Grigoryev.
The youngest daughter was Reichul Tanev, who was born in 1944, and married Penko Tanev at the age of 24 in 1968. Reichul had three children with Penko Tanev: Evgeni Tanev (b. 1970), Blaguna Valov (b. 1972), and Tsvetelina Karahalios (b. 1973). Together, they had ten grandchildren, and one great-grandchild.
As Prime Minister, he was described as a moderate conservative, and was more neoliberal than his predecessor, Blazhe Hristov. While he did not fully support neoliberalism, he agreed with it on many levels, stating that "it is more effective than Liberationism."
Consequently, Karavelov perceived himself to be a utilitarian, and sought to govern Katranjiev according to utilitarian principles: even if its results come at the cost of ideological purity for the Conservatives, or if it were to harm Katranjiev's prospects in the short term. Many of his supporters and opponents have agreed that Karavelov was a utilitarian.
In regards to LGBT issues, he opposed same-sex marriage, stating that "God would surely find it repulsive to have homosexuals marry in our nation's churches," but did not object to civil unions as it was entirely secular, and did not oppose same-sex couples adopting children. However, he opposed the right for transgender individuals to have their genders recognized, stating that "The Lord made their bodies what they are for a reason. To mutilate their bodies because they don't like how God made them is madness."
For law and order, he was in favor of tough on crime policies in theory, but like his predecessor, he agreed that such policies would inevitably lead to prisoners being seen as slaves, and had similar views as to when tough on crime policies were acceptable: in 1991, he stated that "sexual offenses against another person and savage murder are the two areas where I would not object to having the criminal be tortured."
On April 1st, 1995 after returning home from a dinner with Iliev Popov, Andrei Karavelov retired to his bedroom at the Uglov dom in Krasimir at 10 pm. As he was about to go to bed, he suddenly collapsed, resulting in a thud. Almost immediately, emergency services were called, while an aide attempted to administer CPR. However, when emergency services arrived at the Uglov dom at 10:28 pm, livor mortis has started to occur. Thus, by the time he reached the Central Hospital in Krasimir, he was declared dead on arrival at 10:39 pm.
His death was announced at 11 pm on all major television and radio networks in Katranjiev. After an autopsy was conducted, it was revealed that he had died of a heart attack exacerbated by his underlying health condition (irregular heartbeat and asthma).
He was transported to his hometown in Lizhou following the autopsy, as per his request, and he was laid in repose at the main foyer of the Khertsog dvorets in Lizhou. On April 6th, a private funeral took place at Saint Bernard's Cathedral, while a public memorial service was held at Yunglang Antelope Square, which was attended by Prince Josip (representing the King), acting Prime Minister Iliev Popov, and leader of the opposition Paul Grigoryev. He was then interred at the Argilian cemetery on April 7th at a shared burial plot, where his wife would be buried in 2008 following her death.
Many people have viewed Andrei Karavelov as one of the greatest Prime Ministers since the restoration of the Katranjian monarchy in 1976, especially among the rightists in Katranjiev. A 2013 poll showed that he was ranked the third best Prime Minister, only beaten by Grigor Nadezhda and Paul Grigoryev, and narrowly beat out his own predecessor, Blazhe Hristov.
In particular, Viktor Kahut, a later Prime Minister noted that "Karavelov's utilitarian methods helped pave the way for the adoption of neoliberal principles within the Conservative Party. This transition to the Conservative Party of today would be impossible had Blazhe Hristov remained in power."
However, especially in recent years, his reputation has been tarnished, especially because of his opposition to many LGBT rights, such as same sex marriage and his opposition to transgender people's right for their preferred gender to be recognized.
As well, many people on the far-right have criticized his involvement with the Liberationist Party of Katranjiev, most loudly by Viscount Nikola of Rysinov, who stated that "many of his non-conservative policies that were continued by his successor (Iliev Popov) were due to the fact that he served in the People's Republic of Katranjiev alongside Hristov." The policies by Hristov, Karavelov, and Popov helped drive the Viscount of Rysinov and his followers away from the Conservative Party of Katranjiev and establish the far-right Katranjian Independence Party in 1997.